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  • 1. M.Jyothi kiran, S.Ravi teja / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1162-1167 VEHICLE HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM M.Jyothi kiran, S.Ravi teja Final year students of K.L.University: Research Scholars of K.L.University: D.S.Ramkiran, K. Phani srinivasAbstract This paper deals with developing an through a port provided by the manufacturers to theembedded system for detecting the vehicle vehicles.condition by monitoring the internal parameters A real time evaluation system is beingthat are used in evaluating the vehicle‘s current defined that can be used for rapid conditionhealth condition. Traveler information plays a screening and provide reliable information about thecritical role in supporting safety, security, vehicle conditions. This real time evaluation systemmobility, and in improving the reliability of can be called Vehicle Health Monitoring System.travel. This traveler information can be a This system uses HMI display so that thecontinuous data on performance of the vehicle reports and the alerts can be displayed on it and alsoand the status of its internal components. In this feedback from the user can be taken using its touchproject, an in-vehicle embedded system is being response.developed to generate a vehicle health report The system model being developed is a(VHR) whenever needed by the user. It also acts standalone on-board model which will be a blackas an eco friendly vehicle by monitoring the box for outside world. This model can be extendedemissions from the car which in turn helps in to identify and report the faults in car to theregulating (by taking proper actions to reduce authorized service centre through wirelessthe emissions as per the faults indicated in the communication, a concept of remote diagnostics.VHR) the environmental pollution. It predictsthe future errors so that the driver can have an II. TOOLS REQUIREDuninterrupted journey and can avoid accidents.  LabVIEW-2009 platformThus, it alerts the driver about future errors and  Automotive diagnostic command set toolassists him for a safe drive. The data required for kitgenerating the health report consists of  NI LabVIEW Touch panel moduleparameter values (outputs of in-built sensors) of  2 Port High-Speed & Low-speed CANdifferent systems inside the vehicle. This data can Module: NI9853be obtained using the OBD-II protocol which is  CAN (High speed CAN interface) to OBDfollowed by the vehicles manufactured after (standard J1962 diagnostic connector) cable1996. It uses LabVIEW as platform that has  CompactRIOautomotive diagnostic command set tool kit  NI TPC 2106T Touch panelwhich helps in building up the software requiredto communicate with the vehicle’s ECU throughOBD-II system. III. ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM-Keywords: NI(national instruments), Tpc(touch IIpanel computer),OBD(on board diagnostic On-Board Diagnostics refers to a vehiclessystem), self-diagnostic and reporting capability. OBD systems give the vehicle owner or a repair technician access to state of health information forI. INTRODUCTION various vehicle sub-systems. The total car sales rose to 2.6 million unitsin India alone by the year 2009.With the increase innumber of cars along with other modes of transport A. Use of OBD to Monitor Vehicle Performance: Since 1996, OBD systems have beensuch as public transport system, vehicles for supply incorporated into vehicles to help manufacturerschains and two wheelers on road, the issues like meet emission standards set forth by the Clean Airsafety, fuel consumption, pollution check are of Act in 1990 and the Environmental Protectionutmost importance which depends on vehicle Agency (EPA). The Society of Automotivecondition, road infrastructure and driver behavior. Engineers (SAE) developed a set of standards and This project aims at developing an practices that regulated the development of theseembedded system for detecting the vehicle condition diagnostic systems. The SAE expanded on that setby monitoring the internal parameters that are used to create the OBD-II standards. The EPA and thein evaluating the vehicle‘s current health condition. California Air Resources Board (CARB) adoptedThese parameters are obtained using OBD2 protocol these standards in 1996 and mandated their installation in all light-duty vehicles. 1162 | P a g e
  • 2. M.Jyothi kiran, S.Ravi teja / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1162-1167 The OBD-II system allows for monitoring propagate through the vehicles communication bus, of most electrical systems on the vehicle. The OBD- are in Table1. II standard specifies the type of diagnostic connector and its pinout, the electrical signaling protocols available, and the messaging format. It also provides a candidate list of vehicle parameters to monitor along with how to encode the data for each.Monitored items include speed, rpm, ignition voltage, and coolant temperature. This system also informs an engineer when an individual cylinder has a misfire. The OBD-II standard also provides an Fig 3: Diagnostic connector extensible list of DTCs. As a result of this standardization, a single device can query the on- Table1: Signaling protocols in OBD-II board computer(s) in any vehicle. The SAE recognizes at least four Protocol Signal Type Manufacturer(s) communication patterns described in Error! SAE J1850 Variable Reference source not found.. The SAE J1850 GM VPW Pulse Width VPW standard uses a variable pulse width modulation signal. It operates at 10.4k Baud with SAE J1850 Pulse Width Ford one signal wire and a ground wire. The SAE J1850 PWM Modulation PWM standard uses a pulse width modulation Two Serial signal. This operates at 41.7k Baud by using a Lines: differential transmission scheme. The ISO 9141-2 Half-duplex European, Asia, and ISO 9141-2 standard uses two signals (K and L). One signal (L) Chrysler travels on a full-duplex wire, and the other operates Full-duplex on a half-duplex wire. Most communications with (K) the OBD-II bus occur on the K signal while the L Single or Most manufactures ISO 15765 signal is required for initialization of the bus. The Dual Wire are beginning to (CAN) latest standard is based on the controller-area Serial Lines incorporate CAN network (CAN) standard (ISO 15765). This network can provide up to 500 Kbit/s data rates operating on We are developing for Asian Vehicles like either a differential signal or single-wire Honda which use ISO 9141 that uses the same configuration. OBD-II diagnostic connector J1962. C. Modes of Operation: There are ten modes of operation described in the latest OBD-II standard SAE J1979. Out of which mode1,mode3 are important for this application as they contain the required vehicle current data and the diagnostic trouble codes(DTCs).Mode4 can be used for clearing or resetting DTCs. Each mode gives information on a group of vehicle parameters. There are nearly 50 parameters in mode1. Some of them are shown in table. Each parameter is identified by a code called parameter identification number or simply parameter ID (PID).For example , for engine rpm the code is 01 0C. The first code 01 represents the mode and the second code 0C represents the PID. The ECU sends the parameter value on receiving the corresponding PID.Fig 2: Block diagram of OBD system The min and max values give the dynamic range of the parameter. The data received from the B. OBD-II Diagnostic connector: ECU is the binary data. A formula is used to convert The OBD-II specification provides for a binary value of the parameter to its actual physical standardized hardware interface—the female 16-pin value. This formula used varies for different (2x8) J1962 connector. parameters as shown in the table 2. The SAE recognizes four protocols in the J1850 Table 2: Modes and parameters from ECU standard, which define how electrical signals will 1163 | P a g e
  • 3. M.Jyothi kiran, S.Ravi teja / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1162-1167  Stored Data Transmission (Diagnostic Trouble Codes)  Input/output Control  Remote Activation of Routine A. Structure: Fig 4: Structure of ADCS working The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set is structured into three layers of functionality:  The top layer implements three sets of diagnostic services for the diagnostic protocols KWP2000, UDS (DiagOnCAN), and OBD (On- Board Diagnostics) .  The second layer implements general routines involving opening and closing diagnostic communication connections, connecting and disconnecting to/from an ECU, and executing a diagnostic service on byte level. The latter routine is the one the top layer uses heavily.IV. AUTOMOTIVE DIAGNOSTIC COMMAND SET TOOL KIT:  The third layer implements the transportThe Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports protocols needed for diagnostic communication tothe following services: an ECU. The second layer uses these routines to Diagnostic Management communicate to an ECU. Data Transmission All three top layers are fully implemented in LabVIEW. 1164 | P a g e
  • 4. M.Jyothi kiran, S.Ravi teja / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1162-1167 C. Output on HMI display: The transport protocols then execute CANRead/Write operations through a specialized DLLfor streamlining the CAN data flow, especially inhigher busload situations.V. HMI DISPLAY USING TPC 2106 The LabVIEW Touch Panel Module is anextension of the LabVIEW graphical developmentenvironment, which you can use to quickly create,build, and deploy HMIs. It provides a single,integrated graphical environment for developingHMI and PAC applications. The LabVIEW ProjectExplorer window facilitates the distribution of thesecomplex systems across multiple targets andoperating systems. With the Touch Panel module,the LabVIEW Project includes supports forprogramming touch-screen HMIs as well. Fig 8: Home Page on Touch Panel With the LabVIEW 8.5 Touch PanelModule, simply selects your TPC target, choose atemplate for development, and deploy over Ethernetusing the run button.A. Remote Display Software: A TPC-2106/T includes remote displaysoftware already installed on the TPC when it isshipped. To view the entire screen and interactthrough your PC with the embedded touch panelcomputer, simply install the free host program andconnect to the hardware. From the Windows CEstart menu, select the Remote Display applicationand enter the IP address of the host PC. With theRemote Display function, you can quickly interactwith the embedded touch panel hardware using yourPC keyboard, mouse, and screen. Fig 9: VHR HMI on pressing VHR on Home PageB. HMI for PAC-Based Machine Control VI. WORKING OF THE MODELSystems with NI CompactRIO: The main innovative functionality of this For embedded machine control systems system is the auto diagnostics of the vehicle.with CompactRIO, a TPC-2106/T is ideal as a local Firstly, the communication VI and theoperator interface to provide input and feedback to processing VI are dumped into cRIO to enable it tothe CompactRIO machine control unit. A TPC- work as a standalone system. The cRIO through the2106/T functions as the local HMI for CompactRIO, CAN module acts as an interface between in-vehicleas shown in Fig 5. ECU CAN bus (from which vehicle data is extracted) and the touch panel (where the report is displayed). The CAN module on cRIO is connected to the OBD-II port in car using a CAN cable available in NI. The touch panel is connected to cRIO through the Ethernet. The touch panel is programmed such that as soon as the modules are powered (using a portable 12V supply) the display on the touch panel is the home page shown in Fig 8. Also, at the same time the communication VI in the cRIO starts running and thus starts communicating with the ECU and dynamically extracts the vehicle parameters. 1165 | P a g e
  • 5. M.Jyothi kiran, S.Ravi teja / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1162-1167 To generate the health report user needs topress on the VHR on the home page. Then, the B. Processing VI:dynamically collected vehicle parameters are loaded The VI measures different parameters. Oneinto the processing VI. Using the prognostics and of the major features which make this VI differentdiagnostics for a specified vehicle in the processing from the other algorithms is that it also uses theVI, the condition of significant systems in the probabilities, prognostics and other statistics tovehicle is found and represented as shown in Fig 9. display the present status of vehicular components. The ECU generates some codes to indicate The main VI comprises of several subVIs each forproblems arising in the functioning of several individual parameters. These individual subVIs arecomponents and inbuilt sensors inside the car. These then clubbed together to bring out a single VI whichcodes are called diagnostic trouble codes. On can be manipulated according to the user orpressing DTCs on the home page, the malfunctions manufacturer needs. The VI‘s front panel isof the components if any are reported. If there are displayed on a HMI display for a human to machinemore troubles or malfunctions arising in the car, the interface. For better human response the status isproblem that needs prior attention from the user can displayed in red, yellow, green colors indicatingbe listed in the order of its priority in the priority various status levels. The sub Vis includes:tasks tab provided on the home page. The user onnoticing these can take an appropriate action on a 1. When a problem has occurred in any of theproblem to make it optimized as before. The user components of the car the ECU produces troublethen can reset the diagnostic trouble codes. codes. These are in large numbers and the sub VI Hence, this model can act as a stand alone DTCVI then identifies and decodes the trouble codeembedded system which can be fitted into the car which is generated by the ECU and displays thealong with other electronics during manufacturing same on the HMI when requested.or can be separately attached to the car below 3 feet 2. The next aspect is the throttle. The pedal isfrom the steering. a form of potentiometer circuit which controls theThis model uses NI touch panel which has a throttle position for fuel injection according to theprogramming environment that supports it to act as inlet air. For throttle position manipulation, thean interface for integrating various other user vehicle consists of an inbuilt sensor which has threeapplications like audio/video inside the car. So, reference levels. The ECU produces voltage pulsesother applications can also be accessed using the by this sensor which are received by this sub VIsame touch panel. which indicates the position of the throttle.(if voltage equals to 1 then the throttle is fully closed, ifVII. VI DEVELOPMENT voltage equals to 5 then throttle is fully open, The VI‘s to be developed are classified as generally the voltage varies between these values.Communication VI‘s and Processing VI‘s. 3. The other one is the transmissions. Measured in terms of number of miles, there areA. Communication VI: different types if transmissions namely, automatic The communication VI is used to and manual. The VI has two separate sections forcommunicate with internal ECU CAN bus of the these types. The automatic VI has a uniquecar. This VI generates the required control signals algorithm, calculating the temperature continuously.that manage the communication protocols and According to research it is found that for every 20transfer of data. This VI is developed using the degrees rise in fluid temperature the life timeautomotive diagnostic command set tool kit (measured in miles) reduces to half the initial value.available on the LabVIEW platform. This tool kit The same is for the manual transmissions.provides the nodes or inbuilt VI‘s to be used for 4. Various sensors give the engineestablishing a connection and extracting data. This temperature, ambient temperature and are given toVI dumped on to the cRIO starts communication the ECU, which are then routed to the Sub VI.procedure through the CAN module on powering up These are then compared with their threshold andthe module. principle values and the corresponding results are Initially, for acquiring data a ‗start then displayed on the HMI screen. The car is thendiagnostics‘ command is sent to the CAN bus, rated accordingly.which in turn responds to the request. The present 5. Emissions: It has been found that it isvalues of all the inbuilt sensors are passed through impractical inserting the Carbon dioxide and oxygenCAN bus. Mode number is given as input such that sensors directly into the emission tubes. This isall the sensor values in that mode are obtained as because the sensors are not robust enough tooutput. After obtaining the VHR, to close the withstand high temperatures. So, the emissions areconnection a ‗close diagnostic‘ command can be calculated when the vehicle is in standby mode.issued. Acquisition of values from both inbuilt 6. The battery status, fuel status and othersensors and others must be synchronized and fluids status is directly- routed from the ECU to theprocessed. 1166 | P a g e
  • 6. M.Jyothi kiran, S.Ravi teja / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1162-1167respective sub VI and compared with their principle The programming of the touch paneland threshold values- and status is displayed. module is understood. Its connection with the7. The most important feature, the system through the Ethernet is tested successfully.replacement algorithms takes into consideration the The design of the HMI pages by writing the VI codeoutputs of the entire sub VIs, prioritizes them and is completed. The working of these pages is alsodisplays the status whether any of the parts, fluids, tested successfully.and sensors is to be replaced. A separate VI The processing VI coding is dumped intogoverning all these VIs is developed making the the cRIO which is interfaced with the touch panel onVHR a completely user friendly one. which HMI pages are running. Thus, a stand alone system is built and can be demonstrated using anIX. APPLICATIONS external sensor in the absence of the tool kit.1. Auto insurance: As it provides health of In the days to come, integration of two or morethe vehicle the insurance companies pay according applications with the touch panel will be achieved.to its health and usage. We will also be working upon communication VI‘s 2. Remote monitoring: In this every car has an in if the ADCS tool kit is procured. Later wirelessbuilt system which continuously monitors and sends communication of the vehicle data to a centralinformation to server, when the car health reaches location will be worked upon.alarming rate‘s the service provider warns thecustomer (thus reducing system failure and REFERENCESaccidents). IEEE papers3. Future scope: we can develop voice-controlled [1]. R. Rajamani, A. S. Howell, C. Chen, J. K.wireless technology that connects drivers to various Hedrick, and M. Tomizuka, ―A completehealth-monitoring technologies and services for fault diagnostic system for automatedthings such as Web-based allergen alerts, asthma vehicles operating in a platoon,‖ IEEEmanagement tools and diabetes control. Transactions on Control System Technology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 553–564,X. CONCLUSION July 2001. The project is started with gathering of [2]. M.-A. Massoumnia, G. C. Verghese, andinformation required for generating the health A. S. Willsky, ―Failure detection andreport. This information includes the dependence of identification,‖ IEEE Transactions onvehicles performance on various parameters of car Automatic Control, vol. AC-34, no. 3, pp.subsystems. Also different methods for health 316–321, Mar. 1989.monitoring, which differ by the way of extraction of [3]. R. J. Patton and J. Chen, ―Robust faultparameter values, are observed regarding their detection of jet engine sensor systemsfeasibility and economic factors and is finally using Eigen structure assignment,‖ AIAAdecided upon using ADCS of LabVIEW platform. Journal of Guidance, Control, andIn the next stage, the building of the software i.e. Dynamics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1491–1497,Vis is started. As currently the automotive Nov-Dec 1992.diagnostic tool kit is not available to write the [4]. W. H. Chung, Fault Detection andcommunication VI‘s, processing VI coding is Identification with Application to Advancedstarted. The data collection procedures required for Vehicle Control Systems. California PATHthis VI are completed. Several IEEE papers are Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-96-25,referred regarding the statistical and probabilistic 1996.methods for grading the health of the vehicle. The [5]. R. Prakash, ―Properties of a low-frequencyalgorithm designs for the processing VI as well as approximation balancing method of modelits coding are completed. The VI code is also tested reduction,‖ IEEE Transactions onfor its working. Automatic Control, vol. AC-39, no. 5, pp. 1135–1141, May 1994. 1167 | P a g e