Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of       Engineering Research and Appl...
Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of          Engineering Research and A...
Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of       Engineering Research and Appl...
Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of       Engineering Research and Appl...
Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of       Engineering Research and Appl...
Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of     Engineering Research and Applic...
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  1. 1. Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.675-680 Viscose Rayon: A Legendary Development in the Manmade Textile Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari & Mrs. Alpa Varma. (Department of Textile Engg., The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda., Gujarat. India.)ABSTRACT Cotton is the best suitable fiber for “Artificial Silk” first in 1664. He suggested thatapparel purpose, especially in tropical region artificial filaments might be spun from a substancewhere comfort stands at first priority. Developing similar to that which silkworms secrete to make silk.countries are the major producers for the cotton. This was often tried by various scientists in theHowever, the blooming population has created ensuing years but not succeeded. Finally Georgescarcity of the available agricultural land in this Audemars, the Frenchman was able to make a threadregion. Thus, it becomes indeed difficult to satisfy by dipping a needle into a viscous solution ofincreased demand of cotton. This has geared up mulberry bark pulp and gummy rubber in 1855.the research direction in finding its option from While interesting from a scientific standpoint, thismanmade fibers. Replacement option must not be process was hardly viable economically - it was verythought off only in terms of quantity but also slow, and required a great deal of skill and precisionquality. Synthetic origin based materials (Nylon [1-3].Polyester etc.) although undergone modifications The first commercial synthetic fiber wasvia various processes (texturising/short staple produced by Hilaire de Bernigaud, Count ofspinning) are not able to offer comfort similar to Chardonnay (1839-1924) after 29 years of research,natural cellulosic cotton. This has directed was patented in 1884, and manufactured by him inresearchers to develop man made yarn obtained 1889. This cellulose-based fabric known asfrom viscose solution of natural regenerated Chardonnay silk was pretty but very flammable; itcellulose. Thereby, it was nomenclatured as was removed from the market. Soon after, theregenerated cellulose initially and later on as English chemist Charles Frederick Cross and hisviscose rayon. Fabric obtained out of this yarn has collaborators Edward John Bevan and Claytonexhibited good simulation with natural cotton Beadle discovered the viscose process in 1891 [1, 3].fiber fabric, especially in comfort associated Courtaulds Fibers produced the first commercialcharacteristics. However, viscose rayon yarn lags viscose rayon in 1905; the first in the United Statesbehind from cotton in service properties and was in 1910 by the American Viscose Company.technical properties. It’s physico-mechanical Initially rayon was called "Artificial Silk", and manyproperties need to be of high degree of regularity other names.to meet the stringent demands of market and In 1924, a committee formed by the U.S.meets the demands of consumers for attractive Department of Commerce and various commercialproducts. So, many changes in terms of associations decided upon the name "rayon" fortechnology, material, etc. have been undergone in "Artificial Silk". It was called "rayon" for one of twothe manufacturing process for getting the most reasons: either because of its brightness andpreferred cotton replacement. The article similarities in structure with cotton (sun = ray, on =represents brief summary of the growth and cotton). The name Viscose was derived from thedevelopment of this legendary fiber/filament yarn. word “viscous” which means sticky spinning solution out of which “Rayon” was manufactured. Thus theKey Words: Viscose rayon, Cellulose, Physico- innovative cellulosic derivative has taken the presentmechanical properties, Spinning, Comfort name of “Viscose rayon” [1-5].Brief History of Development Categorization of Viscose rayon Rayon is the generic term used for fiber (and Unlike most manmade fibers, rayon is notthe resulting yarn and fabric) manufactured of synthetic as it is made from wood pulp, naturally-regenerated cellulose. Its historical development occurring, cellulose based raw material. So, viscosestarted by an “artificial silk” theory. As natural silk rayon is not defined as synthetic base polymer but aswas incredibly tedious to produce and therefore, was natural base polymer [figure 1]. Therefore, viscosemore expensive, chemists sought to synthesize their rayons properties are more similar to those of naturalown silk which was given the name “artificial silk.” fibers made of cellulose, such as cotton or linen, thanEnglish naturalist Robert Hooke has theorized those of petroleum-based synthetic fibers such as nylon or polyester [5, 6]. 675 | P a g e
  2. 2. Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.675-680 Figure: 1 Classification of Textile fibres [Goswami et al.] Manufacturing of Viscose Rayon compound is passed through the spinneret to form soft filaments that are then converted or Manufacturing process is shown diagrammatically in “regenerated” into almost pure cellulose. Because of figure 2. Pulp (usually from pine, spruce, or hemlock the reconversion of the soluble compound to trees) is dissolved in caustic soda and after steeping cellulose, rayon is referred to as a regenerated for a specified period of time it is shredded and cellulose fiber [6, 7]. The final chemical structure of allowed to age. Ageing contributes to viscosity of viscose rayon is shown below [figure 3]. viscose. The longer the ageing time the less viscosity it will have. The aged pulp is then treated with carbon disulfide to form an orange-coloured cellulose xanthate, which is dissolved in caustic soda of a lower concentration. This is the starting stage of viscose formation. During the process an acetate dope is added to alkali cellulose which is necessary for the yarn lustre. Purified cellulose is chemically converted into a soluble compound. A solution of this Figure 3: Cellulose is treated with alkali and carbon disulfide to yield Viscose Rayon [Wikipedia, 2008]. Chemical reactions those undergo during the manufacturing process are summarised in brief henceforth [figure 4]. There are several types of rayon fibers in commercial used today. They are named according to the process by which the cellulose is converted to the soluble form and then regenerated. The most popularly used Rayon fibers are as follows: 1. Regular Rayon 2. High wet Modulus (HWM) 3. Tyre cord RayonFigure 2: Manufacturing process [Birla Cellulosic TRADC] 4. Cuprammonium Rayon 5. Polynosic Rayon 676 | P a g e
  3. 3. Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.675-680 reduction in the product cost as well as pollution,(1) C6H9O4OH + NaOH C6H9O4ONa+H2O which also added zinc free technology to reduce(Cellulose is converted to alkali cellulose during pollution due to zinc. Domestic spinning-finishingSteeping.) equipment for production of fibres and yarns has(2) C6H9O4ONa + CS2 C6H9O4OCSSNa+Na2CS3 been improved in recent years to create highly(Carbon disulphide reacts with alkali cellulose. efficient, unified equipment and to ensure theSodium cellulose xanthate & sodium trithiocarbamate required sanitary-hygienic conditions [9].is produced during Xanthation.) Properties(3) C6H9O4OCSSNa + NaOH Viscose Solution Viscose Rayon has a silk-like aesthetic with superb(Viscose solution is formed during dissolution.) drape and feel and retains its rich brilliant colors. Its(4) C6H9O4OCSSNa + H2O C6H9O4OH+CS2+NaOH cellulosic base contributes many properties similar to(Sodium cellulose xanthate is decomposed to get those of cotton or other natural cellulosic fibers.cellulose during Ripening.) Rayon is moisture absorbent (more than cotton),(5) C6H9O4OCSSNa + H2SO4 C6H9O4OH+CS2+Na2SO4 breathable, comfortable to wear, and easily dyed in(Recovery of cellulose from cellulose xanthate by vivid colors. It does not build up static electricity, noracid decomposition during spinning.) will it pill unless the fabric is made from short, low- twist yarns.Figure 4: Chemical reactions took place during Rayon is comfortable, soft to the skin, and hasmanufacturing of Viscose Rayon moderate dry strength and abrasion resistance. Like other cellulosic fibers, it is not resilient, which means Factors which are to be considered for that it will wrinkle. Rayon withstands ironingengineering the properties of different rayons are: temperatures slightly less than those of cotton. It maydegree of polymerization (DP), where higher the DP, be attacked by silverfish and termites, but generallyhigher will be the strength of fiber, low acid resists insect damage. It will mildew, but thatconcentration spinning dope to slow down the rate of generally is not a problem.coagulation, use of modifiers along with zinc which One of rayons strengths is its versatility and ability towill increase the gel state length during spinning, so blend easily with many fibers—sometimes to reducehigh stretch can be given through orientation of cost, other times for lusture, softness, or absorbencypolymer chains to improve physical properties, high and resulting comfort.spinning stretch is given to increase the orientation of Rayon has moderate resistance to acids and alkalispolymer chains, zinc free dope. [8] and generally the fiber itself is not damaged by They all are wet spun yarns produced by bleaches; however, dyes used in the fabric maysemi continuous process. Wet spun refers that the experience colour change. As a cellulosic fiber, rayonfilaments emerging from the spinneret pass directly will burn, but flame retardant finishes can be applied.into chemical baths for solidifying or regeneration. Thus rayons properties are more similar to those ofAll of the early viscose production involved batch natural cellulosic fibers, such as cotton as shown inprocessing. In more recent times, processes have table 1[4, 5].been modified to allow some semi-continuousproduction [6, 7]. Applications of Viscose For a considerable time after viscose rayon wasPollution during manufacturing discovered in 1891, it was produced only on a small Polluting effects of carbon disulfide, zinc scale and was used mostly for decorative purposes,and other by-products of the viscose rayon such as for imitation flowers or for small ornamentsproduction process has limited production volume in on dresses. Later on, it either replaced or was used1996 [8]. One way to comply with sulphur emission with mercerized cotton yarns for embroiderystandards is to install a wet sulphuric acid process purposes and for stockings. It was also used forunit which recovers sulphur compounds to sulphuric domestic articles such as ties, children’s coats, hoods,acid or use the Lyocell process which uses N- tablecloths, socks, shoes, and ornamental bagsMethylmorpholine N-oxide as solvent [3-4]. (Woodhouse, 1926).Although rayon is made from wood pulp, a relatively Today, viscose rayon has found versatility especiallyinexpensive and renewable resource, processing in apparel, value addition applications, domesticrequires high water and energy consumption, and has items etc. due to its similarity with cotton and somecontributed to higher cost. Not only had that but also places superiority on cotton [table 1]. Even highproduced added air and water pollution [4], here zinc tenacity rayon has found application in industrialmay cause skin cancer also, which affects the human textiles. Few end uses are listed below along withlife. Modernization of manufacturing plants and summarized photographic images given in figure 5processes thereby mainly targeted towards the [3, 10]. 677 | P a g e
  4. 4. Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.675-680Table 1: Comparison of Cotton and different Rayon Fibers [8] High wet REGULAR POLYNOSIC Modulus COTTON VISCOSE RAYON (HWM)Tenacity (gpd)Dry 2.5 – 3 3.2 – 4 4–5 3–5Wet 1.4 – 2 2.6 – 3.2 2–3 3.3 – 5.5Wet Strength (gpd)(with 5% NaOH) 1 – 1.3 2.2 – 2.7 2.5 2.7 – 3.3Wet modulus (gpd)(with 5%NaOH) 2.3 – 2 4 – 4.5 6–9.5 N.A.Breaking Elong. (%)Dry 16 – 24 7 – 12 15–23 6 – 10Wet 21 – 29 8 – 14 24–28 7 – 11Initial Wet Modulus (gpd) 26 12 12 13Degree of Polymerisation 250-300 450-500 500 1500-3000Recovery from stretch (at 2%) 85% 95% 95% 98% Poor Good Good GoodCross section Serrated Round N.A. Bean ShapedMoisture regain (%) 11 – 14 11 – 14 11–14 6–8Density(gm/cc) 1.5 1.52Diameter 15, 20,25 micron Figure 5: Applications of Viscose yarn 678 | P a g e
  5. 5. Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.675-680 Yarns: Neither build up static electricity, nor structure with well bound constituents [6, 14-15]. It will it pill unless the yarn is made from short modifies glass rod like structure of continuous staple with low-twist thus preferred for sewing filament yarn to preferable bulkier and fuller thread, Easily dyed in vivid colours so, used as appearance similar to ring spun yarn but without embroidery thread, chenille, cord, novelty yarn. cutting them into staple fibres. The irregular surface Apparel: Rayon as a cloth is soft and caused due to formation of crimp/curl/ loops during comfortable. It drapes well, which is one of the texturising reduces its lusture. Bound constituents reasons it is so desirable as an apparel fabric. add to the stability, prevent stickiness, reduces Thus it is popularly used for making blouses, slipping tendency due to increased grip. Apart from dresses, saris, jackets, lingerie, linings, that this exercise is carried out in one step millinery (hats), slacks, sport shirts, sportswear, immediately after wet spinning. Thus texturising of suits, ties, work clothes. viscose rayon can help in overcoming majority of its Fabrics: Rayon is the most absorbent of all draw backs at economical and quicker way. cellulose fibers, even more so than cotton and However non thermoplastic nature of linen (table 1). Because of this, rayon absorbs viscose rayon and its poor wet strength are the major perspiration and allows it to evaporate away hurdles in its course of texturising. Ivanova et al. 11, 12 from the skin, making it an excellent summer have tried to produce bulk yarn of viscose rayon by fabric. Its high absorbency applies equally to due modifications in manufacturing process. But it dyes, allowing beautiful, deep, rich colours. Thus has not found success due to poor stability of the it is preferred for crepe, gabardine, suiting, lace, structure attained lost during weaving as well outer wear fabrics and linings for fur coats. multistep production sequence. Altogether have made Domestic Textiles: Fabrics made out of viscose this product non favourable as well as costly. rayon has silk-like aesthetic with superb drape Research is still going on in overcoming the and feel so, used for bedspreads, blankets, limitations of this legendary cellulosic base filament curtains, draperies, sheets, slip covers, yarn. This can further add to its acceptance in various tablecloths, and upholstery. applications. Industrial Textiles: high-tenacity rayon is used as reinforcement to mechanical rubber REFERENCES: goods (tires, conveyor belts, and hoses), 1. www.fibersource.com/f-tutor/rayon.html applications within the aerospace, agricultural 2. Editors, Time-Life (1991). Inventive and textile industries, braided cord, tapes. It is Genius. New York: Time-Life Books. p. 52. also used for medical surgery products, non- ISBN 0-8094-7699-1. woven products, tire cord etc. 3. http://en.wickipedia.org/wiki/viscose_rayon Other: Rayon is a major feedstock in the 4. Viscose rayon - the oldest manmade fibre - production of carbon fiber. versatile fiber yarn http://www.swicofil.com/viscose.htmlLimitations of Viscose Rayon 5. Ghezelayagh Ava, A Comparison of the Although viscose rayon has many preferable Chemical Structures and Productionqualities, it offers many restrictions during its Methods of Silk and Artificial Silkprocessing. Moderate dry strength, pill resistance and http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2008/cluabrasion resistance along with poor wet strength ster8/ghezelayagh_ava.pdflimits its processability. Although the structure of the 6. Goswami, B.C., Martindale, J.G. &rayon fiber is smooth, inelastic filaments like glass Scardino, F.L. (1977). Textile yarns-rods, these make it slippery in nature, difficult to Technology, structure and applications, Ahandle during manufacturing until sized or highly Wiley-Interscience Publication.twisted. Apart from this it is highly cohesive to 7. H. V. Sreenivasa Murthy.( 1987).entangle with shuttle eye or needle. All together add Introduction to Textile Fibres, The Textileto its processing problems. Its higher lustrousness Association India Publication.also enables it to use directly as apparels. [3-4, 11-12] 8. V. B. Gupta & V. K. Kothari. (1997).Various attempts are made to overcome these Manufactured Fibre Technology, Chapmanlimitations earlier also. Cut staple spinning of and Hall Publication, 2-6 Boundary Roadcontinuous filament yarns by ring spinning technique London.either as 100% viscose yarn or in blend is the best 9. I. P. Baksheev, P. A. Butyagin, N. T.utilized option for the same. Though these yarns Butkova, and Yu. A. Malyugin, Fibreovercome limitations mentioned above, needs to Chemistry, production of viscose fibre andfollow longer route of production. Longer production yarn in cis countries Vol. 29, No. 4, 1997,process not only adds to time delay but also product pp 225-230.cost [13]. 10. Rayon Fiber (Viscose) at fibersource.com Another option is texturising. It transforms 11. L. V. Ivanova, B. M. Lotarev, I. G. Shimko,flat round slippery structure into crimpy or loopy S. P. Lipinskii, V. I. Merzlyakova and V. A. 679 | P a g e
  6. 6. Dr. Tasnim Shaikh, Mr. Satyajeet Chaudhari, Mrs. Alpa Varma / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.675-680 Usenko, Textured viscose rayon filament yarn - Chemistry And Technology Of Natural-Polymer Fibres, Fiber Chemistry, Volume 3, Number 6, 1971, 656-658, DOI: 10.1007/BF0063578112. L. V. Ivanova, E. M. Mogilevskii, I. G. Shimko, S. P. Lipinskii and V. I. Merzlyakova, et al. Formation of the bulked structure of textured viscose rayon, Fiber Chemistry 1974, Volume 6, Number 6, Pages 650-652.13. W.Klein. (1994), Man-made Fibres and their Processing, Volume 6, A Textile Institute publication, ISBN-13: 978 1 87081 261 0.14. V.Usenko, “Processing of man-made fibres”, Mir Publishers, Moscow. ch-2;pages 267-269.,ch-15;pages 272-33415. Hearle, J.W.S., Hollick, L. and Wilson, D.K. (2001). Yarn Texturising Technology, Woodhead Publishing Limited (CRC Press), Cambridge England. 680 | P a g e