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  1. 1. Yashpal Rohilla, Preeti Gulia / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.912-915Resource Allocation in cellular Network : A cross layer approach Yashpal Rohilla*, Preeti Gulia** Department of computer science & application M.D. university, Rohtak-124001, Haryana, IndiaABSTRACT As the cellular and PC’S world collide figurewith Wireless LANs and Internet-based packetdata, new networking approaches will supportthe integration of voice compositeinfrastructure of cellular base stations andEthernet-based wireless access points. A crosslayer design is a way of getting the betterperformance in the layering structure. In thispaper we proposed introduced a new cross layerdesign framework for both downlink anduplink state in which the resources are fastallocated in the network. Fig.1.1 cellular networkKeywords - Cross layer,cellular n/w, OFDM, In this communication the user uses theirMS, VBR, CBR. handset or mobile phone for resources(multimedia messages) sharing from the service provider. The 1. INTRODUCTION MS(mobile station) connected to BTS(base An internet is a set of interconnected transriciver) BTS are connected throughnetworks. Each network share the resources from MSC(mobile switching center) and so on etc. Allone node to another node. In a small are connected through a router link. In a networkcommunication network or a large network the data resources are fastly allocated to MS when there isis to be shared. These data/resources are of no congestion. But in every communicationtext,image,voice,video, and combination of these system there is some congestion occur due to rain,resources iin different types. These are bundeld in strom or unwanted messages in the path. Most ofall a single approch called multimedia the researchers provide the resource allocationdata/resources. Resources can be used as input for algorithm and mechanism based on channel etc,other system. These resources are usefull for users like:-in a network. Resources are shared on a radiowaves,opticaldevice,OFDM,CDMA,WCDMAcommunication network. The communication may ,Wimax etc but mainly the focus is on allocation ofbe take place with wired or wireless network but resources with minimum delay and maxboth are different approaches. In a wireless network throughput. Due to need or demand of internet userdata is sent in form of packet and these packets are for resources like fast internet access, video-voiceindependent in network. They can use any path in a calling etc in the communication, the resources arenework but wired network have a fixed path. when allocated mainly two basic rate(data transfer limitwe talk about wireless network then there are some like: peak, average or max) firstly constant bit ratenetwork structures present such as:- ad- like video, voice etc, second is variable bit ratehoc,mesh,cellular network. An ad-hoc network can like: sms,email,filetransfer etc. Even in thebe used in many applications by using sensor node dynamic multiuser, resources allocation is the basiclike:- waterstorm, disaster, earth-quake, weather fundamental of OFDM and cross layer designinformation, etc. There are many applications approch. OFDM is a multicarrier transmission inwhere ad-hoc networks are used to gather the wireless communication for supporting multimediainformation or resources from one to another end. and broadband services[1]. In any MS, the signal orIn mesh network, nodes are connected to each co-channel is necceary for connecting to theother in wired or wireless communication network. network. Due to the presence of multipleIf any node fails then there is no impact on another propagation paths as well as the motion of mobilenode. Likewise cellular network is used for users and surroundings, a wireless channel variescomunication between nodes. The only diffrence is substantially in time, frequency, and space. Somethat the structure is different for each network in parameters are used in wireless network (i.e.networks. A cellular network look like as shown in modulation, coding, and transmit power) to change the channel states. The water-filling principle gives a theoretical explanation of this idea. It states that 912 | P a g e
  2. 2. Yashpal Rohilla, Preeti Gulia / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.912-915under a certain power constraint, the overall channel fading in network. According to Mohamedinformation rate of a random channel is maximized[7],there are two categories of services inby transmitting more power where the attenuation wireless cellular network. In first category variableand noise are smaller. In other words, a higher bit rate(VBR) and constant bit rate(CBR) aretransmission rate should be used when the channel specified and in the another catgory streamingis under good condition. Cross-layer design call(video,voice,broadcast(T.V)) is given that isbecome a popular designing method for the IP- used in current generation based on QoS andbased next generation wireless systems such as demand of user. According to Khaled[1]OFDM has3G/4G[2]. A number of cross-layer methods are already been adopted in Hiper-LAN, 802.11a,emerging to enhance the performance of the 802.11g, and 802.16 ,and is now considered one ofapplications and achieve better Quality of Service the main air interfaces under consideration for(QoS) support. In this paper,the proposed work fourth-generation (4G) wireless systems.specify the allocation of resources in cellular According to Sonia[2], A Cross Layernetwork with the help of cross layer concept. Here, Coordination Based Architecture (CLCBA) is usedwe discuss how a cross layer is used in allocation to provide a solution that solves simultaneouslyof resources in multicarrer channel, resource multiple problems which directly affect theallocation cycle and the resources are to be performance of a 3G/4G terminal. the proposedallocated to the user in communication area under cross layer optimizer is based on the system utilityair interface. optimization. The benefit of the cross layer interaction are QoS, Mobility, Security, Power2. RELATED WORK Saving. The goal of the CLCBA is the coordination In the world of the communication between many sub-optimizers. These sub-optimizertechnology, there are lots of changes because of the is controlled by a central coordinator(handler) thatinternet. and their fast services in less cost. Even in choose the final optimization strategies. Zhang[8]the telecommunication sector also, there is a huge specified packet scheduling or fair queueing (FQ)demand of services at less cost and more user schemes have been proposed to provide fairconnectivity with each other. But all user in the services to users in wired networks [8-10].network are based on the resources i.e the main According to Parekh[9]Among them, the most wellpart of the system, because the communication known ones include WFQ (weighed fair queueing,makes the maximum use of resources betweeen the also known as PGPS) , zhang[10]VC (virtualusers. Without resources, there is no use of clock) ,S.J[11] SCFQ (self-clocked faircommunication. The resources are depend on the queuing),Ferrari[12] delay-EDD (delay earliest dueservice type in a network. Probster [3] date) , etc. Most of them aim to serve theprovide an algorithm of context–aware resource backlogged users in proportion to the share ofallocation in cellular network based on the signals bandwidth reserved by the users.that how much data is received by user inheterogeneous network. If the user know what data 3. PROPOSED WORKis needed, then according to that the resources are In the wireless network, resource allocationallocated to user which are depend on available is the main goal of method and their services tochannel on that area. An area defined the range of the user. In our proposed work, we introduced athe BTS or the coverage under the communication new cross layer design framework for bothchannel.Chang[4] proposed a novel time- downlink and uplink state in which the resourcesfrequency resource allocation mechanism using are allocated fastly in the network. With theFFR(fractional frequency reuse) for a macro-femto proposed approch, Cross layer is designed in suchoverlay cellular network. High data rate in OFDM a manner that provide better performance. Thesystems can be achieved by employing spectrum proposed cross layer design architecture is asreuse and utilizing high spectral efficiency. The follows:-femto-cell is used for reducing the interference inthe frequency by using the sub-channels. TheFFR(fast frequency resue) used for resourceallocation i.e., co-channel use in low CCI(co-channel interference) and orthogonal channel use inhigh CCI as a useful policy to handle theinterference for a macro-femto overlay cellularnetwork.Amram et. al.[5] specified an intelligentvideo aware mobile network architecture which Fig.3.1 cross layer design architecture.addresses the expected growth in demand for videocontent delivery.Ritesh[6], specified that fast An application layer, in which the serviceallocation of resources in download link is higher provider resides in MSC(mobile switching center),in OFDM and it provides the optimal solution of provides the co-channel to the user and to monitor 913 | P a g e
  3. 3. Yashpal Rohilla, Preeti Gulia / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.912-915the resources and quality oriented services with the the help of resource allocation cycle. A resourcehelp of link stage of user in the celluler network. allocation cycle in the communication network isWhen a co-channel is allocated to the user, the described as shown in fig3.3:-server monitors the congested route and non-congested route from end to end connectivity innetwork. The routing protocols check the flow ofdata or resources from one end to another endbased on the demand of services and to overcomethe traffic in the path. Different multiple accesstechniques are used like(TDMA,CDMA,OFDM)etc. to provide the better performance andoptimization result at client side. A linkadaptation, in which the connectivity between the Fig.3.3 Resource allocation cycleMAC and physical layer or MAC and tranportlayer, provides both end services between user and A resource allocation cycle describe thewithin the network. We use physical channels like way of transfering the data from one end to theoptical fiber, radio channel etc for this work. A another end in the communication network.cross link between the layer is used to monitor the Whenever a sender send the request, then thesevices in the layer and in the network. Every related matching data is to be discover aftersystem use layered approch to provide and get the finding the data or resources with its description.maximum throughput and less delay services i.e Resources are reserved on that channel in whichthe uplink and downlink in the QoS. According to the MS both end are connected. After thefig.3.1 a cross layer design architecture shows reservation of the resources, an acknowledgementthe better linking between layers and with the help is to be sent to the MS(user). The MS access theof cross link, performance has been improve with resources from the service provider. Resources areoptimizer (to optimize the performance or moniter to be monitored in network. After the use ofthe services). resources, the link is disconnected and resourcesIn cross layer approach, the data is to be tranfered are to be released. These activities are performedfrom one place to another. For this purpose the rapidily within the network. The sender andsimple structure of data transfer scheme using reciver have no knowledge above the process in thecross layer method in the networks is to be shown network . They just use the services which arewith help of fig 3.2 which is as follows. provided by the service provider. In communication, we have two state of transfer the data first is downlink(download at client side), second is uplink(transfer on server). The better system performance can be obtained from information exchanges a cross protocol layers and by minimizing the unwanted use of distribution. To minimize the overall power consumption three components are to be used i.e. SubcarrierFig.3.2 data transfer scheme allocation, power distribution, and packet scheduling. The function of the subcarrier This diagram shows the flow of data for allocation is to allocate subcarriers to the packetsreceiving and transformation. In this, there are n that are selected for transmission in a most powerinputs from n different user in a particular area. efficient way. To avoid CCI (co-channelThese inputs the data to cros layer allocation area interference), each subcarrier is allocated to at mostand after that it tranfer data/resources to the one user in the networks. The objective of powerencoding method. Input data is to be encoded using distribution is to smooth the variance in thedifferent encoding schemes according to the wireless channel capacity and maintain apriority. This encrypted data is modulated and sufficiently low PER (packet error rate) bysend on communication channel like- TDMA, allocating the transmission power according to theCDMA, OFDMA etc. After that the multi channel conditions. A power network in cellularsubcarrier (if we use OFDM techniques) selector network can sense the consuming devices like thereceive the signal and the decision of correct signal cell network. They can only transmit the poweris taken out. The signal is demodulated and when there is a device to use it or may be thedecoded into main message and the correct power on demand at specific location. Theinformation is received at receiver end. transmitted power is more feasible inside aFor the tranformation of data resource allocation is building, where the user shape the field usingto be needed and the resources are allocated with distributed antennas. But more power consumer device make the battery life short so there is a need 914 | P a g e
  4. 4. Yashpal Rohilla, Preeti Gulia / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.912-915of low power transmitter or some power Allocation strategies for new streamingdistribution control mechanism. services in wireless cellular networks”, IEEE 2012. 4. CONCLUSION 8. H. Zhang, “Service disciplines for The cross layer design is helpful for guaranteed performance services ingetting the better performance in the layered packet-switching networks,” IEEE Proc.,structure. In this paper a new architecture is to be vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 1374-1396, Oct. 1995.developed for downlink and uplink state in which 9. A. K. Parekh and R. G. Gallager, “Athe resources are allocated fastly and for this a data generalized processor sharing approach totransfer scheme and resource allocation cycle are to flow control integrated services networks:be developed. These architecture can be used in the single-node case,” IEEE/ACM Trans.3G,4G or next generation with OFDM techniques Network., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 344-357, Juneto get the better optimization and performance in 1993.resource allocation. This work also lead to further 10. L. Zhang, “Virtual Clock: a new trafficenhancement in which the researcher can allocate control algorithm for packet switchingthe resources based on priority. networks,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 9, pp. 101-124, May 1991REFERENCE 11. [S.J 94] S. J. Golestani, “A self-clocked 1. Khaled ben letaief, ying jun (angela) fair queuing scheme for broadband zhang(2006), “dynamic multiuser applications,” IEEE Proc -NFOCOM’94, resource allocation And adaptation for pp. 636-646, 1994. wireless”, ieee wireless communication . 12. [D.ferrari90] D. Ferrari, A. Banerjea, and vol.13 no.4 pp.38-47 H. Zhang, “A scheme for real-time 2. Sonia ben rejeb, sami tabbane(2011), “a channel establishment in wide-area noval cross-layer design and QoS networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Evaluation for wireless multiservices Communication vol. 8, pp. 368-379, April networks.”, IEEE international mobile 1990. computing conference, pp.320- 325 3. Magnus Proebster, Matthias Kaschub, AUTHORS PROFILE Thomas Werthmann, Stefan Valentin (2012)“context Aware Resource allocation in cellular network”,Universität Stuttgart Institute of Communication Networks and computer Engineering (IKR) MS. Preeti Gulia received 4. Chang-Yeong Oh, Min Young Chung, the MCA degree and she has 8 year Hyunseung Choo , Tae-Jin Lee(2011) experience in teaching. She is also doing “Resource Allocation with Partitioning Ph.D in Object-riented Metrics and Criterion for Macro-Femto Overlay Testing. She is guiding 3 M.Tech student Cellular Networks with Fractional in their research work. Currently she is Frequency Reuse”, Springer assistant professor in M.D.University Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011 Rohtak. 5. Noam Amram, ,Daniele Munaretto_x, Sabine Randriamasy, Bessem Sayadi, Joerg Widmerz Michele Zorzi_x, (2012) “QoE-based Transport Optimization for Video Delivery over Next Generation Cellular Networks”, research project (STREP) of the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission. Yashpal Rohilla received the DIPLOMA 6. Ritesh Madan, Stephen P. Boyd, Sanjay (I.T)during(2002-2005) ,B.E.(CSE) during Lall(2010), “Fast Algorithms for Resource (2005-2008) and M.Tech degrees in Allocation in Wireless Cellular Computer Science from M.D. Networks”, IEEE/ACM Transactions on UNIVERSITY ROHTAK HARYANA networking, vol.18, no. 3 (INDIA). During 2010-2012. Currently I 7. Mohamed kadhem karray,yasir am completing my thesis work khan(2012) “Evaluation and comparison under my supervisor. of resource 915 | P a g e