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  1. 1. Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Khushbu Bisen / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1507-1512 Progressive Image Compression Analysis Using Wavelet Transform Sarvesh Kumar Gupta*, Khushbu Bisen** *(Department of Electrical Engineering SGSITS, Indore) ** (Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering SGSITS, Indore)ABSTRACT With the use of digital cameras, very large and can occupy a lot of memory. A grayrequirements for storage, manipulation, and scale image that is 256 X 256 pixels has 65,536transfer of digital images has grown explosively. elements to store, and a typical 640 x 480 colorThese images can be very large in size and can image has nearly a million. Downloading of theseoccupy a lot of memory, so compression of files from internet can be very time consumingimages is required for efficient transmission and task, so image compression is necessary at thisstorage of images. Image data comprise of a stage.significant portion of the multimedia data andthey occupy the major portion of the channel II. TYPES OF COMPRESSIONbandwidth for multimedia communication. Lossless versus Lossy compression: InTherefore development of efficient techniques lossless compression schemes, the reconstructedfor image compression has become quite image, after compression, is numerically identicalnecessary. The design of data compression to the original image [5]. However losslessschemes involves trade-offs among various compression can only achieve a modest amount offactors, including the degree of compression, the compression. Lossless compression is preferred foramount of distortion introduced (if using a lossy archival purposes and often medical imaging,compression scheme) and the computational technical drawings, clip art or comics. But lossyresources required for compressing and schemes are capable of achieving much higherdecompressing of images. Wavelet based compression this is because lossy compressioncompression methods, when combined with methods, especially used at low bit rates[4],[17].AnSPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees) image reconstructed following lossy compressionalgorithm gives high compression ratio along contains degradation relative to the original.with appreciable image quality (like lossless). Lossless methods concentrate on compacting theSPIHT belongs to the next generation of wavelet binary data using encoding algorithms - the mostencoders, employing more sophisticated coding. commonly used example is WinZip. To achieveIn fact, SPIHT exploits the properties of the higher levels of compression there are Lossywavelet-transformed images to increase its encoding techniques. Lossy encoding methodsefficiency. Progressive image compression (such as JPEG) are varied but tend to work on themethods are more efficient than conventional principle of reducing the total amount ofwavelet based compression methods it gives the information in the image in ways that the humanfacility to user choose the best compressed image eye will not detect.which does not have recognizable quality loss. III. WHY WAVELET BASEDKeywords- Compression, SPIHT, PSNR, MSE, COMPRESSIONWavelet. The power of Wavelet comes from the use of multi-resolution. Rather than examining entireI. INTRODUCTION signals through the same window, different parts of Image compression is minimizing the size the waves are viewed through different sizein bytes of a graphics file without degrading the windows (or resolutions)[2],[8]. Wavelets arequality of the image to an unacceptable level. The functions defined over a finite interval and havingreduction in file size allows more images to be an average value of zero. The basic idea of thestored in a given amount of disk or memory space. wavelet transform is to represent any arbitraryDemand for communication of multimedia data function (t) as a superposition of a set of suchthrough the telecommunications network and wavelets or basicaccessing the multimedia data through Internet is functions [3],[8]. These basic functions or babygrowing explosively with the use of digital wavelets arecameras, requirements for storage, manipulation &transfer of digital images. These images files can be 1507 | P a g e
  2. 2. Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Khushbu Bisen / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1507-1512obtained from a single prototype wavelet called the HH (high pass then another high pass)[1],[2]. Themother wavelet, by dilations or contractions resulting LL version is again four-way(scaling) and translations (shifts). decomposed, this process is repeated until the top of the pyramid is reached. 1 t b  a ,b (t )  ( ) (1) a awhere a is the scaling parameter and b is theshifting parameter. Another advantage of wavelet isthresholding [7]. Thresholding is a simple non-linear technique, which operates on one waveletcoefficient at a time. In its most basic form, eachcoefficient is thresholded by comparing againstthreshold, if the coefficient is smaller thanthreshold, set to zero; otherwise it is kept or Fig.2: Decimation of an image in low & highmodified. In wavelet transform the image is divided frequency portionin low and high frequency portion, and these low Progressive methods convert the originaland high frequency portion is further divided, after image in to intermediate format then it is converteda threshold is applied to all the portion except LL in to appropriate format. In fact, SPIHT exploits theportion because it is nature of the information to properties of the wavelet-transformed images toreside in low frequency portion of signal and less increase its efficiency. SPIHT based methodaffected by noise [2][7]. provide following advantages. 1. Encoding/Decoding Speed The SPIHT algorithm is nearly symmetric, i.e., the time to encode is nearly equal to the time to decode. (Complex compression algorithms tend to have encoding times much larger than the decoding times). The SPIHT process represents a very effective form of entropy-coding. Binary-encoded (extremely simple) and context-based adaptive arithmetic coded (sophisticated). Surprisingly, the difference in compression is small, showing that it is not necessary to use slow methods [5]. A fast version using Huffman codes are used in this method [4]. a straightforward consequence of the compression simplicity is the greater coding/decoding speed. 2. Optimized Embedded Coding SPIHT is an embedded coding technique. In embedded coding algorithms, encoding of the Fig.1: Thresholding of an image same signal at lower bit rate is embedded at the beginning of the bit stream for the target bit rateV. PROGRESSIVE APPROACH OF [5], [12]. Effectively, bits are ordered inCOMPRESSION USING SPIHT importance. This type of coding is especially useful One of the most efficient algorithms in the for progressive transmission using an embeddedarea of image compression is the Set Partitioning In code; where an encoder can terminate the encodingHierarchical Trees (SPIHT). In essence it uses a process at any point [5].sub-band coder, to produce a pyramid structurewhere an image is decomposed sequentially by 3. Uniform Scalar Quantizationapplying power complementary low pass and high For image coding using very sophisticatedpass filters and then decimating the resulting vector quantization, SPIHT achieved superiorimages [1]. These are one-dimensional filters that results using the simplest method: uniform scalarare applied in cascade (row then column) to an quantization [20].image whereby creating a four-way decomposition:LL (low-pass then another low pass), LH (low passthen high pass), HL (high and low pass) and finally 1508 | P a g e
  3. 3. Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Khushbu Bisen / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1507-15124. Image Quality respond logarithmically to intensity [12]. Increasing SPIHT based methods gives very good PSNR represents increasing fidelity of compressionquality images At first it was shown that even  MAX1 simple coding methods produced good results when PSNR  20 log 10    combined with wavelets. SPIHT belongs to the next  MSE  (4)generation of wavelet encoders, employing more Here, MAXi is the maximum possible pixel value ofsophisticated coding. In fact, SPIHT exploits the the image.properties of the wavelet-transformed images toincrease its efficiency [1],[21]. The SPIHT V. ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS IMAGEadvantage is even more pronounced in encodingcolor images. PROCESSING PARAMETER USING HAAR WAVELET (SPIHT)5. Progressive Image Transmission The Haar transform is the simplest of the In some systems with progressive image wavelet transforms. This transform cross-multipliestransmission (like www browsers) the quality of the a function against the Haar wavelet with variousdisplayed images follows the sequence: (a) weird shifts and stretches, like the Fourier transformabstract (b) you begin to believe that it is an image cross-multiplies a function against a sine wave withof something; (c) CGA-like quality; (d) lossless two phases and many stretches. The Haar waveletrecovery. With very fast links the transition from is a certain sequence of rescaled "square-shaped"(a) to (d) can be so fast that you will never notice. functions which together form a wavelet family orConsidering that it may be possible to recover an basis. Wavelet analysis is similar to Fourierexcellent-quality image using 10-20 times less bits, analysis in that it allows a target function over anit is easy to see the inefficiency. Furthermore, the interval to be represented in terms of anmentioned systems are not efficient even for orthonormal function basis.lossless transmission. If an image were transferredover a slow network like the Internet, it would be Table 1: Result of different parameter usingnice if the computer could show what the incoming SPIHT based method with haar waveletpicture looks like before it has the entire file. This transformfeature is often referred to as progressive encoding STEPS CR BPP MSE PSNR[21]. 1 0.09 0.01 6.3739e+004 2.37 2 0.09 0.01 6.3739e+004 10.08IV. COMPRESSION QUALITY 3 0.09 0.01 6.3739e+004 10.08EVALUATION 4 0.09 0.01 3.6824e+003 12.46Performance analysis of a compressed image is 5 0.09 0.01 3.1046e+003 13.21judged by three parameters. 6 0.11 0.01 2.3597e+003 14.40 7 0.15 0.01 1.6745e+003 15.891. Compression ratio: 8 0.30 0.02 997.23 18.23The data compression ratio is analogous to the 9 0.59 0.05 501.25 21.13physical compression ratio used to measure 10 1.21 0.10 242.77 24.27physical compression of substances, and is defined 11 2.49 0.20 105.27 27.89in the same way, as the ratio between the 12 4.63 0.37 41.72 31.92compressed size image to the original size: 13 7.51 0.60 17.03 35.81CR = Compressed Size/ Original Size 14 11.81 0.94 7.09 39.62(2) 15 18.62 1.49 3.23 43.03 16 29.79 2.38 1.68 45.862. Mean Square Error: 17 44.80 3.58 1.17 47.43Two commonly used measures for quantifying the 18 44.80 3.58 1.17 47.43error between images are Mean Square Error 19 44.80 3.58 1.17 47.43(MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)[12]. 20 44.80 3.58 1.17 47.43The MSE between two images I and k is defined by m 1 n 1 1MSE  MN  I (i, j )  K (i, j ) i 0 j 0 2 (3) VI.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Progressive methods starting with the well known SPIHT algorithm using the Haar wavelet.where the sum over j; k denotes the sum over all The key parameter is the no. of steps. Increasing itpixels in the images, and N is the number of pixels leads to better recovery of MSE and PSNR valuein each image [7]. but worse compression ratio as we going through3. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio: the table we find that step 12,13,14 givesPSNR tends to be cited more often, since it is a satisfactory results. The compression ratio CRlogarithmic measure, and our brains seem to means that the compressed image is stored using 1509 | P a g e
  4. 4. Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Khushbu Bisen / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1507-1512 only CR% of the initial storage size.The Bit-Per- Pixel(BPP) gives the no. of bits use to store one pixel of the image. Step 13 Step 14 Step 1 Step 2 Step 15 Step 16 Step 3 Step 4 Step 17 Step 18 Step 5 Step 6 Step 19 Step 20 Fig.2: Results of various compressed image Step 7 Step 8 Fig.3 Graph between no. of steps and various parameters Step 9 Step 10 VII. CONCLUSION In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the performance of SPIHT algorithm of progressive method based on no. of step which gives facility to the user to achieve appropriate compression ratio,Step 11 Step 12 PSNR and MSE, means by choosing various steps he decide which step is suitable for compression. this method is different from other wavelet compression methods because in conventional method wavelets compress maximum level and not 1510 | P a g e
  5. 5. Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Khushbu Bisen / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1507-1512give the facility to choose user from a set of [9] Sayood, Khalid (2000), “Introduction tocompressed image but in SPIHT algorithm data compression” Second editionprogressive compression ratio gives this facility to Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 45-494.which compressed image user want to be send on [10] J.Shi, and C. Tomasi, “Good features totransmission channel. In the above graph CR for track,” International conference onstep 1-5 is fixed (no changes) further it increases computer vision and patternand going constant after step 17 which shows recognition, CVPR 1994, Page(s): 593 -further compression of image is not possible. 600. [11] M. Yoshioka, and S. Omatu, “ImageREFERENCES Compression by nonlinear principal [1] Sadashivappan Mahesh Jayakar, K.V.S component analysis,” IEEE Conference Anand Babu, Dr Srinivas K “Color Image on Emerging Technologies and Factory Compression Using SPIHT Algorithm” Automation, EFTA 96, Volume: 2, 1996, International Journal of Computer Page(s): 704-706 vol.2. Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 16– [12] Sonja Grgic, Mislav Grgic,“Performance No.7, February 2011 pp 34-42. Analysis of Image Compression Using [2] David F. Walnut, “An Introduction To Wavelets”IEEE Transactions On Wavelet Analysis” American Industrial Electronics, Vol. 48, NO. 3, Mathematical Society Volume 40,Number JUNE 2001 pp 682-695. 3, Birkhauser, 2003, Isbn-0-8176- [13] JAIN, A.K., Digital Image Processing, 3962-4.Pp. 421- 427 Prentice-Hall, 1989, pp. 352–357. [3] Sachin Dhawan “A Review Of Image [14] Roger Claypool, Geoffrey m. Davis Compression And “nonlinear wavelet transforms for Comparison Of Its Algorithms” IJECT image coding via lifting” IEEE Vol. 2, Issue 1, March Transactions on Image Processing August 2011 pp22-26. 25, 1999. [4] M.A. Ansari & R.S. Anand [15] J.Storer, Data Compression, Rockville, “Performance Analysis of medical MD: Computer Science Press, 1988. Image Compression Techniques with [16] G. Wallace, “The JPEG still picture respect to the quality of compression” compression standard,” IET-UK Conference on Information Communications of the ACM, vol.34, and Communication Technology in pp. 30-44, April 1991. Electrical Sciences (ICTES [17] Said and W. A. Pearlman, “An image 2007)pp743-750. multiresolution representation for [5] K. Siva Nagi Reddy, B. Raja Sekheri lossless and lossy image compression,” Reddy, G.Rajasekhar and K. Chandra IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 5, no. 9, Rao “A Fast Curvelet Transform pp. 1303–1310, 1996 Image Compression Algorithm using with [18] T. Senoo and B. Girod, “Vector Modified SPIHT” International quantization for entropy coding image Journal of Computer Science and subbands,” IEEE Transactions on Image Telecommunications [Volume 3, Issue Processing, 1(4):526-533, Oct. 1992. 2,February 2012]. [19] G. Beylkin, R. Coifman and V. Rokhlin. [6] Aldo Morales and Sedig Agili Fast wavelet transforms and “Implementing the SPIHT Algorithm in numerical algorithms.Comm. on Pure MATLAB” Penn State University at and Appl. Math. 44 (1991), 141–183. Harrisburg. Proceedings of the 2003 [20] A. Gersho and R.M. Gray, Vector ASEE/WFEO International Quantization and Signal Compression, Colloquium. Kluwer Academic Press, 1992. [7] Mario Mastriani “Denoising and [21] http://www.cipr.rpi.edu/research/SPIHT. Compression in Wavelet Domain Via Projection onto Approximation Coefficients ” International journal of signal processing 2009 pp22-30. [8] Nikkoo Khalsa, G. G. Sarate, D. T. Ingole “ Factors influencing the image compression of artificial and natural image using wavelet transform” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(11), 2010, pp 6225-6233. 1511 | P a g e
  6. 6. Sarvesh Kumar Gupta, Khushbu Bisen / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1507-1512AUTHORS PROFILE:SARVESH KUMAR GUPTAB.E. degree in Electronics & CommunicationEngineering from R.G.P.V. University Bhopal,India in 2009 and M.E. Degree in DigitalTechniques & Instrumentation Engineering fromS.G.S.I.T.S., Indore India in 2012.Now working asAssistant Professor in Department of Electronics &Communication Engineering, MIST EngineeringCollege Indore, India.KHUSHBU BISENShe has received the B.E. degree in Electronics andInstrumentation Engineering from. S.G.S.I.T.S.,Indore India in 2009 and M.E. Degree in DigitalTechniques & Instrumentation Engineering from,S.G.S.I.T.S., Indore India in 2012.She is nowworking as Assistant Professor in Department ofElectronics & Instrumentation Engineering,S.G.S.I.T.S Indore, Her interest of research is infield of Image enhancement using Matlab . 1512 | P a g e