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Dy24788797
Dy24788797
Dy24788797
Dy24788797
Dy24788797
Dy24788797
Dy24788797
Dy24788797
Dy24788797
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IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

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  • 1. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797 A survey on Facebook and Academic Performance in Nigeria Universities. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa Dept. of Computer Science Bingham University, NigeriaAbstract This paper test students’ facebook usage The University culture loves facebook, embraces itand their academic performance. The paper was and has turned the site into a lifestyle, rather thanalso intended to find how pervasive the use of just a hobby or a fun pastime. Academic success isfacebook by University students plays a role in paramount issues to any student, with the pressure totheir academic success. A 20 question belong to social networks. Are they really meetingquestionnaire was designed and sent out to up with the pressure to succeed academically? Inapproximately 150 students of different this paper, an attempt will be made to take a look atUniversities in Nigeria. To capture the main these two major forces in a university student‟s lifetypes of University, a Federal University, a State in Nigeria and see if we could find a relationshipUniversity and a Private University cut across between the two.the nation were chosen. Of the questionnaire sentout, 81% of them were within the age of 18 to 21. Literature ReviewThe Independent variables measured how In 2009 a draft manuscript suggested thatactively students used facebook, including how facebook use might be related to lower academicmuch time they spend on facebook, how often achievement in college and graduate schoolthey update their status, post on friends’ walls, (Karpinski, 2009). The report quickly became acomment on others’ pages, the level of their media sensation and was picked up by hundreds ofprivacy settings, and how many friends and news outlets in a matter of days. However, thephoto albums they have. In order to accurately results were based on correlational data in a draftmeasure students’ academic achievement, we had manuscript that had not been published, or evenstudent’s self‐report their in‐class participation, considered for publication.attendance, as well as grade point average. Sixpre‐determined hypotheses were tested. First, the Researchers examining facebook use from a mediamore time a student spends on facebook, the effects tradition have focused either on the sociallower grade point average the student has. implications of the medium or on the potential risksSecondly, the higher a student’s privacy settings that users of social networking sites may experience.are on facebook, the higher that student’s grade For instance, a variety of studies have noted that thepoint average is. Thirdly, the more a student use of facebook is positively related to social capitalupdates his or her facebook status, the less likely (Boyd and Ellison, 2007; Valenzuela, et al., 2008).they are to have good class attendance. Fourthly, On the other hand, some research suggests thatthe more time a student spends on facebook, the facebook users underestimate the potential privacyless likely they are to participate in class. Fifthly, risks of sharing information on the site (Acquisitithe more friends a student has on facebook, the and Gross, 2006; Dwyer, et al., 2007).more time he spends on facebook. Lastly, that themore posts a student puts on facebook, the less As with claims of dangers from older media, alikely they are to participate in class. Data recent study (and corresponding press release)collected were analyzed and tested by using indicating that facebook use and collegiate gradecorrelation tests through SPSS, a data analysis point averages (GPA) were negatively correlatedprogram. All the hypotheses were proven wrong. generated a great deal of media hype (Karpinski, 2009).Introduction Social media networking has taken over the As Karpinski (2009) herself notes, she is not theworld. Facebook is at the forefront of the social first to examine the relationship between facebookmedia craze, with over 500 million active users on use and grade point averages. She references twoits website every month. University students are one studies that lead to the hypothesis that academicof the primary demographics using facebook, with performance and use of the site might be negativelyfeatures such as photos, wall posts, and status correlated. First, she cites a Master‟s thesis byupdates becoming seemingly irresistible to those Boogart (2006). While the thesis offers somewho want to connect with their friends. suggestive evidence, Boogart only examined the 788 | P a g e
  • 2. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797relationship between time spent on facebook and students identify students in other residence halls. ItGPA, and similarly failed to utilize control variables is described as „„. . .an online directory that connectsdespite a diverse collection of students from four people through social networks at colleges anduniversities. The second study by Karpinski cited by universities” (Zuckerberg, 2005, p. 1). WebsitesKubey, Lavin, and Barrows (2001) does not mention such as MySpace_ and the more popular FB havesocial networking sites at all. She claims the millions of registered users, with FB becoming thesuggestion in the draft FG paper that social overwhelmingly more popular SNS (comScore,networking sites represent a type of exclusively 2009; Gonzalez, 2009, checkfacebook.com).recreational use actually runs counter to otherliterature in the field. It should be noted that an An Overview of Facebookadditional paper by Kolek and Saunders (2008) Facebook was created in February 2004 byfound that there was no correlation between Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz and Chrisfacebook use and GPA in a representative sample of Hughes as a site for Harvard students only. Shortlystudents from a public Northeast research university. after, it expanded to any college student with a .eduThe draft FG manuscript cited the Kolek and e-mail account. Between Fall 2005 and Fall 2006,Saunders piece, but did not note its findings facebook expanded to high school networks, first,regarding the lack of a relationship between work networks, later, and, eventually, to Internetfacebook use and Grades. users in general. According to comScore Inc.‟s rankings of top websites, in 2008 facebook.com wasDefining social Networks ranked as the Lessons from Facebook 6 16th most Facebook, MySpace, Orkut, Cyworld, visited website on the Internet in the U.S.Bebo and other social network sites are, perhaps, the (comScore, 2008a), with 34 million unique visitorsbest examples of O‟Reilly‟s (2005) Web 2.0 by January 2008, and as the 13th most popularenvironment, where audiences have become co- website worldwide (comScore, 2008b), with 98authors on interactive websites.5 In a similar fashion million unique visitors by December 2007. As ofas blogs, SNS allow individuals to present March 2008, Facebook reported having 67 millionthemselves to other users using a variety of formats, active users (those who have returned to the site inincluding text and video. Just like chat services. the last 30 days), with more than half of themSocial-networking sites and facebook_Socializing returning daily and spending an average of 20via the Internet has become an increasingly minutes per day on the site (Facebook, 2008).important part of young adult life (Gemmill & Like most social network sites, facebook provides aPeterson, 2006). Relative to the general population, formatted web page into which each user can enteradolescents and young adults are the heaviest personal information, including gender, birthday,computer and Internet users, primarily using it for hometown, political and religious views, e-mail andcompleting school assignments (46%), e-mail and/or physical addresses, relationship status, activities,instant messaging (36%), and playing computer interests, favorite music and movies, educationalgames (38%; DeBell & Chapman, 2006). Social- background and a main personal picture. Afternetworking sites (hereafter SNS) are the latest completing their profile, users are prompted toonline communication tool that allows users to identify others with whom they have a relationship,create a public or private profile to interact with either by searching for registered users of facebookpeople in their networks (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). or by requesting their contacts to join facebookSNS incorporate a list of other users with whom (usually by e-mail). Once someone is accepted as aindividuals share a connection. But unlike any other “friend,” not only the two users‟ personal profile butweb service, SNS allow individuals to make visible also their entire social networks are disclosed totheir list of connections to others and to traverse each other. This allows each user to traversetheir social networks (boyd & Ellison, 2007). networks by clicking through “friends‟” profiles, soHence, more than virtual Lessons from facebook 5 that one‟s social network snowballs rapidly acrosscommunities born online, SNS are usually online people and institutions (Walther et al., 2008). Thiscommunities created and maintained to reflect capability is the backbone of facebook and otheroffline relationships. SNS and what attracts millions of users around the globe.SNS can be defined as web-based services that Facebook profiles also include two types ofallow individuals to construct a public or semi- messaging services. A private system, which is verypublic profile within a bounded system, articulate a similar to a webmail service, and a public systemlist of other users with whom they share a called “The Wall,” where “friends” leave commentsconnection, and view and traverse their list of to the owner of the profile that can be viewed byconnections and those made by others within the other users. Usually, “The Wall” contains shortsystem (Boyd & Ellison, 2008, p. 211). One such messages that reflect sentiments, common activitieswebsite is facebook_, which was created by Mark between “friends,” or call attention to externalZuckerberg to help residential college and university websites or events. Lessons from Facebook 7. To 789 | P a g e
  • 3. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797keep users updated about their social circles, recorded as the student‟s current, cumulativefacebook has two features: “News Feed”, which achieved grade point average, as measured on a 5.0sappears on the homepage of each user, and “Mini- scale.Feed”, which appears in each individual‟s profile.“News Feed” updates a personalized list of news Hypothesis twostories throughout the day generated by the activity The higher a student‟s grade point average,of “friends”. Thus, each time users log in, they get the "higher the student‟s facebook privacy settingsthe latest headlines in their social networks. “Mini- "will be.Feed” is similar, except that it centers around one Our second hypothesis takes a look at theindividual. Each person‟s “Mini-Feed” shows what relationship between a student‟s grade point averagehas changed recently in their profile and what and the overall level of facebook privacy settings oncontent or modules (“applications”) they have a student‟s profile. We feel that there is a directadded. Because individuals can delete from their relationship between these two variables that as aown “Mini-Feed” stories they do not like, users student‟s grade point average increases, the level ofretain control of who gets to read or see what about his or her facebook profile privacy settingsthem. increases. We believe this under the justificationAmong the most popular modules users can that those who have higher grade point averages areincorporate to their profiles is “facebook Groups,” cautious of the work they do and how it iswhich allows users to create and join groups based perceived, so they would be more concerned aboutaround common interests and activities. The their own personal image and how they are“Groups” application displays each individual‟s perceived. In turn, they will take caution to preventgroups as well as groups their “friends” have joined many people from being able to see their profile andrecently. Thus, an important share of the civic and judge them. Grade point average will be recorded aspolitical impact of facebook should occur within the student‟s current, cumulative achieved gradegroups developed by users and organizations. point average, as measured on a 5.0 scale, and facebook privacy settings will be the overall amountInformation Gathering. of security on one‟s profile, depending on who is Of the various information gathering able to see their information.techniques the questionnaire technique was used.This was because of the nature of information Hypothesis threerequired and the form of analysis to be conducted. A The more a student updates their facebook20 question questionnaire was designed and "status, the less likely they are to have good "classadministered to students from three different attendance.Universities across Nigeria - The University of This hypothesis will examine the correlationIlorin, a federal University, the Nasarawa State between how often a student updates their facebookUniversity, a State owned University and the status and their class attendance. We believe this toBingham University, a private University. The be an inverse relationship; that the more times astudents were asked to answer the questionnaire student updates their status, the less likely they willanonymously so that they could present truthful be to go to class. If students are spending ainformation. Of the 150 questionnaire administered, significant amount of time using facebook and132 were returned. One hundred and twenty two constantly updating their status, they will have less(122) were facebook users. time to go to class. Students can update their statuses so often that they become distracted from their schoolwork and become interested in otherTest of Hypothesis things. Since their status occupies so much of theirHypothesis one` attention, they may not place as much importance on The more time a student spends on being in class. For this hypothesis, updating a statusfacebook, the "lower his grade Point Average” will will be defined as changing the information shownbe as one‟s “status” (the words next to one‟s profileThis hypothesis examines the overall effect of name) on facebook, and class attendance will befacebook use on what most people would consider a measured as being present in class during theprime factor of student academic performance: his designated class time.or her grade point average. We feel that there is aninverse relationship between these two factors, as Hypothesis fourthe more time spent on facebook, the less time a The more time a student spends onstudent has to attend to academic matters, such as facebook, the "less likely they are to participate inhomework, studying for tests. class.For our data measurement, time on facebook will be This hypothesis will examine the correlationmeasured as how often one spends time actively between the amount of time spent on facebook andusing facebook, and grade point average will be the amount which a student participates in class. We 790 | P a g e
  • 4. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797believe that this is an inverse relationship; the more profile, including sharing status updates for all totime a student spends on facebook, the less likely see on facebook, writing comments, sharing a link,the person participates in class. If students bring video, or photo, or posting any other type oftheir laptops to class, they may get bored of the information. Participation will be the engagement inlesson and find their way onto facebook. class material and the act of sharing in the activitiesThis will detract their attention to what is going on of the group, including paying attention, texting,in class, so they may not be able to fully understand using a laptop for class related activity, andwhat is going on, hindering participation and contributing to class discussion.drawing them even further into facebook since theydo not understand what is going on in the first place. Operational DefinitionOutside of the classroom, people may spend more Hypothesis onetime on facebook and less time preparing for class, The more time a student spends onso they do not feel confident to participate in class. facebook, the lower his or her grade point averageFor this hypothesis, time spent on facebook will be will be.measured as how often one spends time actively Dependent Variable:using facebook. Participation will be measured as Variable: How
often
do
you
spend
time
on
facethe level of engagement in class material and class book? 
activities, including paying attention, texting, using (Never, 
Rarely, 
Sometimes, 
Often, 
Always)
a laptop for class related activity, and contributing to Independent Variable:class discussion. What
is
your
grade
point
average
on
a
4.0
scalHypothesis five e? 
 The more friends a student has on (0‐0.5, 
0.51‐1.0, 
1.01‐1.5, 
1.51‐2.0, 
2.01‐2.5,facebook, the ".the more time he spends on 
2.51‐3.0, 
3.01‐3.5, 
3.51‐4.0)facebook” Type of test statistic:This hypothesis will examine the correlation We
will
be
using
a
correlation
test
since
both
obetween the amount of friends a student has on f
the variables are interval/ratio.
facebook, and their time spent on facebook. Webelieve this to be a direct relationship; that the more Hypothesis twofriends one has on facebook, the more likely they The higher a student‟s grade point average,are to spend more time socializing with their friends the higher the student‟s facebook privacy settingson facebook. A person who has a lot of friends on will be.facebook is most likely going to be responding to Dependent Variable:more people and thus spending more time. For this What
is
your
overall
facebook
privacy
setting? 
hypothesis, the amount of friends will be measured (Everyone,as those people who are identified as a “friend” on a Friends
of
Friends,
Friends,
Yourself,
Customizestudent‟s facebook profile. Time spent will bemeasured as often they spend time on facebook. d)
 Independent Variable:Hypothesis six What
is
your
grade
point
average
on
a
4.0
scal The more posts a student puts on facebook, e? 
the "less likely they are to participate in class. (0‐0.5,This hypothesis will examine the correlation 0.51‐1.0,
1.01‐1.5,
1.51‐2.0,
2.01‐2.5,
2.51‐3.0,
3between how often student posts information on .01‐3.5,
3.51‐4.0)
their facebook page and their class participation. We Type of test statistic:believe this to be an inverse relationship; that the We
will
be
using
a
correlation
test
since
both
omore times a student posts information, the less f
the
Variables are interval/ratio.likely they will be to participate in their classes. Ifstudents are spending time posting a lot of Hypothesis threeinformation to facebook, they will be less inclined to The more a student updates their facebookparticipate in class because they will be dedicating status, the less likely they are to have good classtheir time to facebook instead. attendance.Students can become distracted by using facebook Independent Variable:during and outside of class and may become more How
often
do
you
generally
update
your
facebointerested in that than the material. Since theirfacebook posts occupy so much of their attention, ok
status? 
they may not place as much importance on paying (Never
or
almost
never,
once
every
few
months,attention and participating in class. For this 
once
a
month,
once
every
fewhypothesis, facebook posts will be considered weeks,
once
a
week,
two
or
more
times
a
weekinformation a student posts on his/her facebook ,
once
a
day,
two
or
more 791 | P a g e
  • 5. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797times
a
day,
every
hour,
two
or
more
times
an
 (wall
 posting, sharing
 links, photos, or
 videos)?hour) 
Dependent Variable: How
 often
 do
 you
 comment
 on
 others‟
 faceHow
often
do
you
miss
class? 
 book
 postings? 
(never,
rarely,
sometimes,
often,
always)
 (Never
 or
 almost
 never,
 once
 every
 few
 mo nths,
 once
 a
 month,
 once
 everyType of test statistic: 
 few
 weeks,
 once
 a
 week,
 two
 or
 more
 timWe
will
be
using
a
correlation
test
since
both
o es
 a
 week,
 once
 a
 day,
 two
 or
 moref
 the
 variables
 are
 interval/ratio.
 times
 a
 day,
 every
 hour,
 two
 or
 more
 timeHypothesis four s
 an
 hour)
The more time a student spends on facebook, the Dependent Variable:"less likely they are to participate in class. In
 general,
 how
 actively
 do
 you
 participate
Independent Variable: in
 class?
How
 often
 do
 you
 spend
 time
 on
 facebook (not
 actively
 at
 all,
 a
 little
 actively,
 neither?
 
 actively
 nor
 inactively,
 somewhat
 actively,
(Never,
 rarely,
 sometimes,
 often,
 always)
 very
 actively)
Dependent Variable: Do
 you
 text
 during
 class?In
 general,
 how
 actively
 do
 you
 participate
 (never,
 rarely,
 sometimes,
 often,
 always)
in
 class?
 Do
 you
 use
 a
 laptop
 for
 activities
 unrelated(not
 actively
 at
 all,
 a
 little
 actively,
 neither 
 to
 class
 during
 class?

 actively
 nor
 inactively,
 somewhat (never,
 rarely,
 sometimes,
 often,
 always)
actively,
 very
 actively)
 Do
 you
 contribute
 to
 class
 discussion?
Do
 you
 text
 during
 class?
 (never,
 rarely,
 sometimes,
 often,
 always)(never,
 rarely,
 sometimes,
 often,
 always)
 Type of test statistic:Do
 you
 use
 a
 laptop
 for
 activities
 unrelated We
 will
 be
 using
 a
 correlation
 test
 since
 b
 to
 class
 during
 class?
 oth
 of
 the
 variables
 are
 interval/ratio(never,
 rarely,
 sometimes,
 often,
 always)
Do
 you
 contribute
 to
 class
 discussion? Results(never,
 rarely,
 sometimes,
 often,
 always)
 At the end of the study period, 122 facebook ussersType of test statistic: 
 completed the survey. Of those 55, or 44.1% wereWe
 will
 be
 using
 a
 correlation
 test
 since
 b females, and 67, or 54.9% were males. The majorityoth
 of
 the variables
 are
 interval/ratio. of the respondents attended Private University
 (43%) while 25% and 32% attended StateHypothesis five University and Federal University respectively.The more friends a student has on facebook, the Of the respondents, the majorities, 65.5%, were 22".the more time he spends on facebook” and above Years old, while 11.5% were 21, 10.7%Independent Variable: were 20, 9.8% were 19, and 2.5%. In addition 92%How
 many
 friends
 do
 you
 have
 on
 faceboo of the respondents said that they use facebook.k? 
(0‐ 100,
 101‐ 200,
 201‐ 300,
 301‐ 400,
 401‐ All of the data was put into the SPSS data500,
 501‐ 600,
 601‐ 700,
 701‐ 800,
 801‐ 900, Analyzing program, and used to test each of the
 901‐ 1000,
 1000+)
 various hypotheses.Dependent Variable:How
 motivated
 are
 you
 to
 be
 successful
 in Hypothesis one
 class? 
 The more time a student spends on(Not at
 all
 motivated,
 A facebook, the lower his or her grade point averagelittle
 motivated,
 Neither
 motivated
 nor
 unmoti will bevated,
 Somewhat
 motivated,
 Very
 motivated)
 The
 first
 hypothesis
 is
 that
 students
 who
 spType of test statistic: 
 end
 more
 time
 on
 facebook areWe
 will
 be
 using
 a
 correlation
 test
 since
 b more
 likely
 to
 have
 a
 lower
 grade
 point
 aoth
 of
 the variables
 are
 interval/ratio.
 verage. This was
 tested
 this
 theory
 using correlation, and
 the
 data
 obtained
 indicates
 that
 there
 isHypothesis six 
 a weak correlation of 0.33 as shown Table1 . ThisThe more posts a student puts on facebook, the less means that there is no significance differencelikely they are to participate in class. between the two variables; This hypothesis was thenIndependent Variable: rejected. The more time a student spends onHow
 often
 do
 you
 post
 on
 other
 people‟s
 facebook, the lower his or her grade point averagefacebook Pages? 
 will be. It was found to be not true because with the increasing amount of responsibilities and activities 792 | P a g e
  • 6. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797student do during the academic year, students are becoming better at timing their time. What is your GPA How often do you (on a 5.0 scale)? spend time on facebook?What is your GPA (on a 5.0 scale)? Pearson Correlation 1 .033 Sig. (2-tailed) .717 N 122 122How often do you spend time on Pearson Correlation .033 1facebook? Sig. (2-tailed) .717 N 122 122Table 1: The Correlation analysis table of hypothesis one.Hypothesis twoThe higher a student’s grade point average, the "higher the student’s facebook privacy settings "will be. The hypothesis that those students who have higher grade point average are more likely to have higherlevels of privacy settings was tested using correlation. As seen in the Table 2, no significance relation was foundbetween the variables grade point average and privacy settings. Since we have a negative correlation (-0.17), wethen reject the hypothesis that state that, the higher a student‟s grade point average, the "higher the student‟sfacebook privacy settings "will be.Correlations What is your GPA What is your overall facebook (on a 5.0 scale)? privacy settings?What is your GPA (on a 5.0 Pearson Correlation 1 -.017scale)? Sig. (2-tailed) .856 N 122 122What is your overall facebook Pearson Correlation -.017 1privacy settings? Sig. (2-tailed) .856 N 122 122Table 2: The Correlation analysis of the hypothesis two.Hypothesis three The more a student updates their facebook "status, the less likely they are to have good "classattendance.The hypothesis that those students who update their facebook statuses more often are less likely to have goodclass attendance was tested using correlation. As seen in Table 3, no significant relationship was found betweenstatus updates and class attendance. Since there is a weak correlation at significance level of 0.181, Thereforethe hypothesis which state that the more posts a student puts on facebook, the less likely they are to participatein class was rejected.Correlations How often do you How often do you miss class? update your facebook status?How often do you update your Pearson Correlation 1 .181(*)facebook status? Sig. (2-tailed) .045 N 122 122How often do you miss class? Pearson Correlation .181(*) 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .045 N 122 122 793 | P a g e
  • 7. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).Table 3: The Correlation analysis of the hypothesis three.Hypothesis four The more time a student spends on facebook, the "less likely they are to participate in class”.The hypothesis that the more time a student spends using facebook, the likely they are to participate in class wastested using correlation. The results show that there was no significance correlation between the two variables. Itwas believed that this is because students are good in paying attention to different task simultaneously. Theymay be on facebook during class, but they are still able to pay attention and participate. Students are used toconstantly being connected to social media that they aren‟t completely distracted by it anymore.Since there was a negative correlation (- 0.001), the hypothesis was rejected.Correlations In general, how actively do How often do you spend time on you participate in class? facebook?In general, how actively do Pearson Correlation 1 -.001you participate in class? Sig. (2-tailed) .988 N 122 122How often do you spend Pearson Correlation -.001 1time on facebook? Sig. (2-tailed) .988 N 122 122Table 4: The correlation analysis table of hypothesis four.Hypothesis five The more friends a student has on facebook, the ".the more time he spends on facebook”The
hypothesis
that
the
more
friends
a
student
has
on
facebook, the more
time they spend onfacebook
was
tested
using
correlation. There
was
no significancebetween
the
variables number
of
friends
and
the
amount
of
time as shown in the table below.
Since thiswas a weak correlation (0.243) the hypothesis which states that The more friends a student has on facebook, the".the more time he spends on facebook was rejectedCorrelations How many friends do you How often do you spend time on have on facebook? facebook?How many friends do you have Pearson Correlation 1 .243(**)on facebook? Sig. (2-tailed) .007 N 122 122How often do you spend time Pearson Correlation .243(**) 1on facebook? Sig. (2-tailed) .007 N 122 122** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).Table 5: The correlation analysis for hypothesis five.Hypothesis sixThe more posts a student puts on facebook, the "less likely they are to participate in class.The sixth hypothesis showed that students who
put
more
posts
on
facebook
are less likely
toparticipate
in
class
was
tested
using
correlation. Postings
were measured in
terms
of
putting
wall posts,sharing
links, photos, or videos on other people‟s
walls
and
commenting
on
others‟
facebook postings.Class participation
was measured in
terms
of
general
active
participation, texting
during class, using alaptop
for
activities
unrelated
to
class
during
class, and
the
contribution to class 794 | P a g e
  • 8. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797 discussion.
As
seen
in
the
data, it was
found that
a
significant
correlational relationship between
how
often
a
student
posts
information
on
other
people‟s
facebook pages
and
the rate they text during class time. Since we have weak correlation (0.078, -0.037, -0.051 and 0.419) was weak, the hypothesis which states that the more posts a student puts on facebook, the less likely they are to participate in class was similarly rejected.Correlations In general, How often do How often do How often do How often do how actively you post on you text during you use your you contribute do you other peoples class? laptop for to class participate in facebook activities discussion? class? pages?In general, how actively Pearson Correlation 1 .078 -.037 -.051 .419(**)do you participate in Sig. (2-tailed) .392 .689 .576 .000class? N 122 122 122 122 122How often do you post Pearson Correlation .078 1 .224(*) .144 .072on other peoples Sig. (2-tailed) .392 .013 .112 .430facebook N 122 122 122 122 122How often do you text Pearson Correlation -.037 .224(*) 1 .286(**) .071during class? Sig. (2-tailed) .689 .013 .001 .438 N 122 122 122 122 122How often do you use Pearson Correlation -.051 .144 .286(**) 1 -.130your laptop for activities Sig. (2-tailed) .576 .112 .001 .153unrelated to class during N 122 122 122 122 122class time?How often do you Pearson Correlation .419(**) .072 .071 -.130 1contribute to class Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .430 .438 .153discussion? N 122 122 122 122 122 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Table six: The correlation analysis for hypothesis six Discussion on
 facebook, the
 less likely
 they
 are
 to At the end of the survey, the data collected was participate
 in
 class.
 Fifth, the
 more analysed using SPSS program to
run friends
 a
 student
 has
 on
 facebook, the
 more correlation
and
T‐tests
in
search of motivated
 they
 are
 to
 succeed
 in their
 classes, and
 lastly, that
 the
 more
 wall finding
relationships
between two
two
variables. posts
 a
 student
 puts
 on
 facebook, the
 less
 likely
 they
 are
 to participate in class. The study expected
to
find relationships
and
results
for
six
different The study revealed that all
 of
 the
 hypotheses hypotheses.
 were proven wrong. First, The
 first
 hypothesis
 was
 proven
 to the
more
time
a
student
spends
on
facebook, be
 incorrect, that
 there was
 no significance the lower
grade
point average correlation between
 the
 amount
 of
 time
 a the
student
has.
Second, the
higher
a
student‟s student spends
 on facebook and
 his or privacy
settings
are
on
facebook, the higher
that her
 grade point
 average.
 The
 fifth hypothesis
 was
 proven wrong, student‟s
grade
point
average is. Third, the more because
 there
 was
 not
 enough significance a student
updates his/her
facebook
status, correlation between
 how many
 the
less
likely they
 are
 to
 have good class times
 a
 person
 updates
 their
 status
 and
 ho attendance. Fourth, w often
 he
 or she
 misses
 class.
 the
 more
 time
 a
 student
 spends 795 | P a g e
  • 9. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797 Counseling and Educational Psychology,However, there
 was
 no significance
 correlation Kansas State Uniyersity.found
 between how
 often
 a 3. Boyd D. and N.B. Ellison, 2007. “Socialstudent
 updates
 their
 status
 and
 class
 discus network sites: Definition, history,sion; the
 more
 often
 a student updates scholarship,” Journal of Computer–their
 status, Mediated Communication, volume 13,the
 more
 actively
 he
 or
 she
 participates
 in number 1, at
 class
 discussion. significance between http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.the
 amount
 of
 time
 one
 spends
 on
 faceboo ellison.html.k
 and
 their participation
 in
 class. 4. Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2008).The
 fifth
 hypothesis
 was
 also Social network sites: Definition, history,proven
 incorrect
 as
 there
 was
 not
 enough
 and scholarship. Journal of Computer-significance Mediated Communication, 13, 210–230between
 the
 number
 of
 friends
 on
 facebook
 and
 the
 level
 of 5. comScore. (2008a). Comscore top 50motivation
 a
 student
 has.
 
 properties (U.S.). Retrieved March 10,The
 sixth
 hypothesis, 2011, fromthe
 more
 posts
 a
 student
 updates
 on
 faceb http://www.comscore.com/press/data/top_ook, the less 50_web_properties.asplikely
 they
 are
 to
 participate
 in
 class,was
 proven
 incorrect. There
 was no 6. comScore. (2008b). Top global websignificance
 between
 the
 number
 of
 postings properties. Retrieved March 10, 2011,
 on
 facebook
 and
 the
 use
 of
 a fromlaptop
 and
 texting
 in
 class. http://www.comscore.com/press/data/top_ worldwide_properties.aspConclusionOverall, all of
 hypotheses
 did
 not
 show
 7. DeBell, M., & Chapman, C. (2006).enough significance
 to be proven correct. Without Computer and Internet use by students inan iota of ambiguity it can be deduced that the use 2003 (NCES 2006–065). US Departmentof facebook does not have an adverse effect on the of Education. Washington, DC: Nationalacademic performance of students in the NigerianUniversities.
 8. DeBell, M., & Chapman, C. (2006). Computer and Internet use by students inFuture Research 2003 (NCES 2006–065). US Department of Education. Washington, DC: NationalFurther research Center for Education Statistics.could
 ask
 students
 why
 they
 use
 facebook
 9. Dwyer C., Hiltz, S.R and Passerini, K.and
 what draws
 them
 back
 to
 facebook most 2007. “Trust and privacy concern withinimportantly the use of Blackberry smartphones to social networking sites: A comparison ofhave access to their facebook account, tweeter and Facebook and MySpace,” paper presentedBlackberry chart. It would also be at the Thirteenth Americas Conference oninteresting
 to
 ask
 open Information Systems, Keystone, Colo. (9–ended
 questions
 regarding
 how
 laptop and 12 August); version atBlackberry smartphones use
 influences http://csis.pace.edu/~dwyer/research/Dwytheir
 behaviors
 or
 participation
 in
 class.
 erAMCIS2007.pdf. 10. Facebook. (2008). Statistics. RetrievedReferences March 14, 2010, from http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php? 1. Acquisiti A. and Gross R, 2006. statistics Center for Education Statistics. “Imagined communities: Awareness, 11. Gemmill, E., & Peterson, M. (2006). information sharing, and privacy on the Technology use among college students: Facebook,” Lecture Notes in Computer Implications for student affairs Science, number 4258, pp. 36–58; version professionals. NASPA Journal, 43, 280– at 300. http://privacy.cs.cmu.edu/dataprivacy/proj ects/facebook/facebook2.pdf. 12. Hargittai, E. (2007). Whose space? 2. Boogart M.R.V, 2006. “Uncovering the Differences among users and non-users of social impacts of Facebook on a college social network sites. Journal of Computer- campus,” Master‟s thesis, Department of Mediated Communication, 13(1). 796 | P a g e
  • 10. Dr P.M. Ogedebe, J.A.Emmanuel, Y.Musa / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 4, July-August 2012, pp.788-797 13. Karpinski, A. C. & Duberstein, A. (April civic engagement,” Journal of Information 16, 2009). A description of Facebook use Technology and Politics. and academic performance among 20. Pasek, J. Kenski K., Romer D. and undergraduate and graduate students. In Jamieson K.H., 2006. “America‟s youth Poster presented at the meeting of the and community engagement: How use of American Educational Research mass media is related to civic activity and Association, SanDiego, CA. political awareness among 14 to 22 year 14. Karpinski,A.C. (2009). “A description of olds,” Communication Research, volume Facebook use and academic performance 33, number 3, pp. 115–135. among undergraduate and graduate 21. Paul A. Kirschner , Aryn C. Karpinski, students,” paper presented at the Annual (2010) Facebook_ and academic Meeting of the American Educational performance, Computer in human Research Association, San Diego, Calif. behavior, Vol 22 Issue 6. 15. Kolek, E. A., & Saunders, D. (2008). Online disclosure: An empirical 22. Shah, D.V Kwak, N. and. Holbert R.L, examination of undergraduate Facebook (2001). “„Connecting‟ and „disconnecting‟ profiles. NASPA Journal, 45(1), 1–25 with civic life: Patterns of Internet use and the production of social capital,” Political 16. Kubey, R. W., Lavin, M. J., & Barrows, J. Communication, volume 18, pp. 141–162. R. (2001). Internet use and collegiate 23. Valenzuela S., Park N, and. Kee K.F., academic performance decrements: Early (2008). “Lessons from Facebook: The findings. Journal of Communication, 51, effect of social network sites on college 366–382. students‟ social capital,” paper presented at the 9th International Symposium on 17. OReilly, T. (2005). What is web 2.0: Online Journalism, Austin, Tex. (4–5 Design patterns and business models for April); version at the next generation of software. Retrieved http://online.journalism.utexas.edu/2008/p July 15, 2011, from apers/Valenzuela.pdf. http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/ti 24. Walther, J. B., Van Der Heide, B., Kim, m/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html S.-Y., Westerman, D., & Tong, S. T. (2008). The role of friends appearance and behavior on evaluations of individuals 18. Pasek J, Eian More And Eszter Hargittai, on Facebook: Are we known by the (2009). facebook and Accademic company we keep? Human performance: reconciling a media Communication Research, 34(1), 28-49. sensitation with data.pair review journal on the internet, vol 14, No 5. 25. Zuckerberg, M. (2005). Thefacebook.com. Retrieved June 13, 2011. Available from 19. Pasek J.,. More, E. and Romer D., in http://thefacebook.com/about.php. press. “Realizing the social Internet? Offline social networking meets online 797 | P a g e

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