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Io3314601465

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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of …

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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  • 1. Shivakumara C.M, Prof.B.R Narendra Babu, B.S Praveen kumar, Dr Y .Vijayakumar /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1460-14651460 | P a g eOptimization Of Shielded Metal Arc Welding Parameters ForWelding Of Pipes By Using Taguchi ApproachShivakumara C.M1, Prof.B.R Narendra Babu2, B.S Praveen kumar3, Dr Y.Vijayakumar4Department of PG studies, Mechanical dept. VVIET Mysore-5700101Student of M.Tech in Production Technology,Department of Mechanical Engineering,VVIETMysore2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, VVIET Mysore3Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, GEC K.R.pet4Professor and Head of Mechanical Department, MVJIT, BangaloreABSTRACTThe Shielded Metal Arc Welding(SMAW) is the most widely used weldingprocess in the small scale industries, because ofits low cost, flexibility, portability andversatility. The SMAW welding parameters arethe most important factors affecting the quality,productivity and cost of welding. The objectiveof this study is to develop the parameters forShielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) toprovide continuous and leak proof joints in48mm diameter steel pipe with 3mm thicknessduring the process. The selected importantwelding parameter like welding current,welding speed, root gap and position ofelectrode based on field expert suggestionavailable literature and on scientific reasons. Onthe selected parameter sufficient number of trailruns is conducted as per Taguchi methodbecause experimental optimization of anywelding process is often very costly and timeconsuming. For each factor optimum range isfixed, further the range is split into 5 levels. Sothat the experiment have become 4 parameters(factors) each with 5 levels. Based on this, L31(54) Orthogonal Array (OA) is selected.Experiments are conducted according to OAand results are obtained. The leak proof jointscan be identified by these results under fewspecific operating conditions. Under thesecondition effect of noise are nullified and thecontribution of each parameter towards the leakis also estimated by ANOVA.Keywords: Welding parameters; Taguchitechnique; Shielded metal are welding (SMAW);Optimization; Orthogonal array; Variation andContribution.I. INTRODUCTIONWelding preferred over other joiningprocess like riveting, casting and nut boltingbecause it is faster, quieter and many moreadvantageous over other joining techniques. Now aday, welding is extensively used in fabrications ofautomobiles, aircrafts, ships, electronic equipment,machinery, and home applications etc.,[1]. Inrecent years the welding industry has improvedsignificantly in terms of large number of weldingmethods suitable for various applications toeliminating rework and rejection. For particulartask or application the existing welding processesare optimized suitably to give best results.However in welding, maintaining quality is still achallenging task. This is due to the fact that thereare many numbers of variables at play. Variation inraw material (composition, thickness, internaldefects, etc.,), variation in the surface condition(presence of dust, grease, oil etc.,), change ofoperator, variation in the gap between two pieces tobe welded, variation of welding speed and possiblevariation in electrodes. The welding variables arecategorized into two groups, one is controlledvariable and the other is uncontrolled variables.The controlled variables are current, voltage, weldgap, weld metal deposition, welding speed[5],surface cleanliness, arc length and preheatingtemperature. The uncontrolled variables are weldbead dimensions, heat affected zone (HAZ), weldpenetration, distortion, strength and leak in joints.The controlled variables are either directly orindirectly form the welding process parameters.The uncontrolled variables are the qualitycharacteristics, but mechanism connecting thesetwo is not known accurately and scientifically.Therefore experimental optimization of anywelding process is often a very costly and timeconsuming task. In this contest the researcherwants to use taguchi’s design of parameters toensure test for no leakage.II. EXPERIMENTAL DETAILSWelding operation is conducted on Apollosteel tube of diameter 48 mm with 3mm wallthickness by using a 3 phase (Johnson arc welding
  • 2. Shivakumara C.M, Prof.B.R Narendra Babu, B.S Praveen kumar, Dr Y .Vijayakumar /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1460-14651461 | P a g etransformer) welding machine as shown in figure 1.The electrodes used for the process is Sun arc make(AWS Code E6013) of diameter 3mm to weld3mm wall thickness pipes. The welding joints aretested for leak testing by using hydraulic handpump of capacity 400 bars, at 30 bars and the leaktesting setup is shown in figure 2. During weldingtube is fixed in welding spinner and welded in 5Gposition as shown in figure 3 and in figure 4 showswelded tubes.Fig 1.Johnson arc welding transformerFig 2. Leak testing setupFig 3.Welding spinner to welded pipe in 5Gposition. Fig 4. Welded tubes2.1 IDENTIFYING THE PROCESSPARAMETERS AND THEIR LEVELSBased on field experts suggestion,literature survey and on scientific reasonsfollowing welding parameters or factor areselected.1. Welding current2. Welding speed3. Position of electrode4. Root GapSufficient numbers of trail runs are conducted andfor each factor range is fixed. The range of currentis between 80 to 100 Amps, The range of weldingspeed is between 4 to 6 Rpm, The angle ofelectrode range is between 0 to 60 and Root Gaprange is between 0 to 1.5 are given in table 1.Table1. Showing range of factorsIn order to study the complete range of factor twolimits are fixed as per central composite rotatablefactorial design. The limits are -2 and 2 theintermediate values are can be determined by usingfollowing equation and that values are given intable 2.Factors. Min. MaxWelding current (Amps) 80 100Welding speed (Rpm) 4 6Angle of electrode 0 60Root Gap in (mm) 0 1.5
  • 3. Shivakumara C.M, Prof.B.R Narendra Babu, B.S Praveen kumar, Dr Y .Vijayakumar /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1460-14651462 | P a g eTable2.Levels of factors and their valuesFactorsLevels-2 -1 0 1 2Current 80 85 90 95 100Speed 4 4.5 5 5.5 6Angle of electrode 0 15 30 45 60Root gap 0 0.375 0.75 1.125 1.5Experiments are conducted as per central composite rotatable factorial design consisting of 31sets of codedconditions, that coded conditions of L31OA as shown in Table 3Table3.L31 Orthogonal arrayRUN NO FACTORSA B C D1 -1 -1 -1 -12 1 -1 -1 -13 -1 1 -1 -14 1 1 -1 -15 -1 -1 -1 -16 1 -1 1 -17 -1 1 1 -18 1 1 1 -19 -1 -1 -1 110 1 -1 -1 111 -1 1 -1 112 1 1 -1 113 -1 -1 1 114 1 -1 1 115 -1 1 1 116 1 1 1 117 -2 0 0 018 2 0 0 019 0 -2 0 020 0 2 0 021 0 0 -2 022 0 0 2 023 0 0 0 -224 0 0 0 225 0 0 0 026 0 0 0 027 0 0 0 028 0 0 0 029 0 0 0 030 0 0 0 0
  • 4. Shivakumara C.M, Prof.B.R Narendra Babu, B.S Praveen kumar, Dr Y .Vijayakumar /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1460-14651463 | P a g e31 0 0 0 0III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONExperiments are conducted as per the L31 O.A. andresults of diameter 48mm and thickness 3mm aretabulated in table 4.Table4. Leak test results of diameter 48mm x 3mm pipeRun no Leak condition Leak rate1bar ml/min Remarks1 No leak--------2 No leak ---- ----3 No leak ---- ----4 No leak ---- ----5 No leak--------6 No leak--------7 No leak ---- ----8 No leak ---- ----9 No leak ---- ----10 No leak ---- ----11 No leak ---- ----12 No leak ---- ----13 No leak ---- ----14 No leak ---- ----15 No leak ---- ----16 No leak ---- ----17 No leak ---- ----18 Leak 97 Seepage19 No leak ---- ----20 Leak 30 Seepage21 No leak ---- ----22 Leak 50 Seepage23 No leak ---- ----24 No leak ---- ----25 No leak ---- ----26 No leak ---- ----27 No leak ---- ----28 No leak ---- ----29 No leak ---- ----30 No leak ---- ----31 No leak ---- ----IV. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE(ANOVA)
  • 5. Shivakumara C.M, Prof.B.R Narendra Babu, B.S Praveen kumar, Dr Y .Vijayakumar /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1460-14651464 | P a g e4.1. ANOVA Computations for diameter 48mm 3mm pipeTable5. ANOVA ComputationsFactors SS DOF Variance % of contributionMean 5.4838 --- --- ---Current 7660.9 4 1915 48.99%Speed 1475.38 4 368.84 9.43%Angle of electrode 2675.34 4 668.83 17.11%Root gap 1289.83 4 322.45 8.24%Error 2533.75 14 180.98 16.20%For the pipe 48 mm diameters with 3 mmthickness, 31 trail runs are conducted as per OA.Out of 31 trails the trail number 1to16, 19, 21 and23 to 31have given no leak joints. By ANOVAcomputation the current is the factor contributedhighest of 48.99% and followed by angle ofelectrode is 17.11%, speed is 9.43% and root gap is8.24%. The results of ANOVA computation are inline with the literature. That is for lower thicknesspipe or plate the role current and angle of electrodeare very important in getting leak proof joints.ANOVA contribution of parameter are shown intable5.Table 6. Trails optimum values and ANOVAcontributionA B C D Leak conditionContribution 48.99% 9.43% 11.7% 8.24%Trail 1 to17,19,21,23 And 24 to 3180,85,90,95 4,4.5,5,5.5 0,15,30,45 0,0.375,0.75,1.125,1.5no leak4.2 Mean effect plots100959085808060402006.05.55.04.54.06045301508060402001.5001.1250.7500.3750.000currentMeanspeedangle of electrode root gapMain Effects Plot for leakData MeansFigure5.Variations of average leak rate with mean values of factorsThe variation of average leak rate for various for various factors are shown in the figureV. CONCLUSIONi. 31 experiments are conducted as perL31OA.ii. In getting leak proof joint welding currentand angle of electrode is significant.iii. For selected 48mm diameter and 3mmthickness pipe, 28 optimum combinationof parameter to get leak proof joint areshown in table 6iv. ANOVA supports the results obtained.REFERENCE[1] Arvind Kumar Kachhoriya, Ajay Bangar,Rajan Sharma and Neetu. Optimization ofWelding Parameters by RegressionModeling and Taguchi ParametricOptimization Technique. InternationalJournal of Mechanical and IndustrialEngineering, Vol.1, Pages.2231 to 6477,2012.
  • 6. Shivakumara C.M, Prof.B.R Narendra Babu, B.S Praveen kumar, Dr Y .Vijayakumar /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1460-14651465 | P a g e[2] A. G. Thakur T. E. Rao. Application oftaghuchi method for resistance spotwelding of galvanized steel. AsianResearch Publishing, Vol. 5, pages, 22 to26, November 2010.[3] J. Edwin Raja Dhas. Neuro Hybrid modelto predict weld bead width in submergedarc welding process. Journals ofscientific and industrial research, Vol. 69,pages, 350 to 355, May 2010.[4] Catarina Vidal, Virginia Infantea.Assessment of Improvement TechniquesEffect on Fatigue Behavior of Friction StirWelded Aerospace Aluminum Alloys.Journals of Procedia Engineering, pages,1605 to 1616, March 2010.[5] Sathya .P.C and Abdul Jaleel. Grey-BasedTaguchi method for optimization of BeadGeometry in laser bead on plate welding.Advanced production engineering andmanagement paper. Vol. 69, pages, 225 to234, 2010.