Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22...
Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22...
Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22...
Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22...
Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22...
Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22...
Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 22...
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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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  1. 1. Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1190-11961190 | P a g eProductivity Analysis of Reactive Routing Protocol for IEEE802.11e standard using QualNet SimulatorDharam Vir*, Dr. S.K.Agarwal**, Dr. S.A.Imam****Department of Electronics Engineering, YMCA University of Science & Technology, Faridabad, India**Department of Electronics Engineering, YMCA University of Science & Technology, Faridabad, India***Department of Electronics & Comm. Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, IndiaABSTRACTThe continuous improvement of sensorskill and wireless communication is encouragingwireless sensor networking. The IEEE 802.11eMedium Access Control (MAC) is upcomingstandard of IEEE to support Quality of Service(QoS). The IEEE 802.11e MAC enhances thebasic 802.11 MAC to provide quality-of-servicesupport for audio and video streams. The 802.11eMAC defines a new Hybrid CoordinationFunction (HCF), which provides an EnhancedDistributed Channel Access (EDCA) method andan HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA)method. Some recent work can prove that 802.11eHybrid Coordinate Function (HCF) can improvesignificantly the quality of service (QoS) in 802.11networks. The HCF scheduling algorithm is onlyfor Constant Bit Rate (CBR) characteristics.In this paper we investigate the performance of802.11e through computer simulations. We designa scenario and analysis the performance metricsof Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols forIEEE 802.11e standards. Performance metricslike throughput, average end-to-end delay,average jitter, energy consumed in transmit andreceived modes, which is carried out usingQualNet simulator.Keywords - AODV, DSR, Average End-to-enddelay, IEEE 802.11e standard, QualNetI. INTRODUCTIONIn recent years, the progress ofcommunication technology has made wirelessdevices smaller, less expensive and more powerful.The IEEE 802.11 as the standard for wireless localarea networks (WLANs) has given reliability to theconcept that WLANs may soon form a large part ofmulti service communication networks [1]. IEEE802.11 based wireless local area networks havebecome more and more popular due to low cost andeasy deployment, they can only provide best effortservices and do not have quality of service supportsfor multimedia applications. Recently, a newstandard, IEEE 802.11e, has been proposed, whichintroduces a so-called hybrid coordination function(HCF) containing two medium access mechanisms:contention based channel access and controlledchannel access. The primary obstacle to the use ofIEEE 802.11 in multi service wireless networks is aneed of quality-of-service (QoS) functionality that isdemanded by real-time voice and video applications.To overcome this, the IEEE 802.11 Working Groupcreated Task Group E to design medium accesscontrol (MAC) layer QoS enhancements to the802.11 standard [2]. The attraction of the 802.11estandard is the hybrid coordination function (HCF).HCF provides an efficient mechanism for centrallycoordinated medium access and uses the enhanceddistributed coordination function (EDCF) fordistributed coordination of medium access. EDCFprovides service differentiation amongst differenttraffic priorities and is backward compatible withlegacy 802.11 DCF [3].We illustrate that the 802.11e standardprovides a very powerful platform for QoS supportsin WLANs. The IEEE 802.11 standard adopts the802.11e as the medium access protocol and802.11n-based products, which utilize multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) transmissionsystems. The medium access collision avoidance ofIEEE 802.11e, even with IEEE 802.11n at thephysical layer, still utilizes the enhanced distributedcoordination function (EDCF) mechanism. It isknown that collisions cause significant performancedegradation in IEEE 802.11e EDCF-based systems[3][4]. In this paper we focus on the performance ofAODV and DSR reactive routing protocol usingQualNet 5.0 simulator for IEEE 802.11e MAC,PHY and Energy model WLAN standards. The restof the paper is organized as follows. The overviewof IEEE 802.11e PHY/MAC and Energy Models aresummarized in section II. Brief description ofAODV and DSR reactive Routing Protocoldiscussed in section III and in section IVImplementation of related work and simulationresults and conclusion in section V.II. OVERVIEW OF IEEE 802.11E PHY/MACAND ENERGY MODELSIn 1997, IEEE standardized the firstWireless Standard: 802.11. This comprised bothMedium Access Control (MAC) layer and Physicallayer. While the IEEE 802.11e standard and all thelater extensions provide extensive informationregarding different aspects of the communication, inthis section we briefly describe the concepts inMAC layer, Physical layer, Propagation Model and
  2. 2. Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1190-11961191 | P a g eEnergy Model for an extensive behavior of thestandard (MAC and PHY layers) [5].A. IEEE 802.11e Overviews:IEEE 802.11e is an enhanced version of the802.11 MAC in order to support quality of service(QoS). IEEE 802.11e supports quality of service byintroducing priority mechanism. All types of datatraffic are not treated equally as it is done in theoriginal standard, instead, 802.11e supports servicedifferentiation by assigning data traffic withdifferent priorities based on their QoS requirements.IEEE 802.11e introduces a new coordinationfunction, called Hybrid Coordination Function(HCF), to provide QoS support. Subsequent sectionsdescribe HCF together with the detailed descriptionof its service differentiation mechanism [6].MAC layer, as its primary purpose, has thefunctionality of providing reliable data deliverymechanism over the unreliable wireless air interface.It is the layer who manages station access to theshared wireless medium. The original standardutilizes Carrier Sense Medium Access withCollision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as the accessmechanism. Point Coordination Function (PCF):It is another basic coordination functionwhich is defined only in infrastructure mode, wherestations are connected to an access point. Accesspoint is the element in control of access in thenetwork and it uses two periods to enforce itspolicies. There is a Contention Period, in which,DCF method is used. The second period is theContention Free Period, in which AP basicallyallows stations, by sending them a specialauthorization, to send packets. IEEE 802.11estandard addressed the existing limitations in DCFand PCF. It particularly addressed the problem ofQoS provisioning in the network by introducing anew coordination function: Hybrid CoordinationFunction – HCF [6][7].Figure1. Overall view of IEEE 802.11e Modelling.1) Enhanced DCF Channel Access (EDCA):EDCA is an IEEE 802.11e method ofchannel access within the HCF. An EDCA isbasically a QoS enabled DCF. This is done byintroducing the notion of traffic classes, by givingpriority, in channel access, to real-time data,compared to delay-tolerant data [8].HCCA-IEEE 802.11e:The EDCA is a QoS enabled PCF. It alsouses EDCA during the Contention Period. Stationstransmit the information about their queues statusand traffic classes to the AP and, based on thisinformation, AP coordinates access to the mediumbetween the stations.B. IEEE 802.11 PHY Layer:IEEE 802.11 Physical layer is the interfacebetween MAC layer and the air interface. The frameexchange between Physical layer and MAC is underthe control of Physical Layer ConvergenceProcedure (PLCP). Physical Layer is the entity incharge of actual transmission using differentmodulation schemes over the air interface. It alsoinforms the MAC layer about the activity status ofthe medium. Currently, there are four standardsdefining the physical layer: IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b,802.11g and 802.11n. Among these, IEEE 802.11nis the newest which is still under standardization. Itutilizes Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO)technology to achieve significantly higher rates. [8].C. Propagation Models:In this section, we explore both concepts ofLarge-scale Path Loss and Fading. We introducethree models of Large-scale Path Loss whichaccount for the large-scale attenuation of signalbased on distance: Free-Space, Two-Ray andLognormal Shadowing [6].1) Free-Space Model:This model is used to predict the signalstrength when the transmitter and the receiver havea clear, unobstructed line-of sight (LOS) pathbetween them. It predicts that the received powerdecays as a function of Transmitter-Receiverdistance raised to some power typically to thesecond power [6].2) Two-Ray Model:This model, which is a more realisticmodel than the Free-Space model, addresses thecase when we consider a ground reflectedpropagation path between transmitter and receiver,in addition to the direct LOS path. This model isespecially useful for predicting the received powerat large distances from the transmitter and when thetransmitter is installed relatively high above theground [6].3) Log-normal Shadowing Model:The average loss for a given distance isexpressed using a Path Loss Exponent. For takinginto account the fact that surrounding environmentalclutter can be very different at various locationshaving the same Transmitter-Receiver distance,another parameter is incorporated in the calculationof path loss.
  3. 3. Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1190-11961192 | P a g eD. Fading Model:The term Fading is used to describe therapid fluctuations of the amplitudes, phases, ormultipath delays of a signal over a short period oftime or distance. It is caused by interferencebetween multiple versions of the transmitted signalwhich arrive at the receiver at slightly differenttimes.1) Fast Rayleigh fading model:The fast Rayleigh fading model is astatistical model to represent the fast variation ofsignal amplitude at the receiver due to the motion ofthe transmitter/receiver pair.2) Rayleigh fading model:Rayleigh fading model is a statisticalmodel to represent the fast variation of signalamplitude at the receiver. In wireless propagation,Rayleigh fading occurs when there is no line of sightbetween the transmitter and receiver.3) Ricean fading model:This model can be used for scenarios wherethere is line of sight communication and the line ofsight signal is the dominant signal seen at thereceiver [8].III. AODV AND DSR REACTIVEROUTING PROTOCOLThere are two types routing protocols forwireless networks, namely proactive and reactive. Inproactive routing, each node has one or more tablesthat contain the latest information of the routes toany other node in the network. Various table-drivenprotocols differ in the way how the informationpropagates through all nodes in the network whentopology changes. In reactive routing, route table isset on demand and it maintains active routes only. Ifa node wants to send a packet to another node thenreactive protocol searches for the route in an on-demand manner and establishes the connection inorder to transmit and receive the packet. The routediscovery usually occurs by flooding the routerequest packets throughout the network. Examplesof reactive routing protocols are the DynamicSource Routing (DSR), Ad-hoc On demandDistance Vector routing (AODV) [12] [13].A. AODV (Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vectorrouting):AODV is a flat routing protocol whichdoes not need any central administrative system tohandle the routing process. AODV tends to reducethe control traffic messages overhead at the cost ofincreased latency in finding new routes. AODV hasgreat advantage in having less overhead over simpleprotocols. The RREQ and RREP messages whichare responsible for the route discovery do notincrease significantly the overhead from thesecontrol messages. AODV reacts relatively quickly tothe topological changes in the network. It updatesthe hosts that may be affected by the change, usingRERR message. The hello messages are responsiblefor the route maintenance and are limited so thatthey do not create unnecessary overhead in thenetwork. The AODV protocol is a loop free anduses sequence numbers to avoid the infinitycounting problem which are typical to the classicaldistance vector routing protocols.Route Discovery in AODV When a nodewants to send a packet to some destination node anddoes not have a valid route in its routing table forthat destination; it initiates a route discoveryprocess. Source node broadcasts a route request(RREQ) packet to its neighbours, which thenforwards the request to their neighbours and so on[9] [10]. Each node receiving the route request sendsa route back (Forward Path) to the node as shown inthe fig. 21546372Source nodeDestination NodeRoute Request (RREQ)Route Reply (RREP)Route cache : 6-7Figure2. Route discovery in AODVB. DSR (DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING):DSR is a fairly simple algorithm based onthe concept of source routing, in which a sendingnode must provide the sequence of all nodes throughwhich a packet will travel. Each node maintains itsown route cache essentially in a routing table.Source nodes determine routes dynamically andonly when needed. There are no periodic broadcastsfrom routers. Fig.2 illustrates the DSR algorithm’sroute discovery/ route reply cycle. A source nodethat wants to send a packet first checks its routecache. If there is a valid entry for thedestination, the node sends the packet using thatroute; if no valid route is available in the routecache, the source node initiates the route discoveryprocess by sending a special route request (RREQ)packet to all neighboring nodes. The RREQpropagates through the network, collecting theaddresses of all nodes visited, until it reaches thedestination node or an intermediate node with avalid route to the destination node. This node inturn initiates the route reply process by sending aspecial route reply (RREP) packet to the originatingnode announcing the newly discovered route. Thedestination node can accomplish this using inverserouting or by initiating the route discovery processbackwards. The protocol can also easily be
  4. 4. Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1190-11961193 | P a g eimproved to support multiple routes to the samedestination. DSR’s main drawback is the largebandwidth[11].Figure3. Dynamic source routingC. Energy Consumption Model:In our work we have assuming an energysupply of 5V. The value corresponds to a 2,400MHzWave LAN implementation of IEEE 802.11e. Whena node sends and receives a packet, the networkinterfaces of the node, decrements the availableenergy according to the following parameters:characteristics of network, the size of the packetsand the used bandwidth. The following equationsrepresent the energy used (in Joules) when a packetis transmitted or received; packet size is representedin bits:Energy tx = (330*5*Packet size)/2*106Energy rx = (230*5*Pocket size)/2*106Although actual equipment consumeenergy not only when sending and receiving but alsowhile listening, we assume in our model that thelisten operation is energy free, since all theevaluated ad hoc routing protocols will have similarenergy consumption due to the node idle time.Finally, note that when a packet is transmitted, apercentage of the consumed energy represents theRadio Frequency (RF) energy. This energy is usedfor the propagation model in QualNet 5.0 todetermine the energy with which the neighbours’interface nodes will receive the packet, andconsequently determine the successful or wrongpacket reception. In our simulation we maintain thisRF values in 281.8 mW, which corresponds to theRF energy required to model a radio range of 250meters [14].1) Energy Consumption (mJoule):The MICAZ Mote devices are in thefollowing four states: transmitting, receiving, idleand sleep. Energy consumption is the quantity ofenergy consumed by mote during the abovementioned states of the device. The unit of energyconsumption used in the simulations is mJoule.IV. SIMULATIONS AND RESULTA. Designing of Scenario:The aim of these simulations is to analyzethe selected routing protocols (DSR and AODV) fortheir efficiency in terms of energy, throughput aswell as network life time. The basic methodologyconsists of simulating with a basic scenario and thenby varying selected parameters, simulates thegenerated scenarios. The selected parameters aresources, pause time, nodes, area, sending rate andmobility speed etc. The traffic sources used in thesimulations generated constant bit rate (CBR) datatraffic. The TCP sources are not being chosenbecause it adapts to the load of the network. For thesame data traffic and movement scenario, the timeof sending the packet of a node will be different incase of TCP, hence will become difficult to comparethe performance of different protocols. The energymodel taken is as used by. The values usedcorrespond to 2,400 MHZ Wave LANimplementation of IEEE 802.11e. The radiofrequency value is set as 0.2818 W for transmissionrange of 250 m [15].1) Table 1 Simulation Parameters:Channel type Wireless channelRadio-propagationmodelTwo Ray GroundAntenna type Omni AntennaNetwork interface type Phy/ Wireless PhyMAC type IEEE 802.11eTopological area 1500 x 1500 sq. mTx Power 1.65 WRx Power 1.15 WIdle Power 1.0 WInitial energy of a Node 1000.0 JoulesRouting protocols DSR/ AODVNumber of mobile nodes 40Maximum speed 15 m/sRate 4 Packet/ sPause time 5,10,15,20, 25 sec.Simulation time 500 sec.Energy Model MICAZWe have implemented the above table 1parameters and compile the results to the EDCF. Allthe simulations have been done using the QualNet5.0 network simulator designed by ScalableNetworks Inc. For carrying out the simulation wehave taken 40 nodes in a 1500mX1500m area. Therandom distribution model has been followed. Thenodes are fully independent and are operating in adistributed environment [15].
  5. 5. Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1190-11961194 | P a g eFigure4. Shows the outcome of running scenario ofIEEE 802.11e AODV routing protocol CBR.B. Performance metrics:Design and performance analysis of routingprotocols used for mobile ad hoc network (MANET)is currently an active area of research. To judge themerit of a routing protocol, one needs metrics both-qualitative and quantitative- with which to measureits suitability and performance metrics. Specifically,this paper evaluates the performance comparison ofAODV and DSDV routing protocols with IEEE802.11e MAC. The following performance metricsare used to compare the performance of theserouting protocols in the simulation:1) Average Jitter:Figure5. Shows the Average jitter in applicationlayer of IEEE 802.11e AODV routing protocolCBR.Figure6. Shows the Average jitter in applicationlayer of IEEE 802.11e DSR routing protocol CBR.In the above graph the effect of the averagejitter value is higher for DSR routing protocol ascompare to AODV in effect of EDFC. There is aconsistent improvement in the average jitter valuefor any no. of packets sent.2) Average End-To-End Delay:Figure 7 Shows the Average End to End Delay (s) inapplication layer of IEEE 802.11e AODV routingprotocol CBRFigure 8 Shows the Average End to End Delay (s) inapplication layer of IEEE 802.11e DSR routingprotocol CBR.Average End-to-End delay (seconds) is theaverage time it takes a data packet to reach thedestination. This metric is calculated by subtractingtime at which first packet was transmitted by sourcefrom time at which first data packet arrived todestination. This includes all possible delays causedby buffering during route discovery latency, queuingat the interface queue, retransmission delays at theMAC, propagation and transfer times. This metric issignificant in understanding the delay introduced bypath discovery. The above Fig. shows the variationcomparisons of average end to end delay betweenAODV and DSR routing protocols.3) Throughput:Figure. 9 Shows the Throughput (s) in applicationlayer of IEEE 802.11e AODV routing protocolCBR.Figure 10 Shows the Throughput (s) in applicationlayer of IEEE 802.11e AODV routing protocolCBR.
  6. 6. Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1190-11961195 | P a g eThe throughput of the protocols can be defined aspercentage of the packets received by the destinationamong the packets sent by the source. It is theamount of data per time unit that is delivered fromone node to another via a communication link. Thethroughput is measured in bits per second (bit/s orbps).4) Energy Consumed in Transmit Mode:Figure 11 Energy Consumed (in mjoules) inTransmit mode with variation in nodes in Physicallayer taking AODV routing protocol CBR.Figure 12 Energy Consumed (in mjoules) inTransmit mode with variation in nodes in Physicallayer taking DSR routing protocol CBR.5) Energy Consumed in Receive Mode:Figure 13 Energy Consumed (in mjoules) in receivemode with variation in nodes in Physical layertaking AODV routing protocol.Figure 14 Energy Consumed (in mjoules) in receivemode with variation in nodes in Physical layertaking DSR routing protocol.The energy consumption between source todestination in receive mode is higher when thecollision rate increases between nodes. Theefficiency also decreased at high traffic conditionscollision rate.6) Energy Consumed in Ideal Mode:Figure 15 Energy Consumed (in mjoules) in idealmode with variation in nodes in Physical layertaking AODV routing protocol.Figure 16 Energy Consumed (in mjoules) in idealmode with variation in nodes in Physical layertaking DSR routing protocol.The performance of 802.11e EDCF in idealmode of energy consumption which supports the useof both basic and RTS/CTS access mechanisms. Thecollision contention period between nodes is veryless because of the AODV routing protocolconsumes less energy as compare to DSR in idealmode.V. CONCLUSIONIn this paper, we analysis the productivitybased performance metric analysis of IEEE 802.11ewhich is contention-based channel access schemefor QoS support, called the EDCF, of the emerging802.11e MAC. Based on the simulation, we analysisthe productivity of inheritance the 802.11e EDCF toshow that the EDCF can provide differentiatedchannel access among different energy prioritytraffic. We also evaluated the performance metricsuch as average Jitter, average throughput, End toEnd delay, Energy consumed in transmit, receiveand ideal mode is shown above.REFERENCES[1] Mayank Mishra and Anirudha Sahoo. An802.11 based MAC Protocol for ProvidingQoS to Real Time Applications. IEEE 10thInternational Conference on InformationTechnology, 6:615-619,2007[2] Jamal N. AL-Karaki, Ahmed E.Kamal,“Routing techniques in Wireless Sensor
  7. 7. Dharam Vir, Dr. S.K.Agarwal, Dr. S.A.Imam / International Journal of Engineering Researchand Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1190-11961196 | P a g enetworks: A Survey” IEEE WirelessCommunication, December 2004.[3] Lamia Romdhani, Qiang Ni, and ThierryTurletti.Adaptive EDCF: enhanced servicedifferentiation for IEEE 802.11 wirelessad-hoc networks. WirelessCommunications and Networking, 2003.WCNC 2003. 2003 IEEE, 2(1):1373-1378,March 2003.[4] A. Chen,D.Lee,G. Chandrasekaran,and P.Sinha, “HIMAC: High Throughput MACLayer Multicasting in Wireless Networks,”Proc. IEEE Int’l Conf. Mobile Adhoc andSensor System (MASS’06),2006.[5] Bilal Rauf, M Faisal Amjad, KabeerAhmed, Performance Evaluation of IEEE802.11 DCF in comparison with IEEE802.11e EDCA. “Natinal University ofSciences and Technology, Pakistan”[6] Stefan Mangold, Sunghyun Choi, PeterMay, Ole Klein, Guido Hiertz, and LotharStibor, “IEEE 802.11e Wireless LAN forQuality of Service,” in Proc. EuropeanWireless ’02, Florence, Italy, February2002.[7] Heegard, C. and Coffey, J. and Gummadi,S. and Murphy, P. A. and Provencio, R.and Rossin, E. J. and Schrum, S. andShoemake, M. B., High- PerformanceWireless Ethernet, IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 39, no. 11, Nov. 2001.[8] J.Q. Bao and L. Tong, A performancecomparison between ad hoc and centrallycontrolled CDMA wireless LANs, IEEETransactions on Wireless Communications,Vol.1 (Oct 2002) pp. 829-841.[9] Fasee Ullah, Muhammad Amin and Hamidul Ghaffar “ Simualting AODV and DSDVFor Adynamic Wireless Sensor Networks”,IJCSNS International Journal of ComputerScience and Network Security, VOL.10No.7,July 2010.[10] Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Belding-Royer, S. Das, “AdHoc on DemandDistance Vector (AODV) routing,Mobile Ad Hoc Networking WorkingGroup” July 2003, Internet-Draft.[11] D. Johnson, Y. Hu, and D. Maltz. TheDynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR)for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for IPv4.RFC 4728 (Experimental), Feb. 2007.[12] R. Castanneda, J.yan and S. R. das,“Simulation based Performance Evaluationof Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad HocNetworks,” Department Of ComputeScience, University Of Taxas, SanAntonia, U.S.A, 2000.[13] S. Azad, A. Rahman and F. Anwar, “APerformance Comparison of Proactiveand Reactive Routing Protocols of MobileAd-hoc Network (MANET),” Journal ofEngineering and Applied Sciences 2(5),2007, pp 891-896.[14] Marco Zimmerling “An Energy-EfficientRouting Protocol for Linear WirelessSensor Networks”,IEEE Internationalconference,2007,pg no:264-273,April2007.[15] Scalable Network Technologies, QualNetfor Network design and Research,Online(2003) http://www.scalable-networks.com[16] Qualnet, http://www.scalablenetworks.comAUTHORS:DharamVir the M.Tech Degree formMDU Rothak (Haryana) and B.EDegree in Electronics andCommunication Engg.from JamiaMillia Islamia, Central University,New Delhi 2008, 2004 respectively.He started his carrier as R&D Engineer in the fieldof computers and networking, since 1992, he is thepart of YMCA University of Science & Technologyas Head of Section (Electronics & Inst. Control) inthe Department of Electronics Engineering. He ispursuing Ph.D in the field of Power aware routing inMobile Ad hoc Networks.Dr. S.K. Agarwal the M.TechDegree from Delhi TechnicalUniversity.New Delhi and PhDdegree in Electronics Engg. FromJamia Millia Islamia, CentralUniversity, New Delhi in 1998 and2008, respectively,since 1990. He has been part ofYMCA University of Science & TechnologyFaridabad (Haryana), as Dean and Chairman inDepartment of Electronics Engineering.Dr. Sayed Akthar Imam the B.EEngg. degree (Electrical Engg)from Jamia Millia Islamia, M.Tech (Instrumentation & ControlSystem) from AMU, Aligarh andPhD degree in Electronics &Comm. Engg from Jamia Millia Islamia (a CentralUniversity), New Delhi, in 1990, 1998, and 2008,respectively. Since 1990, he has been part of JamiaMillia Islamia University, where he is AssistantProfessor in the Department of Electronics andCommunication Engineering.

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