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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of …

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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  • 1. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171408 | P a g eEMBEDDED SOFTWARE DESIGN & IMPLEMENTATIONFOR PLATFORM STABILIZATION USING MEMSSelva Vasanth MDepartment Of ECE, M.E Embedded System, Sathyabama University,Chennai-119,Tamil Nadu, IndiaABSTRACTPlatform stabilization is more importantin most of the large scale applications like the oilwell and nuclear product based processingmachines and systems. So stabilization of thatmachinery is more important, failing to do somay cause a major damage to the society andwhich may even lead to an accident. Hence toavoid those kinds of accidents and damage,manual monitoring of those large systems andmaking necessary changes is practicallyimpossible. This can be fully automated using theMEMS technology which will be more accurateand reliable in stabilizing the platform therebymaking the whole system safe. Outcome of theproject will be a cost effective method ofstabilizing a platform and making the needfulchanges so that the platform or any system isstable. The process is automated by using MEMStechnology and with the help of Microcontroller.Keywords: MEMS(Micro Electro MechanicalSystems), Microcontroller, Automation.I. INTRODUCTIONMEMS (Micro electro Mechanical systems)have their applications in Modern cell phones,accelerometers and widely as many kinds ofelectronic sensors. Their small size and its accuracymake it an important tool in many modern dayapplications. In my project we are using anaccelerometer sensor for calculating displacement ofbig platforms and stabilize them by driving themotors that counter acts for the displacement.Accelerometer is used to calculate the accelerationin terms of g- force (Gravitational force). Byknowing the g- force we can find acceleration in anyparticular axis. We are using LIS302-DLaccelerometer sensor that can be interfaced throughI2C bus. This can be fully automated using theMEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems)technology which will be more accurate and reliablein stabilizing the platform thereby making the wholesystem safe. The main idea behind this technology ismeasuring the acceleration with respect to thedirection of the gravitational force from a devicewhich is placed at a fixed position in the system andby reading the data from the MEMSdevice, the angle of all 3 axes is found with respectto the gravitational force for every one second.When there is a change in the value of theangle which will be detected by the microcontrollerwhich communicates with the MEMS device. Whena tilt or change in position of any of the axes isdetected the microcontroller is programmed in sucha way to drive 3 motors which are connected to theoutput of the microcontroller. The monitoringprocess is continuous and every second’s change isresponded by the controller and the output to drivethe motors to stabilize the platform. RenesasM16C/65 Microcontroller is used as the heart of thesystem for the automating the whole process.LIS302DL is the accelerometer which is used tosense the acceleration of the system.II. BLOCK DIAGRAM ANDEXPLANATIONFig. 1.Block Platform stabilization using MEMSand Microcontroller.
  • 2. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171409 | P a g eFig. 2. Graphical representation of the MEMSdevice which obeys at the rate of 2.5V and theiroutput modulation (proposed by ST-MicroSystems (LIS302DL)).Fig.1 illustrates that the MEMS device which is justmean time connected with the Analogy to DigitalConverter for more accuracy and this is fed in to thecontroller for processing. In this mean time theMEMS device which illustrates that it produces thereading in the range of 0-255 readings in a time scalebased on the value of sensory production in all theX, Y and Z-axis slotted in the Fig.2. They arecapable of producing the output sequentially throughthe I2C communication network. And the incomingvalues are stored in the buffer calculated andprocessed in the meantime and also in a regular timescale. Whenever there is a request from thecontroller the MEMS device have to initialize andproduces the output through the I2C bus. And thevalue change remains periodically according to theirstate if there is any deflection found in that value’sthe controller gets alerted and to drive the motorwith the help of motor driver circuits. Here in thisproject proposal can be made with the help ofsimulation instead of the motor driver and control.III. HARDWARE DESCRIPTIONMicro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS)Accelerometer (LIS302DL):The LIS302DL is an ultra-compact low-power three axes linear accelerometer. It includes asensing element and an IC interface able to providethe measured acceleration to the external worldthrough I2C/SPI serial interface. The sensingelement, capable of detecting the 17 acceleration, ismanufactured using a dedicated process developedby ST to produce inertial sensors and actuators insilicon. The IC interface is manufactured using aCMOS process that allows designing a dedicatedcircuit which is trimmed to better match the sensingelement characteristics. The LIS302DL hasdynamically user selectable full scales of ± 2g/± 8gand it is capable of measuring accelerations with anoutput data rate of 100 Hz or 400 Hz.A self-testcapability allows the user to check the functioning ofthe sensor in the final application. The device maybe configured to generate inertial wake-up/free-fallinterrupt signals when a programmable accelerationthreshold is crossed at least in one of the three axes.Thresholds and timing of interrupt generators areprogrammable by the user. The LIS302DL isavailable in plastic Thin Land Grid Array package(TLGA) and it is guaranteed to operate over anextended temperature range from -40 °C to +85 °C.The LIS302DL belongs to a family of productssuitable for a variety of applications:Free-fall detection, Motion activatedfunctions, gaming and virtual reality input devices,Vibration monitoring and compensationFeaturesThe LIS302DL have many important anduseful features. Features of the MEMS ICLIS302DL are listed below:1.8 V compatible IOs8g dynamically selectable fullScale.-testBlock DiagramThe LIS302DL MEMS architectureincludes Multiplexer, Analog to Digital Converterand Control unit. The input for the MEMS is takenfrom the movement of the object in which it ismounted. And the output is given to the masterdevice by using I2C interface or SPI interface. TheBlock Diagram of the LIS302DL in Figure .3 asfollowsFig. 3. Block Diagram of LIS302Dl proposed byST Microsystems.
  • 3. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171410 | P a g eRENESAS M16/C65 MICROCONTROLLERFeaturesThe M16C/65 Group microcomputer(MCU) incorporates the M16C/60 Series CPU coreand flash memory, employing sophisticatedinstructions for a high level of efficiency. This MCUhas 1 Mbyte of address space (expandable to 4Mbytes), and it is capable of executing instructionsat high speed. In addition, the CPU core boasts amultiplier for high-speed operation processing.Power consumption is low, and the M16C/65 Groupsupports operating modes that allow additionalpower control. The MCU also uses an anti-noiseconfiguration to reduce emissions of electromagneticnoise and is designed to withstand electromagneticinterference (EMI). By integrating many of theperipheral functions, including the multifunctiontimer and serial interface, the number of systemcomponents has been reduced.Block DiagramFig .4 The Block Diagram of the 100 pin M16C/65proposed by RENUSAS.The M16C/65 Group includes 128-pin,100-pin, and 80-pin packages. In this project we use100 pin IC package. The Block Diagram of the 100pin M16C/65 is shown in Figure 4.Fig .5 The Pin Assignment of the 100 pinM16C/65 (RENUSAS)I2C INITIALIZATIONI2C IntroductionI2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit) genericallyreferred to as "two-wire interface" is a multi-masterserial single-ended computer bus invented by Philipsthat is used to attach low-speed peripherals to amotherboard, embedded system, cellphone, or otherelectronic device. In my project I used toOperationsI2C uses only two bidirectional open-drainlines, Serial Data Line (SDA) and Serial Clock(SCL), pulled up with resistors. Typical voltagesused are +5 V or +3.3 V although systems with othervoltages are permitted. The I2C reference designhas a 7-bit address space with 16 reserved addresses,so a maximum of 112 nodes can communicate onthe same bus. Common I2C bus speeds are the 100kbit/s standard mode and the 10 kbit/s low-speedmode, but arbitrarily low clock frequencies are alsoallowed. Recent revisions of I2C can host morenodes and run at faster speeds (400 kbit/s Fast mode,1 Mbit/sFast mode plus or Fm+, and 3.4 Mbit/s HighSpeed mode). These speeds are more widely used onembedded systems than on PCs. There are also otherfeatures, such as 16-bit addressing.Note that the bitrates quoted are for the transactions between masterand slave without clock stretching or other hardwareoverhead. Protocol overheads include a slaveaddress and perhaps a register address within theslave device as well as per-byte ACK/NACK bits.So the actual transfer rate of user data is lower thanthose peak bit rates alone would imply. For example,if each interaction with a slave inefficiently allowsonly 1 byte of data to be transferred, the data rate
  • 4. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171411 | P a g ewill be less than half the peak bit rate. Themaximum number of nodes is limited by the addressspace, and also by the total bus capacitance of 400pF, which restricts practical communicationdistances to a few meters.Message ProtocolsI2C defines three basic types of messages, each ofwhich begins with a START and ends with a STOP:slave;slave;least two reads and/or writes to one or more slaves.In a combined message, each read or write beginswith a START and the slave address. After the firstSTART, these are also called repeated START bits;repeated START bits are not preceded by STOP bits,which is how slaves know the next transfer is part ofthe same message. Any given slave will onlyrespond to particular messages, as defined by itsproduct documentation.Pure I2C systems supportarbitrary message structures. SMBus is restricted tonine of those structures, such as read word N andwrite word N, involving a single slave. PMBusextends SMBus with a Group protocol, allowingmultiple such SMBus transactions to be sent in onecombined message. The terminating STOP indicateswhen those grouped actions should take effect. Forexample, one PMBus operation might reconfigurethree power supplies (using three different I2C slaveaddresses), and their new configurations would takeeffect at the same time: when they receive thatSTOP.In practice, most slaves adoptrequest/response control models, where one or morebytes following a write command are treated as acommand or address. Those bytes determine howsubsequent written bytes are treated and/or how theslave responds on subsequent reads. Most SMBusoperations involve single byte commands. A sampleschematic with one master (a microcontroller), threeslave nodes (an ADC, a DAC, and amicrocontroller), and pull-up resistors (Rp) is shownin Fig.6Fig.6 A sample schematic of I2C ConnectionTiming DiagramData transfer is initiated with the STARTbit (S) when SDA is pulled low while SCL stayshigh. Then, SDA sets the transferred bit while SCLis low (blue) and the data is sampled (received)when SCL rises (green). When the transfer iscomplete, a STOP bit (P) is sent by releasing thedata line to allow it to be pulled up while SCL isconstantly high. The timing diagram of I2C Bus isgiven in Figure 7Fig.7 The timing diagram of I2C Bus.I2C Operations in MEMSThe transaction on the bus is startedthrough a START (ST) signal. A START conditionis defined as a HIGH to LOW transition on the dataline while the SCL line is held HIGH. After this hasbeen transmitted by the Master, the bus is consideredbusy. The next byte of data transmitted after the startcondition contains the address of the slave in thefirst 7 bits and the eighth bit tells whether the Masteris receiving data from the slave or transmitting datato the slave. When an address is sent, each device inthe system compares the first seven bits after a startcondition with its address. If they match, the deviceconsiders itself addressed by the Master.Table .1 SAD+Read/Write patternsThe Slave ADdress (SAD) associated to theLIS302DL is 001110xb. SDO pad can be used tomodify less significant bit of the device address. IfSDO pad is connected to voltage supply LSb is ‘1’(address 0011101b) else if SDO pad is connected toground LSb value is ‘0’ (address 0011100b). Thissolution permits to connect and address two differentaccelerometers to the same I2C lines. How theSAD+Read/Write bit pattern is composed, listing allthe possible configurations are explains in Talbe 3.1Data transfer with acknowledge is mandatory. Thetransmitter must release the SDA line during theacknowledge pulse. The receiver must then pull thedata line LOW so that it remains stable low duringthe HIGH period of the acknowledge clock pulse. A
  • 5. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171412 | P a g ereceiver which has been addressed is obliged togenerate an acknowledge signal after each byte ofdata has been received.The I2C embedded inside the LIS302DLbehaves like a slave device and the followingprotocol must be adhered to. After the start condition(ST) a salve address is sent, once a slaveacknowledge (SAK) has been returned, a 8-bit sub-address will be transmitted: the 7 LSb represent theactual register address while the MSB enablesaddress auto increment. If the MSb of the SUB fieldis 1, the SUB (register address) will be automaticallyincremented to allow multiple data read/write. Theslave address is completed with a Read/Write bit. Ifthe bit was ‘1’ (Read), a repeated START (SR)condition will have to be issued after the two sub-address bytes; if the bit is ‘0’ (Write) the Master willtransmit to the slave with direction unchanged. TheMEMS configuration settings are given in Figure 8Fig.8 The MEMS configuration settingsI2C Operations in M16C/65As mentioned earlier the M16C/65 MCU ais more complicated device. The followingconfiguration settings can implemented with the helpof the data sheet only.IV. Detection of Start and StopConditionsWhether a start or a stop condition has beendetected is determined. A start condition detectinterrupt request is generated when the SDAi pinchanges state from high to low while the SCLi pin isin the high state. A stop condition detect interruptrequest is generated when the SDAi pin changesstate from low to high while the SCLi pin is in thehigh state. Because the start and stop conditiondetect interrupts share an interrupt control registerand vector, check the BBS bit in the UiSMR registerto determine which interrupt source is requesting theinterrupt.Output of Start and Stop ConditionsA start condition is generated by setting theSTAREQ bit in the UiSMR4 register (i = 0 to 2, 5 to7) to 1 (start).A restart condition is generated by setting theRSTAREQ bit in the UiSMR4 register to 1 (start). Astop condition is generated by setting the STPREQbit in the UiSMR4 register to 1 (start). The outputprocedure is as follows.bit to 1 (start).(output).3.2.4.3 ArbitrationUn matching of the transmit data and SDAipin input data is checked in synchronization with therising edge of SCLi. Use the ABC bit in the UiSMRregister to select the point at which the ABT bit inthe UiRB register is updated. If the ABC bit is 0(update per bit), the ABT bit is set to 1 at the sametime un matching is detected during check, and is setto 0 when not detected. If the ABC bit is set to 1, ifun matching is ever detected, the ABT bit is set to 1(un matching detected) at the falling edge of theclock pulse of the 9th bit. If the ABT bit needs to beupdated per byte, set the ABT bit to 0 (undetected)after detecting acknowledge for the first byte, beforetransmitting/receiving the next byte.Setting the ALS bit in the UiSMR2 register to 1(SDA output stop enabled) causes an arbitration-lostto occur, in which case the SDAi pin is placed in thehigh-impedance state at the same time the ABT bit isset to 1 (un matching detected).Transmit/Receive ClockThe CSC bit in the UiSMR2 register is usedto synchronize an internally generated clock
  • 6. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171413 | P a g e(internal SCLi) and an external clock supplied to theSCLi pin. If the CSC bit is set to 1 (clocksynchronization enabled), if a falling edge on theSCLi pin is detected while the internal SCLi is high,the internal SCLi goes low, at which time the valueof the UiBRG register is reloaded with and startscounting the low-level intervals. If the internal SCLichanges state from low to high while the SCLi pin islow, counting stops, and when the SCLi pin goeshigh, counting restarts. In this way, the UARTitransmit/receive clock is equivalent to AND of theinternal SCLi and the clock signal applied to theSCLi pin. The transmit/receive clock works from ahalf cycle before the falling edge of the internalSCLi 1st bit to the rising edge of the 9th bit. To usethis function, select an internal clock for thetransmit/receive clock.The SWC bit in the UiSMR2register determines whether the SCLi pin is fixedlow or freed from low-level output at the fallingedge of the 9th clock pulse. If the SCLHI bit in theUiSMR4 register is set to 1 (enabled), SCLi output isturned off (placed in the high-impedance state) whena stop condition is detected.When the SWC2 bit inthe UiSMR2 register is set to 1 (0 output), a low-level signal can be forcibly output from the SCLi pineven while transmitting or receiving data. When theSWC2 bit is set to 0 (transmit/receive clock), a low-level signal output from the SCLi pin is cancelled,and the transmit/ receive clock is input and output.Ifthe SWC9 bit in the UiSMR4 register is set to 1(SCL hold low enabled) when the CKPH bit in theUiSMR3 register is 1, the SCLi pin is fixed low atthe falling edge of the clock pulse next to the 9th.Setting the SWC9 bit to 0 (SCL hold low disabled)frees the SCLi pin from low-level output.SDA OutputThe data written to bits 7 to 0 (D7 to D0) inthe UiTB register is output in descending order fromD7. The 9th bit (D8) is ACK or NACK. Set theinitial value of SDAi transmit output when IICM is 1(I2C mode) and bits SMD2 to SMD0 in the UiMRregister are 000b (serial interface disabled).Bits DL2to DL0 in the UiSMR3 register allow addition of nodelays or a delay of 2 to 8 UiBRG count sourceclock cycles to the SDAi output. Setting the SDHIbit in the UiSMR2 register to 1 (SDA outputdisabled) forcibly places the SDAi pin in the high-impedance state. Do not write to the SDHI bit at therising edge of the UARTi transmit/ receive clock.This is because the ABT bit may inadvertently be setto 1 (detected).SDA InputWhen the IICM2 bit is 0, the 1st to 8th bits(D7 to D0) of received data are stored in bits 7 to 0in the UiRB register. The 9th bit (D8) is ACK orNACK.When the IICM2 bit is 1, the 1st to 7th bits(D7 to D1) of received data are stored in bits 6 to 0in the UiRB register and the 8th bit (D0) is stored inbit 8 in the UiRB register. Even when the IICM2 bitis 1, the same data as when the IICM2 bit is 0 can beread, provided the CKPH bit is 1. To read the data,read the UiRB register after the rising edge of 9th bitof the clock.ACK and NACKIf the STSPSEL bit in the UiSMR4 registeris set to 0 (start and stop conditions not generated)and the ACKC bit in the UiSMR4 register is set to 1(ACK data output), the value of the ACKD bit in theUiSMR4 register is output from the SDAi pin.If the IICM2 bit is 0, a NACK interrupt request isgenerated if the SDAi pin remains high at the risingedge of the 9th bit of transmit clock pulse. An ACKinterrupt request is generated if the SDAi pin is lowat the rising edge of the 9th bit of the transmit clock.If ACKi is selected to generate a DMA1 or DMA3request source, a DMA transfer can be activated bydetection of an acknowledge.Initialization of Transmission/ReceptionIf a start condition is detected while theSTAC bit is 1 (UARTi initialization enabled), theserial interface operates as described below.Thetransmit shift register is initialized, and the contentsof the UiTB register are transferred to the transmitshift register. In this way, the serial interface startssending data when the next clock pulse is applied.However, the UARTi output value does not changestate and remains the same as when a start conditionwas detected until the first bit of data is output insynchronization with the input clock. The SWC bitis set to 1 (SCL wait output enabled). Consequently,the SCLi pin is pulled low at the falling edge of the9th clock pulse.Schematic of I2C InitializationThe device core is supplied through Vddline while the I/O pads are supplied through Vdd_IOline. Power supply decoupling capacitors (100 nFceramic, 10 μF Al) should be placed as near aspossible to the pin 6 of the device (common designpractice). All the voltage and ground supplies mustbe present at the same time to have proper behaviorof the IC. It is possible to remove Vdd maintainingVdd_IO without blocking the communicationbusses, in this condition the measurement chain ispowered off. The functionality of the device and themeasured acceleration data is selectable andaccessible through the I2C/SPI interface. Whenusing the I2C, CS must be tied high. The functions,the threshold and the timing of the two interrupt pins(INT 1 and INT 2) can be completely programmedby the user though the I2C/SPI interface. TheSchematic of I2C Initialization is shown in Figure 9
  • 7. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171414 | P a g eFig.9 The Schematic of I2C Initialization withMEMS-LIS302DLI2C Initialization Flow ChartThe step by step process of the I2Cinitialization process for the context estimation usingMEMS is given in the Figure 10Fig.10 I2C Initialization Flow ChartWork ViewIn this topic discusses the software toolsused for this project and the step by stepimplementation of the project workHigh Performance Embedded WorkshopFor coding and compiling purposes in thisproject we used “The High-performance EmbeddedWorkshop (HEW)”. It provides a GUI-basedintegrated development environment for thedevelopment and debugging of embeddedapplications for Renesas microcontrollers. HEW, apowerful yet easy to use tool suite, features anindustry standard user interface and is designedusing a modular approach seamlessly incorporatingdevice family-specific C/C++ compilers and thedebugger elements for various debugging platformsincluding emulators and evaluation boards. HEWenables the use of the right tool for each process.HEW supports multiple tool chain integrationenabling development for any number of projectsunder a single user interface. The workingenvironment of HEW is given in Figure 11.Fig.11 The working environment of HEWMOT2BINThe code generated using HEW is in theformat of MOT (.mot). But we need the HEX (.hex)file format. For this purpose we used MOT2BINconverter. It convert MOT files to FDT4 DATAfiles.MAD EDITForm MOT2BIN we got the FDT4 DATAfiles. For converting this FDT4 DATA files to HEXfiles and for the editing of the HEX files we usedMad Edit. The working environment of Mad Edit isgiven in Figure 12
  • 8. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171415 | P a g eFig.12 The working environment of Mad EditHyper TerminalThe interface between the system and MCUis based on the serial communication only. Forwriting or downloading programs on the MCU weneed one serial data controller, for that purpose weused the “Hyper Terminal”. The workingenvironment of Hyper Terminal is given in Figure13.Fig.13 The working environment of HyperTerminalV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONThe Results that follows shows that theworking of the complete system without any flawand making the system efficient for using in realtime. The MEMS device (shown in figure 14) isused to identify the inclination of the device withrespect to the line of action of the acceleration due togravity and also the values of all the other 3 axessuch a the x,y,z are used to make the platformstabilized.Fig.14 MEMS device in my boardInitially calibration is done based on the exactinclination of the platform so that which is thereference position that needs to be maintained by thesystem at any given point of time. So this referencevalue is stored in the memory of the microcontroller. This initial setting can be changedaccording to the environment. The values that aretaken from the MEMS device every single second isthen stored in an external flash memory so that thereading can be taken at an instant time for more thanone week. If required this data can be transmitted toa server through GPRS. Once the value that arereceived seems to be shifted from the original valuethat needs to be maintained the external 3 axismotors that are mounted to the base of the system isdriven in the appropriate direction opposite to thedirection of shift of the system so that the systemcomes back to the original state. The values areconstantly monitored to make the process veryeffective. The 3 axis values are finalized and verifiedusing Hyper Terminal is given in figure 15&16 asfollows.MEMSLIS302DL
  • 9. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171416 | P a g eFig.13 HYPERTERMINAL showing results of all X,Y, and Z axisFig.14 HYPERTERMINAL showing results of allX, Y, and Z axisVI. CONCLUSIONPlatform Stabilization Using MEMSTechnology is successfully implemented. Creatingdriver software for the interface between MEMS andthe RENESAS M16C/65 Micro Computer based onthe Inter Integrated Circuit Bus (I2C) technology isthe main part of this project. This driver software iscreated and tested successfully. The PlatformStabilization is obtaining in the form of threedimensional manners (X-axis, Y-axis, Z-axis) fromthe Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS).Weuse a complex Micro Computer of RENESASM16c/65 series for interfacing the sensor in I2Cmode.I2C Bus is allow to use a multiple node toconnect in its path. In this technique, to reduce theusage of Microcontrollers units. In real time Sensorare slow as compared to clock frequency ofMicrocontroller, So reading a MEMS device at aparticular time of interval is good that we don’t loseany data. Thus a I2C bus prove its efficiency. Themain drawback is that the motor that needs to bedriven should be more efficient and powerful tostabilize very large sized platforms. Thereforeplatform stabilization using MEMS was successfullyimplemented by using a MEMS(Micro ElectroMechanical System) and RENESAS M16c/65. Infuture this can be implemented in many otherapplications such as AUTO NAVIGATIONSYSTEM IN FLIGHTS, and ROBOTS.REFERENCES
  • 10. Selva Vasanth M / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1408-14171417 | P a g e[1] J.F. Leonard, H. F. Durrant-Whyte, (1991)"Mobile robot localization by trackinggeometric beacons", IEEE TransactionsRobotics and Automations Vol. 7 No. 3, pp376-382.[2] L. Kleeman, ( 1989) "Ultrasonicautonomous robot localization system",IEEE international conference IntelligentRobots and Systems 89 Tsukuba, JAPAN,pp.212-219 .[3] K. Hyyppa, (1989) "Lulea turbo turtle(LTT)", IEEE international conferenceIntelligent Robots and Systems 89Tsukuba, JAPAN, pp.620-623 September1989.[4] http://documentation.renesas.com/eng/products/.../rej03b0257_16c65ds.pdf[5] www.renesas.com/products/.../m16c/m16c60/m16c65/m16c65_root.[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microelectromechanical_systems[7] www.memx.com/[8] www.csa.com/discoveryguides/mems/overview.php[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I%C2%B2C[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G-force#Horizontal_axis_g-force[11] www.i2c-bus.org/[12] http://www.u-blox.com/en/evaluation-tools-a-software/u-center/u-center.html[13] Optimal Estimation of Position andHeading for Mobile Robots UsingUltrasonic Beacons and Dead-reckoning.[14] SCA3000 Accelerometer in Speed,Distance and Energy Measurement.[15] Datasheets: M16C/65 series