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Amreen Shaikh, Farheen Bobere, Vinayak H. Khatawate, Ashok Patole / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1421-1424 Design And Energy Optimization Of Z-Type Chain Conveyor Amreen Shaikh*, Farheen Bobere**, Vinayak H. Khatawate***, Ashok Patole**** *(Department of Mechanical Engg, Mumbai University, Mumbai-06 ** (Department of Mechanical Engg, Mumbai University, Mumbai-51 *** (Department of Mechanical Engg, Mumbai University, Mumbai-06 **** (Department of Mechanical Engg, Mumbai University, Mumbai-08ABSTRACT Conveyor equipment selection is a Material handling is an important sector of industry,complex, and sometimes, tedious task since there which is consuming a considerable proportion of theare literally hundreds of equipment types and total power supply. For instance, material handlingmanufacturers to choose from. From the variety contributes about 10% of the total Maximumof conveyors the selection of ZCs is because it demand in South Africa [1]. Chain conveyors areprovides fast, efficient, convenient and safe access being employed to form the most important parts ofto/from mezzanines, balconies, basements, and material handling systems because of their highbetween levels in multiple story buildings. They efficiency of transportation. It is significant to reducecan be installed for through-floor, interior or the energy consumption or energy cost of materialexterior applications. In this paper the design and handling sector. This task accordingly depends onenergy efficiency of Z Conveyor is done. The the improvement of the energy efficiency of chainimprovement of the energy efficiency of chain conveyors, for they are the main energy consumingconveyor systems can be achieved at equipment components of material handling systems.and operation levels. This paper intends to take a Consequently, energy efficiency becomes one of themodel based optimization approach to improve development focuses of the chain conveyorthe efficiency of chain conveyors at the technology [2].operational level. An analytical energy model,originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed,which lumps all the parameters into fourcoefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and anon-line parameter estimation schemes are appliedto identify the new energy model, respectively.Keywords – Energy model, Energy optimization,Material plough, Resistance model.1. INTRODUCTION Conveyors are defined as fixed and portabledevices used for transporting materials between twofixed points, through intermittent or continuousmovement. They are usually employed where theworkflow is relatively constant. If the path for the Fig.1flow of material is fixed then the provision of theconveyors at suitable level eliminates a good deal of A chain conveyor is a typical energylifting and lowering of material. Conveyors are conversion system from electrical energy tocontinuous in operation, in this operation the mechanical energy. Its energy efficiency cantransportation of materials is effected by friction generally be improved at four levels: performance,between materials being transported by the chain. operation, equipment, and technology [3]. However,These conveyors have the advantage that they the majority of the technical literature concerning thelargely save labour cost, but have disadvantage that energy efficiency of chain conveyors focuses on thetake up considerable space, are relatively fixed and operational level and the equipment level. Inin most cases the investment cost is high. practice, the improvement of equipment efficiency of chain conveyors is achieved mainly by introducing highly efficient equipment. The idler, chain and drive system are the main targets. In [4], the influences on idlers from design, assembly, lubrication, bearing seals, and maintenance are reviewed. Energy saving idlers is proposed and 1421 | P a g e
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Amreen Shaikh, Farheen Bobere, Vinayak H. Khatawate, Ashok Patole / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1421-1424tested in [5, 6]. Energy optimized chains aredeveloped in [7] by improving the structure of thechains. Stage 4: Selection of Chain: Power to be transmitted P12. DESIGN AND ASSEMBLY OF Z-TYPE Assuming service factor,sCHAIN CONVEYOR:Stage1: Selection of Motor and Shaft: Design power [P] = P1*sMaterial of the shaft is Mild Steel, MS C-45 and ds =dia of shaft Z1 No. of teeth on i/p input sprocketLoad of motor W Z2 No.of teeth on o/p sprocketLinear velocity (v) = πDN/60 Stage 5: Selection of Pitch of ChainD = Dia of sprocket = P/sin (180/z1) Input sprocket diameter d1:-Z1= No. of teeth on sprocket d1 = P P- pitch of the chainP = Pitch Sin180/z1Design load (wd) = w × s.f Output sprocket diameter d2:-Power of motor (PM) = wd×v/60×η d2 = PAssume: η = 85% = 0.85 Sin 180/Z2Selecting std motor power (PM) = 1hp,110 rpm and Velocity of Chain:-single phase A.C.motor. Avg velocity of chain is given by V = P N 1 Z1 / 60,000 and N1, input speed in rpmStage 2: Selection of Bearing: Breaking load, Q is calculated as: -Span of bearing = T hrs, Dia of shaft = ds, N = QV/102 n*Ks n-allowable factor of safety andSpeed of shaft, N rpm Ks is product of all different factorsLife of bearing in Lmr:- 2.1 Chain available R-940 R-957 Based on breaking load for safer side selecting R-957Lmr= T×60×N/ 106 . Table 1:- Chain DetailsCalculation of equivalent load on bearing, Pe:- ISO/d Rol Pitc Roll Brave BreakiPe = (x× Fr + yFa) skt im on h er ry Wt/ ng mm Dia Area m loade is eccentricity for deep groove ball bearing mm cm2 kgfAs Fa/Fr < e 06B-1 R- 9.5 6.35 0.28 0.4 910x =1, y = 0 957 25 1Load life relationship,c 3.RESISTANCE BASED ENERGYC= (Lmr) ×Pe1/k MODELS: The existing energy calculation is based onStage 3: Design of Tray: the methodology of resistance energy models, inMaterial of rod C-3 which energy consumption is mainly determined through the calculation of the resistances to theLet us select rod dia d= check for bending failure of motion of chain conveyor. In this methodology, therod w= load of tray motion resistances is divided into four groups: the main resistance, FH, the secondary resistance, Fn, the Now bending stress = bending moment on the tray/ slope resistance, Fst, and the special resistance,polar moment of inertia * no.of rods FS.The peripheral driving force, FU, required on the driving sprocket(s) of a chain conveyor is obtainedσb= Mb/z×n by adding up the four groups as follows:Mb = wl/4 l= length of rod 1422 | P a g e
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Amreen Shaikh, Farheen Bobere, Vinayak H. Khatawate, Ashok Patole / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1421-1424FU =FH + Fn + Fst +Fs calculation. On the other hand, the energy conversion(1) based models simplify the calculation by integrating the compensation length constant(s) into the models.When FU is obtained, the mechanical power of a Because these models use one or a few constants tochain conveyor is obtained by compensate all the cases, their accuracy is usually compromised. Furthermore, all these existing models PT= FU*V use the design parameters to calculate the power of(2) chain conveyors. When they are applied to practical condition, large difference of energy calculation will where V is the chain speed in meters per be generated because the practical operationsecond. Then the power of the motor is PM = PT/η, condition always deviates from the design one.where η is the overall efficiency of the drivingsystem. Now, the energy calculation is cast to the 5. AN ANALYTICAL ENERGY MODEL:calculation of the four groups of resistances. The An analytical energy model is proposed heremain resistance is calculated by to meet the requirement of energy optimization. It has its root in ISO 5048 [8], however, its analytical formFH = fLg[QRO+ QRU+(2QB+QG)cosδ] makes it suitable for parameter estimation and energy(3) optimization. According to ISO 5048 the secondary resistance of a chain conveyor is obtained from four where f is the artificial friction factor, L is parts as follows:the center-to-center distance(m), QR0 is the unit massof the rotating parts of carrying idler rollers (kg/m), Fn = FBA + FF + Fw + Ftas shown in Fig. 1, QRU is the unit mass of rotating (4)parts of the return idler rollers (kg/m), Q B is the unit Ft is relatively small, hence it can bemass of the chain(kg/m), d is the inclination angle (o), omitted. Fw is also small and does not vary much, soand QG is the unit mass of the load (kg/m). Further, it is taken as a constant, Cft. If the initial speed ofQG is determined by QG T/3.6V, where T is the feed material in the direction of chain movement is takenrate of the chain conveyor (t/h). Eq. (3) is a as zero and the frictional factor between the materialsimplified form of the main resistance suitable for and the chain is taken as the same as that between theengineering application, while proposes a non-linear material and the skirt boards [9],FBA and FF can bemodel of the main resistance, which is more obtained through the following two equations,complicated. The secondary resistance, is further respectively.divided into four parts: the inertia and frictionalresistance at the loading point and in the acceleration FBA= TV/3.6area between the material and the chain, FBA, the (5)frictional resistance between the skirt boards and thematerial in the accelerating area, FF, the wrap FF=T2/6.48 b12ρresistance between the chain and sprocket and the (6)sprocket, Fw, and the sprocket bearing resistance, Ft.Similarly, the special resistance is further divided where ρ is the bulk density of materialinto four parts: the resistance due to idler tilting, FFR, (kg/m3), and b1 is the width between the skirt boardsthe resistance due to friction between the material (m). Now, FN can be rewritten as followshandled and the skirt boards, Fsb, the frictionalresistance due to the chain cleaners, Fc, and the Fn= TV/3.6+ T2/6.48ρb12+ CFtresistance from the material ploughs, Fp. (7)Accordingly, provide the detailed equations for eachpart of the secondary resistance and the special The special resistances, Fs, for an existingresistance. The slope resistance is resulted from the chain conveyor, including FFR, Fsb, Fc and Fp has theelevation of the material on inclined conveyors. It can following relation with T and Vbe accurately calculated by Fst = QGHg, where H isthe net change in elevation (m). Fs = k1T2/V2+ k2 T/V+k3 (8)4.REMARKS ON THE EXISTINGMODELS: where k1, k2, and k3 are constant The resistance based models consider almost coefficients which relate to the structural parametersall the issues contributing to the energy consumption, of the chain conveyor.thus they are believed to be more accurate.Correspondingly, complicated equations, along with Combining (3), (7) and (8), and Fst = Qg Hg with (2),many detailed parameters, are needed for the we getcalculation of these issues. It leads to complexity of 1423 | P a g e
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Amreen Shaikh, Farheen Bobere, Vinayak H. Khatawate, Ashok Patole / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1421-1424PT = V2T/ 3.6 + VT2/6.28ρb12 + [4] Reicks AV. Belt conveyor idler roll(9) behavours. In: Alspaugh MA, editor. Bulk {gfQ[L cosδ + ( 1- cosδ ) ( 1- 2QB/Q)]+ k3+ material handling by conveyor belt 7.Cft}V Colorado: SME; 2008. p. 35–40. + k1T2/V + (gLsinδ + gfLcosδ/3.6+ k2) V. [5] Staniak K, França Jr J. Energy saving in long distance conveyors-Novel idlerFurther, let technology. In: Hennies WT, Ayres da Silvaθ1= 1/6.48b12ρ, LA, Chaves AP, editors. Mine planning and(10) equipment selection. Rotterdam,θ2= gfQ [L cosδ + L (1- cosδ) (1- 2QB/ Q)] + k3+ CFt, Netherlands: Balkema; 1996. p.479–86.θ3= k1, [6] Tapp AG. Energy saving troughing idlerθ4= (gLsinδ+ gfLcosδ)/3.6 +k2, technology.Bulk Solids Handl 2000; 20(4):437 49.we get the analytical energy model of a chain [7] Jansen M. The development of energy-conveyor as follows optimized conveyor belts – a joint project of the conveyor belt group of ContiTech AGPT- V2T/3.6 = θ1T2V+ θ2+ θ3 T2/V+ θ4 T and RWE power AG. World(11) Min2008;60(2):83θ1, θ2, θ3 and θ4 are determined by the structuralparameters and components of a chain conveyor, bythe operation circumstance and by the characteristicof the material handled; therefore, they are relativelyconstant for a certain chain conveyor. Because (11)originates from ISO 5048, it can be used for designpurpose as well, where θ1, θ2, θ3 and θ4 are derivedfrom design parameters.6. CONCLUSION: The Z type chain conveyor was designedsuccessfully for a load of 50kg and energy efficiencymodel was developed based on resistance energymodel from ISO 5048. The new model was formedby lumping all parameters into four coefficients andis suitable for parameter optimization and estimation.As chain conveyors consume considerable part oftotal energy supplied, this model guaranteesaccuaracy in energy model therby optimizing energyof chain conveyors. The four coefficients of the newmodel can be derived from the design parameters orbe estimated through field experiments. The proposedenergy model is used for operation efficiencyoptimization of a conveying system with a beltconveyor.REFRENCES: [1] Marais J, Mathews E, Pelzer R. Analysing DSM opportunities on mine conveyor systems.In: Industrial and commercial use of energy conference, Cape Town,South Africa; 28–30 May 2008. [2] Alspaugh MA. Latest developments in belt conveyor technology. In: MINExpo 2004; Las Vegas, NV, USA;27–30 September 2004. [3] Xia X, Zhang J, Control systems and energy efficiency from the POET perspective.In: IFAC Conference on Control Methodologies and Technology for Energy Efficiency; Vilamoura, Portugal; 29–31 March, 2010. 1424 | P a g e
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