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IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

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  • 1. K.Kishore Kumar, Dr.A.Srinath, A.Srikanth / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1173-1177 Design Analysis of parallel robot for Surgical applications K.Kishore Kumar1 Dr.A.Srinath2 A.Srikanth3 1, Assistant Professor,ResearchScholar,Dept.ofMechanicalEngg,KLUniversity 2 Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L University 3 (IV/IV B.tech student), Department of Mechanical Engineering, K L UniversityAbstractLaparoscopic surgery also referred to as operating room. In addition, by using theminimally invasive surgery(MIS) describes the capabilities of the robot, the surgeon canperformance of surgical procedures with the complement his own skills with the accuracy,assistance of a video camera and several thin motion steadiness, and repeatability of the robot.instruments. During the surgical procedure, The experimental comparison, presented in journalsmall incisions of up to half an inch are made and by Kavoussi, et al., 1996,[12] compared theplastic tubes called ports are placed through performance of a human assistant and a roboticthese incisions. The camera and the instruments assistant in manipulating a laparoscope. The resultsare then introduced through the ports which of this comparison emphasized the superiority of theallow access to the inside of the patient The robot in terms of motion steadiness. Another workcamera transmits an image of the organs inside by Kazanzides, et al., 1995,[13] presentedthe abdomen onto a television monitor. The experimental results comparing the cross sections ofsurgeon is not able to see directly into the patient a manually broached implant cavities and crosswithout the traditional large incision. The video sections of robot milled cavities for hip replacementcamera becomes a surgeon’s eyes in laparoscopy surgery. The comparison resulted in clearsurgery, since the surgeon uses the image from preeminence of the robot in performing accuratethe video camera positioned inside the patient’s milling of the implant cavities. Noticing thesebody to perform the procedure. In the common features of the robot, several researchers investedmode of operation in laparoscopic surgery, the efforts in assimilating the robot in the surgical arenasurgeon holds in his right hand the laparoscopeand in his left hand the surgical tool. In some 2)Approaches to robot assisted surgery.cases, the surgeon works with a human assistant 1)Active execution approach,who holds the laparoscopic camera in a desired 2) semi-active approachorientation. This arrangement is far from being 3) passive approach.satisfactory because of the fact that one of thesurgeon’s hands is occupied in manipulating the 2.1)Active execution approach:laparoscope. In addition, the requirement for In the active execution approach, the robot activelysteadily holding the laparoscope camera for long performs surgical procedures such as bone cuttingtime is physically demanding, thus, consuming and milling as in the works presented byunnecessary effort from the surgeon. Kazanzides, et al., 1995;.[13] In the first example, aIncorporating a robotic assistant for steadily serial robot performed milling of the femur bone toholding the laparoscope camera reduces the suite the implant in a knee surgery, and in theworkload of the surgeons, and in many second one, a Stewart platform robot is used for hipprocedures eliminates the necessity for a second surgery.one.The project aim to design a parallelrobot/serial robot for steady holding of camera 2.2)semi-active execution approach: In the semi-active execution approach, theKeywords: robot is used as an aiding tool during surgery forparallelrobot ,laproscopicsurgery tasks such as precise guidance of the surgical cuts without actually performing them. In this mode of1. Introduction to Robots for operation, the robot holds the surgical tool while theMedical Applications surgeon moves the tool. The task of the robot is to Robotic–assisted surgery is a new trend in prevent the surgeon from moving the tool out of themedicine, which aims to help the surgeon by taking desired regions. Examples for this semi-activeadvantage of robots’ high accuracy and approach were presented in journel by Harris, et al.,accessibility[1]. Introducing a robotic assistant as an 1997[8] in total kn ee replacement surgeryintegral part of the surgical tool array provides thesurgeon with several advantages. These advantages 2.3)passive approach:include off-loading of the routine tasks and In the third approach, the passive approach,reduction of the number of human assistants in the the robot is merely a tool moved directly by the 1173 | P a g e
  • 2. K.Kishore Kumar, Dr.A.Srinath, A.Srikanth / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.surgeon in remote manipulation mode as in [Grace, architecture, the compact and lightweight parallelet al., 1993; Jensen, et al., 1994] [10]that used a architectures simplify the relocation of the robot inparallel six degrees of freedom robot in the field of the operating room, save necessary space, and allowophthalmic surgery easy sterilization by covering the robot with a closed .Most of the works listed above use serial drape. The relatively small work volume of therobots. Some use special purpose serial robots like parallel robots, if correctly designed, can introducein [Taylor, et al., 1995][9]. These robots suffer from an important safety feature. In addition, parallelall the disadvantages of the serial architectures; thus, robots behave safely near singularity. When thethese designs result in large and heavy robots. robot traces a path towards a singular configuration, the required forces from the actuators reach high3)The fundamental requirements of a medical values. Consequently, monitoring the electricalrobot current of the actuator motors gives a reliable The following discussion is limited to warning against approaching singularformulating the fundamental requirements from the configurations. In serial robots, singularrobotic architecture only..In order to insure the configurations are associated with very high valuessuccess of a medical robot, four fundamental of joint velocities and this introduces a hazardousrequirements must be fulfilled. The first and most element.crucial requirement is safety. The following seven The parallel robots provide accuracy with lowercriteria constitute the safety requirement.[1] price when compared to similar serial robots with the same accuracy level. Some accuracy levels may1) Effective control: The robot must allow, in all not be achieved with serial robots. These high levelsconfigurations, effective control of the tool with of accuracy are important for eye surgery Based onboth speed and force control schemes implemented the above arguments, we may conclude that the2) Limited Workspace: The robot must have limited parallel architecture is better than the serial one forworkspace in order to prevent hazardous collisions medical applications that require a suitablebetween its moving parts and the medical staff or workspace for reasonable robot design.the patient.3) Limited Forces or Force feedback: In applications 5).Designing of Double Circular doublewhere the robot is active in performing surgical triangle parallel robot using 3d softwaresprocedures that include tactile tasks, the force This structure is composed of two 3 DOFapplied by the tool must be limited. planar mechanisms. These planar mechanisms are4) Immunity against magnetic interference of other different from regular mechanism, Since they use asurgical tools. circular-triangular combination rather than5) Full control option: In applications where the triangular- triangular one, thus providing muchrobot performs automated tasks, the control program higher orientation capability (theoreticallymust allow the surgeon, in any stage in the task, to unlimited)[7]interrupt the automatic execution process and takeover the control to his hands. Various parts:6) Fail safe features: The most reliable systems will Triangleinevitably fail in some stage of their service. Based A moving triangle which is connected toon this premise the robot must support a fail-safe the circle by three passive sliders as shown in 3dmode. This includes keeping the position of the tool figure.when the power supply is lost, electrical limiting ofthe end effector’s speed and force even when thecontrol program fails.7) Safe behavior near singular configurations: Thepath planning of the robot should avoid passing nearsingular configurations. However, in the caseswhere the robot acts as a slave, the surgeon mightmanipulate it into singular configurations.Therefore, the architecture of the robot must providesignals for the surgeon that warn him fromapproaching singularity4) Advantages of parallel robots in medical Circle:applications The robot has two similar planar mechanisms each From the two robot architectures, i.e., the one consists of a stationary circle. These are theserial and parallel ones, the one most compliant with circles where both the triangles were supposed tothe fundamental requirements is the parallel movearchitecture. In contrast with the bulky serial 1174 | P a g e
  • 3. K.Kishore Kumar, Dr.A.Srinath, A.Srikanth / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1173-1177 Assembeled parallel robot using catia softwareUniversal coupling (U – joint):Each triangle’s center contains a U- joint and isconnected to the output link at one triangle’s centerthrough a prismatic joint and at the other through ahelical joint (nut and a lead screwfriction After theassembly of both circle and triangle this U- Jointwas assembled at the centre of both the triangleswhich leads to another two degrees of freedom atevery link i.e. totally four degrees of freedom. Assembled parallel robot using pro/e softwareLead screw:Two sets of this structure are used to construct a six-DOF robot. Each structure contributes three-DOF,namely, moves the triangle in a plane and rotates thetriangle about an axis normal to this plane. With twosuch sets, a line connecting the triangle’s centers isactuated in four-DOF. The output link is locatedalong this line and the additional two-DOFs areobtained by controlling the rotational motion of themoveable triangles. .3D Meshing Using Altair Hyper Works: 1175 | P a g e
  • 4. K.Kishore Kumar, Dr.A.Srinath, A.Srikanth / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp. 7. Conclusion 5.Analysis using Solid Works For Steel: From the complex analysis process it is CONTOUR PLOT – Von Misses observed that the maximum stress in the mechanism Stres is far less than its yield strength. And displacement is very small to consider .hence structure can with stand the load that is laproscopic camera / applied force.future scope of this project is to find work volume of the parallel robot and to design a flexible parallel robot for laproscopic surgery. REFERENCES: 1. Analysis and Synthesis of Parallel Robots for Medical Applications thesis -Nabil Simaan 2 A.C.Rao , A.Srinath -Planar linkages: structural influence on mechanical advantage and function generation -- Mechanism and Machine Theory 42 (2007) 472–481 3. A. Srinath , A.C. Rao - Kinematic chains for robot hands: Grasp and rigidity Mechanism and Machine Theory 42 (2007) 691–697 4. Ben-Horin, R., and Shoham, M., “Construction of a Six Degrees-of- Freedom Parallel Manipulator with Three Planarly Actuated Links.” Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference and Computers in CONTOUR PLOT – DISPLACEMENT OF Engineering Conference, August 18- THE REQUIRED PART 22,1996.– 1129. 5. Ben-Horin, R., Criteria for Analysis of Parallel Robots, Ph.D. dissertation, The 1176 | P a g e
  • 5. K.Kishore Kumar, Dr.A.Srinath, A.Srikanth / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1173-1177 Technion, Israel, 1997. Brandt, G., 9. Taylor, R. ., “A Telerobotic Assistant for Radermacher, K., Lavallee, S., Staudte, H.- LaparoscopicSurgery.” IEEE Engineering6. W., Rau, G., “ A Compact Robot for Image in Medicine and Biology Guided Orthopedic Surgery: Concept and 10. Grace, K. W., Colgate, j. H., “A Six Degree Preliminary Results.” Lecture notes in of Freedom Micromanipulator for Computer Science 1205, CVRMed- Ophthalmic Surgery.” IEEE International MRCAS’97, Troccaz, J., Grimson, R., and Conference onRobotics and Automation, Mosges R.eds., 1997, Springer, pp. 767- 1993, pp. 630-635. 776. 11. [Behi, 1988] Behi, F., “Kinematic Analysis7. Brodsky, V., Glozman, D., Shoham, M. for a Six-Degrees-of-Freedom 3-PRPS “Double Circular-Triangular Six-Degrees- Parallel echanism,” IEEE Journal of of-Freedom Parallel Robot.” Advances In Robotics and Automation, Vol. 4, No. 5, Robot Kinematics: Analysis and Control, pp. 561-565 Lenarčič, J. and Husty, M. L., eds., , Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, pp. 12 .Kavoussi, , “Comparison of Robotic 155-164. Versus Human Laparoscopic Camera8. Harris, S. B. L., “ExperiencesWith Robotic Control.” 2nd Annual International Systems for Knee Surgery.” Lecture Symposium on Medical Robotics and notesin Computer Science 1205, CVRMed- Computer-Assisted Surgery (MRCAS’95), MRCAS’97,Troccaz, J., Grimson, R., and pp. 284-287 Mosges R., eds., 1997,Springer, pp. 757- 13. Kazanzides,. “An Integrated System for 766.. CementlessHip Replacement.” IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, May/June 1995, Vol. 14, pp.307-312. 1177 | P a g e