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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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  1. 1. Er.Ranjodh Singh, Er.Rohin Kaushik, Er.Gurniwaz Singh / International Journal ofEngineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1283-12861283 | P a g eStudy of Self Compacting Concrete Using Brick Dust and MarblePowderEr.Ranjodh Singh1, Er.Rohin Kaushik2, Er.Gurniwaz Singh31. Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engg. IIU (HP)2. Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engg. IIU(HP)3. Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engg. IIU (HP)AbstractIn recent years, Self CompactingConcrete (SCC) has gained a wide use forplacement in congested reinforcement concretestructures where casting conditions are difficultand in high rise buildings where pump abilityproperties are required. For such applicationsthe fresh concrete must possess high fluidity andgood cohesiveness. The use of fine materials suchas brick dust, marble powder and viscositymodifying agent can ensure the requiredconcrete properties. In this experimental workattempt has been made to replace fine aggregatewith brick dust and marble powder. Both brickkiln dust and marble powder are waste materialsand are dumped as waste, causing land scarcityand environmental pollution. Using these types ofwaste material for concrete is a bigger steptowards sustainable infrastructure development.IntroductionSelf Compacting Concrete as the nameimplies is the concrete requiring no vibration to fillthe form homogeneously. Self Compacting Concrete(SCC) is defined by two primary properties. Abilityto flow or deform under its own weight and theability remain homogeneous while doing so. Flowability is achieved by utilizing high proportion ofwater reducing admixtures and segregationresistance is ensured by introducing a chemicalcalled viscosity modifying admixture (VMA) orincreasing the amount of fines in the concrete. Thestudy focuses on comparison of SCC containingvarying amounts of brick dust and marble powder.In recent years, self compacting concrete has gaineda wide use for placement in congested reinforcementconcrete structures where casting conditions aredifficult and in high rise buildings where pumpability properties are required.Material Aspects of Self CompactingConcreteSelf-consolidating concrete is designed tomeet specific applications requiring highdeformability, high flow ability and high passingability. The rheological properties and robustness ofSCC vary in a wide range. It is more susceptible tochanges than ordinary concrete because of acombination of detailed requirements, morecomplex mix design and inherent low yield stressand viscosity. Variations in properties (androbustness) are attributed therefore to the specificeffects of the ingredients on the rheologicalproperties of the mixture, effects of the physicalproperties (i.e. size and specific density) of theaggregate and the mixing history. Aggregates,cement, water and HRWR are the principalmaterials of SCC where as SCM, VMA and otherchemicals can be used as the optional materials. Thebrief illustration of component materials of SCC isgiven below.Coarse AggregateCoarse aggregates significantly influencethe performance of SCC by affecting the flowingability, segregation resistance, and strength ofconcrete. The nominal maximum size for SCC canbe 20 or 25 mm. However, the smaller size ispreferable to produce higher strength and to reducesegregation in fresh SCC. Round aggregates arebetter than angular aggregates for flowing ability ofSCC while rough and angular aggregates areconducive to high strength and strong interfacialbond due to rough surface texture and interlockingcharacteristic. The gradation of coarse aggregatesaffects the flow properties and segregationresistance of SCC. The well-graded coarseaggregates contribute to produce the optimummixture with least particle interference and thusenhance the flowing ability and reduce the tendencyof segregation in fresh concrete. They also improvethe hardened properties and durability of concretedue to dense particle packing.Fine aggregateFine aggregates increase the flowing abilityand segregation resistance when used at a suitableamount. In addition, they modify the strength ofconcrete when used in varying proportion withcement and coarse aggregates. Particle shape,surface texture, surface area and void content affectthe mixing water requirement and compressivestrength of concrete .The fine aggregates for SCCshould be sharp, angular, chemically inert, sound,low absorbent and free from deleterious substancesto attain high strength and good durability. Well-graded fine aggregates increase the flow of mortarand hence may improve the flowing ability of SCC.
  2. 2. Er.Ranjodh Singh, Er.Rohin Kaushik, Er.Gurniwaz Singh / International Journal ofEngineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1283-12861284 | P a g eFurthermore, the well-graded fine aggregatescontribute to improve the packing density and thusthe hardened properties and durability of concrete.A fineness modulus in the range of 2.5 to 3.2 isgenerally recommended for SCC.CementPortland cement is most widely used toproduce various types of concrete. The cement usedfor SCC should have sound flow and settingproperties. It should enhance the fluidity of concreteand should be compatible with the chemicaladmixtures such as HRWR and VMA. The cementshould possess carefully controlled fineness, andshould produce low or moderate heat of hydration tocontrol the volume changes in concrete.Brick DustBrick dust is a waste product obtained fromdifferent brick kilns and tile factories. There arenumerous brick kiln which have grown over thedecades in an unplanned way in different part of thecountry. Tons of waste products like brick dust orbroken pieces or flakes of bricks (brickbat) comeout from these kilns and factories. So far, suchmaterials have been used just for filling low lyingareas or are dumped as waste material.Marble PowderMarble has been commonly used as abuilding material since the ancient times. Theindustry’s disposal of the marble powder material,consisting of very fine powder, today constitutesone of the environmental problems around theworld. Marble blocks are cut into smaller blocks inorder to give them the desired smooth shape. Duringthe cutting process about 25% the original marblemass is lost in the form of dust. In India marble dustis settled by sedimentation and then dumped awaywhich results in environmental pollution, in additionto forming dust in summer and threatening bothagriculture and public health.Viscosity modifying admixtureVMA improves the viscosity and cohesionof fresh concrete and thus reduces the bleeding,surface settlement and aggregate sedimentationresulting in a more stable and uniform mix. Themechanism of viscosity enhancement depends onthe type of Objectives of Study.Present WorkThe objectives of this investigation is tocarry out the detailed study of various performancebased characteristics of self compacting concretewith different proportions of Brick dust and marblepowder as fine aggregate replacement. Followinginvestigation has ben attempted in the present work: Compressive strength at the age of 7 and28 days by replacing fine aggregate withbrick dust and marble powder at 25% and50% replacement levels. Ultrasonic pulse velocity and reboundhammer testing at the age of 7 and 28 daysby replacing fine aggregate with brick dustand marble powder at 25% and 50%replacement levels.Compressive Strength TestThe test was conducted according to IS516-1959.Specimens were taken out from curingtank at the age of 7, 28 and tested immediately afterremoval from water. Surface water was allowed todrip down. The position of cube while testing was atright angles to that of casting position. The load wasgradually applied without any shock and increasedat constant rate of 14N/mm2/minute until failure ofspecimen takes place. It was tested on compressiontesting machine.Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity TestA pulse of longitudinal vibrations isproduced by an electro-acoustical transducer, whichis held in contact with one surface of the concreteunder test. When the pulse generated is transmittedinto the concrete from the transducer using a liquidcoupling material such as grease or cellulose paste,it undergoes multiple reflections at the boundaries ofthe different material phases within the concrete. Acomplex system of stress waves develops, whichinclude both longitudinal and shear waves, andpropagates through the concrete. The first waves toreach the receiving transducer are the longitudinalwaves, which are converted into an electrical signalby a second transducer. Electronic timing circuitsenable the transit time T of the pulse to bemeasured.Longitudinal pulse velocity (in km/s or m/s) is givenby:v = L/TWhere:v is the longitudinal pulse velocity,L is the path length,T is the time taken by the pulse to traverse thatlength.Schmidt Rebound Hammer TestThe Schmidt rebound hammer isprincipally a surface hardness tester. It works on theprinciple that the rebound of an elastic massdepends on the hardness of the surface againstwhich the mass impinges. There is little apparenttheoretical relationship between the strength ofconcrete and the rebound number of the hammer.However, within limits, empirical correlations havebeen established between strength properties and therebound number. Further, Kolek has attempted toestablish a correlation between the hammer rebound
  3. 3. Er.Ranjodh Singh, Er.Rohin Kaushik, Er.Gurniwaz Singh / International Journal ofEngineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1283-12861285 | P a g enumber and the hardness as measured by the Brinellmethod. In the present study we determine thecompressive strength and flexural strength byreplacement of cement by different percentages ofbrick dust and marble powder.Result. and DiscussionPhysical Properties of Cement (Is:12269-1987)Cement used in experiment has obtained 37%standard consistency, 3.15 specific gravity, initialand final setting time was 125 min and 215 minrespectively with 330kg/m2fineness.Compressive Strength of Cement (Grade 43)Cement used in experiment is of grade 43 and theircompressive strength after 3days, 7days and 28 dayswere 26.5 N/mm2,38.3 N/mm2and 51.1 N/mm2respectivelyPhysical Properties of Coarse AggregatesCoarse aggregate which is used in experiment is ofgrey colour with angular shape having specificgravity 2.65, water absorption capacity of coarseaggregate was 1% and having fineness modulus7.87.Table 1- Sieve Analysis Of Coarse Aggregates (as per IS:383-1970)IS:SievedesignationWt retained onsieve(gm%wt retained cumulative% wtretained% passing40mm 0 0.00 0.00 10020mm 200 4.0 4.00 9610mm 4200 84.0 88.0 124.75mm 355 7.1 95.1 4.9pan 245 4.9 100Physical Properties of Fine AggregatesFine aggregate which is used in experiment is of grey colour with angular shape having specific gravity 2.65,water absorption capacity of coarse aggregate was 1.1% , having fineness modulus 2.2 .Table 2 - Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregates (As Per IS:383-1970)IS: SievedesignationWt retained onsieve(gm%wt retained cumulative% wtretained% passing IS 383-1970requirementsfor zone II4.75mm 6 0 0.6 0.6 99.4 90-1002.36mm 94 9.4 10 90.0 75-1001.18mm 274 27.4 37.4 62.6 55-90600 micron 234 23.4 60.8 39.2 35-40300 micron 286 28.6 89.4 10.6 8-30150 micron 79 7.9 97.3 2.7 0-100.75 micron 18 1.8 99.1 0.9 0-5Pan 9 0.9 100 0.0
  4. 4. Er.Ranjodh Singh, Er.Rohin Kaushik, Er.Gurniwaz Singh / International Journal ofEngineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1283-12861286 | P a g eTable 3 – 0%replacement of fine aggregate with brick dust and marble powder (7 & 28 days)Material used asreplacementCompressive Strength byUPV(Mpa)Compressive Strength byRebound hammer(Mpa)Cube CompressiveStrength(Mpa)7 day 28 day 7 day 28 day 7 day 28 day- 46 56 44 60 48 68Table 4 – 25%replacement of fine aggregate with brick dust and marble powder (7 & 28 day)Material used asreplacementCompressive Strength byUPV(Mpa)Compressive Strength byRebound hammer(Mpa)Cube CompressiveStrength(Mpa)7 day 28 day 7 day 28 day 7 day 28 dayBrick dust 36 56 34 56 37 55Marble powder 48 68 45 72 50 70Table 6 – 50%replacement of fine aggregate with brick dust and marble powder(7 & 28 days)Material used asreplacementCompressive Strength byUPV(Mpa)Compressive Strength byRebound hammer(Mpa)Cube CompressiveStrength(Mpa)7 day 28 day 7 day 28 day 7 day 28 dayBrick dust 30 42 29 44 30 43Marble powder 35 47 32 50 34 48Conclusions All concretes mixes using brick dust andmarble powder fulfilled the performancecriteria for fresh and hardened SCC. Good hardened properties were achieved forthe concretes with 25% marble powder whichcan be considered as the optimum content forhigh compressive strength. The hardened properties of the SCCs wereimproved at 28 days due to greater hydrationof cement Brick dust and marble powder can beefficiently used to produce good quality selfcompacting concrete with satisfactory slumpand setting times. Under certain conditions, replacement of fineaggregate by brick dust and marble powderappears to increase the strength of selfcompacting concrete. In this study an effort has been made toevaluate the usefulness of brick kiln dust andmarble powder both of which are wastematerial to produce cost effective selfcompacting concrete.Reference1. Okamura,H.andOuchi,M.,(2003).“Self-compacting concrete”, Journal of AdvanceConcrete Technology, Vol. 1, No. 1, April,pp. 5-15.2. Okamura, H. and Ozawa, K., (1995). “Mixdesign for self-compacting concrete”,Concrete Library of JSCE, 25, pp. 107-120.3. IS:456-2000(2000)”Code of practice plainand reinforced concrete” Bureau of IndianStandards,New Delhi.4. IS:516-1959(reaffirmed 1999) “Methodsof tests of concrete”Bureau of IndianStandards,New Delhi5. Neville,A.M,”Properties ofconcrete”,Longman Publishers,pp-3006 . EFNARC:Specification and Guidelines forSelf-Compacting Concrete. Farnham,February 2002.7. IS:383-1970(reaffirmed1997):”Specifications ofcoarse and fine aggregates from naturalsources of concrete “Bureau of IndianStandards,New Delhi.8. Chai,H.W (1998)”Design and testing ofself compacting concrete “PhD ThesisDepartment of Civil and EnvironmentalEngineering ,University College London.9. Gagne, R., Pigeon, M., and Aitcin, P. C.(1989). “Deicer salt scaling resistance ofhigh performance concrete Paul KliegerSymposium on Performance of Concrete,SP-122, ACI.10. Hayakawa, M., Matsuoka, Y., andShindoh, T. (1993) “Development &application of super workable con crete.”RILEM International Workshop onConcretes: Workability and Mixing.11. Uno, Y. (1999). “State-of-the art report onconcrete products made of SCC,”Proceedings of the International Workshopon Self-Compacting Concrete, 262- 291.12. Ramchandran ,V.S and Malhotra(1981)”Superplasticizer in concrete admixtureshandbook”park ridge,N.J.NoyesPublication,pp211-268