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  1. 1. K.Venkata Ramana, U.Phaneendra Kumar Chaturvedula / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.965-968 Wireless Power Meter Using Data Acquisition K.Venkata Ramana #1 U.Phaneendra Kumar Chaturvedula*2 # M.Tech, Embedded Systems, Nova College of engineering and technology. * M.Tech, Embedded Systems, Nova College of engineering and technology. Abstract: Our aim of the project is to provide a technology or GSM technology. Among these two wireless meter reading device for implementing communications, the one used in our project is wired the data acquisition or for observing the power communication which suits best for long distance theft occurring in the present power distribution communication. system. The project also can be used as the monitoring section of the power parameters in II SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE case of fault occurrences in parameters like The block diagram consists of Load, current voltage, current and frequency. The transmitter transformer, voltage transformer, 89C52 section contains a VT and CT for measuring load microcontroller, ADC 0809, and a differential relay. voltage, current and frequency. The parameters The household load to be supplied is connected in are converted into digital data using ADC 0809 series to the AC supply mains through a switch which and then forwarded to the micro controller. The is operated by the action of a relay. Current micro controller transmits the data using 433MHz transformer is used to measure the current required zigbee transmitter and the data is received using for the user and the voltage transformer is used to 433MHz receiver and then provided to amplifier measure the voltage of operation for the user. The for current amplification and the provided to measured values are given to the ADC to convert the micro controller for displaying and comparison of analog values to the digital values. These values are values for permissible limits. stored in microcontroller registers and the information is transmitted to the pc when ever there is Keywords: Data Acquisition, 433mhz, Zigbee a request for the data from the remote controlling Transmitter, micro controller, MAX23C station. Oscillator is provided for the ADC and microcontroller for the clock signal and the reference I INTRODUCTION voltage is given for the each of the IC used. With the electric industry undergoingchange, increased attention is being focused on powersupply reliability and power quality. Power providersand users alike are concerned about reliable power,whether the focus is on interruptions and disturbancesor extended outages. One of the most critical elementsin ensuring reliability is monitoring power systemperformance. Monitoring can provide informationabout power flow and demand and help identify thecause of power system disturbances. It can even helpidentify problem conditions on a power system beforethey cause interruptions or disturbances. The implementation of this project is tomonitor the power consumed by a model organizationsuch a household consumers from a centrally locatedpoint. Monitoring the power means calculating thepower consumed exactly by the user at a given time.The power consumed by the user is measured andcommunicated to the controlling substation wheneverneeded by the person at the substation. Thecommunication can be of two types1. Wired communication like using the existingtransmission lines and sending the data by modulatingwith high frequency carrier signal or using the existingtelephone lines.2. Wireless communication based on the available Fig 1:Transmitter block diagramtechnologies like IR communication, Bluetooth 965 | P a g e
  2. 2. K.Venkata Ramana, U.Phaneendra Kumar Chaturvedula / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.965-968This supplier side is the basic for the operation of the Application Programmable (IAP), allowing the Flashproject; the entire consumer side is controlled in program memory to be reconfigured even while theaccordance with the program written on this supplier application is running.side. The supplier side (substation) is locatedremotely at some distance away from the user and thesignal is sent to the consumer side for data or tocontrol the supply of power to the user. The requestfor information and the power data is received fromthe user side via RS232. Microcontroller is interfacedto the personal computer serial port throughMAX23C to drive between RS232 and TTL levels. Fig 3 AT89C52 MICRO CONTROLLER B. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION Power-On reset code execution Following reset, the AT89C52 will either enter the Soft ICE mode (if previously enabled via ISP command) or attempt to auto baud to the ISP boot loader. If this auto baud is not successful within about 400 ms, the device will begin execution of theFig 2 :Receiver block diagram user code.A. Micro Controller (AT89C52) C. IN-SYSTEM PROGRAMMING (ISP) The AT89C52 is 80C51 microcontrollers In-System Programming is performedwith 128kB Flash and 1024 bytes of data RAM.A key without removing the microcontroller from thefeature of the AT89C52 is its X2 mode option. The system. The In-System Programming facility consistsdesign engineer can choose to run the application of a series of internal hardware resources coupledwith the conventional 80C51 clock rate (12 clocks per with internal firmware to facilitate remotemachine cycle) or select the X2 mode (6 clocks per programming of the AT89C52 through the serial port.machine cycle) to achieve twice the throughput at the This firmware is provided by Atmel and embeddedsame clock frequency. Another way to benefit from within each AT89C52 device. The Atmel In-Systemthis feature is to keep the same performance by Programming facility has made in-circuitreducing the clock frequency by half, thus programming in an embedded application possibledramatically reducing the EMI. with a minimum of additional expense in components The Flash program memory supports both and circuit board area. The ISP function uses fiveparallel programming and in serial In-System pins (VDD, VSS, TxD, RxD, and RST). Only a smallProgramming (ISP). Parallel programming mode connector needs to be available to interface youroffers gang-programming at high speed, reducing application to an external circuit in order to use thisprogramming costs and time to market. ISP allows a feature.device to be reprogrammed in the end product under Input/output (I/O) ports 32 of the pins aresoftware control. The capability to field/update the arranged as four 8-bit I/O ports P0–P3. Twenty-fourapplication firmware makes a wide range of of these pins are dual purpose with each capable ofapplications possible. The AT89C52 is also In- operating as a control line or part of the data/address 966 | P a g e
  3. 3. K.Venkata Ramana, U.Phaneendra Kumar Chaturvedula / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.965-968bus in addition to the I/O functions. Details are as T1 VCC 1 5 1 2 1 3follows: 6 1N4001 VIN VOUT GND Port 0: This is a dual-purpose port AC230V 4 8 1 2 + C1 + C2 2200uF/25V 7805 470uF/16Voccupying pins 32 to 39 of the device. The port is an TRANSFORMER 1N4001 2open-drain bidirectional I/O port with Schmitt triggerinputs. Pins that have 1s written to them float and can 103 SIPbe used as high-impedance inputs. The port may beused with external memory to provide a multiplexed VCC+5v 1 VCC 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9address and data bus. In this application internal pull- 8.2Kups are used when emitting 1s. The port also outputs 1 2 1 2 P1.0 VCC 40 P1.1the code bytes during EPROM programming. illegal connection switch 3 4 P1.2 P1.3 P0.1/AD1 P0.0/AD0 39 38 14A 13A VCC 5 37 12A 8.2KExternal pull-ups are necessary during program 6 7 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P0.2/AD2 P0.3/AD3 P0.4/AD4 36 35 11A 10Averification. 10/16 + 8 P1.7 P0.5/AD5 34 33 9A 8A LCD 9 P0.6/AD6 32 7A ANTENNA RST P0.7/AD7 Port 1: This is a dedicated I/O port 433MHz Rxd 10 11 P3.0/RXD P3.1/TXD 31 EA/VPP 30 6A 5A VCC 12 4A 1 dataoccupying pins 1 to 8 of the device. The pins are Gnd P3.2/INT0 ALE/PROG 29 Vcc Ant 8.2K 13 3A 14 P3.3/INT1 PSEN 2A 15 P3.4/T0 28 1Aconnected via internal pull-ups and Schmitt trigger 16 P3.5/T1 P2.7/A15 27 1 2 3 4 17 P3.6/WR P2.6/A14 26 P3.7/RD P2.5/A13 25input. Pins that have 1s written to them are pulled 1 2 EN 3 P2.4/A12 24 P2.3/A11 23high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as XTAL1 XTAL2 4 P2.2/A10 22 5 6 20 P2.1/A9 21 VCC GND P2.0/A8 12 Vinputs; as inputs, pins that are externally pulled low 10 18 19 9 8 AT89C51/FP 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2will source current via the internal pull-ups. The port 13 1 103 SIP + 12 11 Buzalso receives the low-order address byte during 74hc125 33pf 33pf -program memory verification. Pins P1.0 and P1.1 11.0592 Q?could also function as external inputs for the third D? 4007 BC547timer/counter i.e.:(P1.0) T2 Timer/counter 2 external count Fig 4 Transmitter Schematic diagram VCCinput/clockout 1 T1 5 1 2 1 3 VIN VOUT(P1.1) T2EX Timer/counter 2 6 1N4001 GN D AC230V + C1 + C2reload/capture/direction control 4007 4 8 1 2 2200uF/25V 7805 470uF/16V TRANSFORMER 1N4001 2 Port 2: This is a dual-purpose port 1 5 103 SIP 4007 103 VCCoccupying pins 21 to 28 of the device. The 6 10/60 +specification is similar to that of port 1. The port may 4 8 4007 VCC+5v 1 CURRENT TRANSFORMERbe used to provide the high-order byte of the address 14A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LCD 13A 4007 U? 104pf U? 12A 11 12bus for external program memory or external data 9 11A 26 17 1 40 10A R EF + OE VC C IN0 D0 P1.0 VCCmemory that uses 16-bit addresses. When accessing 4007 27 IN1 D1 14 2 P1.1 9A 2 1 5 28 15 3 39 8A LCD 103 1 IN2 D2 8 4 P1.2 P0.1/AD1 38 7A IN3 D3 P1.3 P0.0/AD0external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses, the 6 + 2 18 5 37 6A X 10/60 3 IN4 D4 19 6 P1.4 P0.2/AD2 36 5A 4 8 4 IN5 D5 20 7 P1.5 P0.3/AD3 35 4Aport emits the contents of the P2 register. Some port 2 5 IN6 D6 21 8 P1.6 P0.4/AD4 34 3A 16 VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER IN7 D7 P1.7 P0.5/AD5 33 2A 7 9 P0.6/AD6 32 1Apins receive the high-order address bits during EOC 10 11 RST P3.0/RXD 31 P0.7/AD7 10 22 12 P3.1/TXD EA/VPP 30EPROM programming. CLK ALE START 6 25 13 14 P3.2/INT0 ALE/PROG 29 P3.3/INT1 PSEN A0 P3.4/T0 Port 3: This is a dual-purpose port VCC A1 A2 24 23 15 16 P3.5/T1 28 P2.7/A15 27 P3.6/WR P2.6/A14 26 17occupying pins 10 to 17 of the device. The 16 13 REF- GND P3.7/RD P2.5/A13 25 P2.4/A12 24 P2.3/A11 23 R?specification is similar to that of port 1. These pins, in XT AL1 XT AL2 10K P2.2/A10 22 U? 20 P2.1/A9 21 ADC0809 GND P2.0/A8addition to the I/O role, serve the special features of VCC 8 4 R? 7 18 19 AT89C52/FP 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2the 80C51 family B. 4.7K 6 LM555 3 C? + 1RN? 103 SIP 10/16 2 C? C? C? 33pf Y? 33pf 104p 5 11.0592III SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 1 R? 8.2K C? 104p 433MHz Txd ANTENNA VCC 4 D at a Gnd Ant Vc c 1 1 2 3 Fig 5 Receiver Schematic diagram The above figure shows the circuit diagram for the consumer side. A relay operated switch is connected in series with the load. The switch is used to switch on and off the power. By the relay is initially in on state and whenever the voltage across its terminals changes the relay senses the voltage and trips which in turns closes the switch. The relay is connected to the port of the microcontroller through a transistor 967 | P a g e
  4. 4. K.Venkata Ramana, U.Phaneendra Kumar Chaturvedula / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.965-968and zener diode to drive the relay. The current IV KIT DIAGRAMtransformer primary is connected to the load in seriesto the mains and the secondary is connected acrossthe variable resistance to change the measured valueto the close actual value. The potential transformerprimary is connected in parallel to the load tomeasure the applied voltage and the secondary isconnected to the variable resistance to adjust themeasured value to the close accurate value. Theoutputs of this are given to the ADC analog inputpins. A 555 timer is connected in astablemultivibrator mode and is given as clock signal to theADC. The digital outputs are given as inputs to themicrocontroller port. The control pins of the ADC are given fromthe microcontroller port to select the input to bereceived. The voltage and current measured arereceived in accordance to the inputs given to thestatus pins A, B, C by the controller. The ADC startsthe conversion at the end of the pulse Start and sendsdata at the end of the pulse EOC these are alsoconnected to the port of the microcontroller. Themicrocontroller is provided with a quartz crystal toprovide the clock signal, the clock frequency ischanged by the capacitors connected to the crystal theoperating frequency in this circuit is 11.0592MHz. A series combination of the resistor andcapacitor is taken and the capacitor voltage is givenas the reset logic to the 9th pin of the microcontroller.The 10th pin of the microcontroller is the RXD pin isconnected to the receiver data pin of RS232. The datafrom the RXD is stored internally for further V CONCLUSIONprocessing. The 11th pin of the microcontroller is the The ability to remotely monitorTXD pin is connected to the RS232 which transmits and/or control power at the rack level can provide athe data from the microcontroller. The huge return on investment by providing savings inmicrocontroller baud rate is set in accordance to the both man hours and downtime. Remote monitoringfrequency of the 555 timer to ensure consistency of capabilities eliminate the need for manual powerdata. Thus data is transmitted from the audits as well as provide immediate alerts to potentialmicrocontroller at a preset frequency and the request problems. Remote control allows for quick responsefor data is received by the microcontroller connected and recovery of stalled hardware either down the hallto the port and the further processing is done as per or across the country. This ability can save not onlythe code written to calculate the power by taking the travel costs but minimize costly downtime.correction factors in to consideration. The computer is programmed so as to send REFERENCESrequests for data and receive data via the serial port. [1] Nordic VLSI.Data sheets for nRF905The work at TTL voltage levels and the computer Multiband Transceiver.2005works at RS232C voltage levels. So to bridge this [2]voltage variation MAX 232C is used which is driver http://batescomponents.com/catalog/parts/78cum receiver. LE54-2 4.html The driver is connected to the IR transmitter [3] Popa, M.Popa, A.S., Cretu, V., Micea, M.,and the receiver is connected to the IR receiver. The “Monitoring Serial Communications indata from data pin of IR receiver is given to the Microcontroller Based Embedded Systemscomputer and displayed on the screen. IR transmitter Computer Engineering and Systems”, Theis connected to the computer and the program is 2006 International Conference on,Nov.written to send the data via the serial port to the IR 2006 Page(s):56 - 61Computationaltransmitter to send data at a given baud rate. The Intelligence in Scheduling (SCIS 07), IEEEoscillator is connected to the transmitter to match the Press, Dec. 2007, pp. 57-64,transmission with the baud rate. The oscillator used is doi:10.1109/SCIS.2007.357670.555 timer using astable multivibrator. 968 | P a g e