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IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

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    • Otti, Victor, Akabuike, Nkiru / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.629-632 Innovative Strategy For Water Supply Project In Okpuno Town Using Optimal Solution 1 Otti, Victor 2Akabuike, Nkiru 1 Department of Civil Engineering Federal Polytechnic, Oko Anambra State 2 Department of Mathematics Federal Polytechnic, Oko Anambra StateABSTRACT A sustainable water supply in developing the communities can be achieved. The beneficiariescountries may seem to be an unattainable goal for of water supply and sanitation projects should learnthe many who have experienced the problem and where the water comes from, where the waste go to,frustration of dealing with communities ignorant why these services should be paid for and how toof the complexities of water supply technology. take responsibility for and ownership over theThe strategy proposed in this paper includes and infrastructure provided, Todet al (2003). Actually, theintegrates the operation and project processes progress of water supply and sanitation programme iswith the development of a community based still left behind as a result of poverty, knowledge,organisation, will be committed to the people and attitude and behavioural related to health. However,the cost effective operation of water supply in this proposed Okpuno-water scheme, thedelivery system using linear programming in community organisation must be fully involved in theminimizing, to obtain optimal operation cost. determination of their needs, strategies, planningKeywords: Community, participation, water supply, process, design, construction and the operation andlinear programming, operation and maintenance. maintenance. I. Introduction 1.2 Aims and Objectives Water is a source of life and researches over Meanwhile, the objectives of this water scheme arethe years have pointed to the fact that fresh water to:resources are not unlimited. Therefore, the provision  Develop a sustainable service for provisionof potable water to communities is broad process that of water suppliesrequires the coordination of needs,resources and  Provide safe water for the large populationinstitutional framework and this coordination needs  Accelerate coverage of safe water supplyto underpinned by effective facilitation as recorded  Improve public health and sanitationby WHO/UNICEF (1996).  Develop private sector to actively supportAlthough drought is a threat in northern Nigeria, the water supply and sanitation activitiescommunities need to use these scarce resources with  Provide a good example for communitycare so that future generation will be able to benefit participation in water supply and sanitationfrom good quality water. Kerry Smith (1993) in his sectorRethinking Rural Water supply policy stated that,  Supply water to consumers at right place,water as source of life entails correct utilization of price, quality, quantity and level of service.water and does not mean merely consumption  Minimize the cost of production andwithout thinking what happens to it afterwards. It maintenancealso mean taking care of waste water in order toavoid pollution and alleviate the spread of dangerous II. METHODOLOGYdiseases. 2.1 Study AreaWater supply and sanitation are considered human Okpuno town is one of the five towns thatrights and they are basic priorities of the made up Awka municipal urban in Awka Southreconstruction and development programmes in Local Government Area in Anambra State. She isNigeria. In some developing countries, experience located between latitudes 6°13 and 6°23, thenshows that provision of water and sanitation facilities longitude 6°49 and 7°04, with a population of 13,761goes with education and training in their proper use both male and female. Okpuno is situated in thebefore good result, in improving the quality of life in Anambra – Imo River Basin Authority underlaid in the basic sedimentary rocks. See fig. 1 below. 629 | P a g e
    • Otti, Victor, Akabuike, Nkiru / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.629-632The emergence and rapid growth of Okpuno town source, submersible pumps, overhead tank andlinked to the high demand of potable water as a result pipelines required to supply water to the communityof overwhelm development viz-a-viz the transport and there shall be emphasis more on revenuenetworks and attraction of basic service providers, generation Wijk-Sijbesma(1989).therefore a sustainable development is a simpleoption required to attain the objective of the water The course of production, the variables of place,scheme, as the community members agreed to have price, quality and service must be satisfied, meaningborehole fields comprising of seven boreholes to be there must be reasonable revenue and inevitableable to alleviate the problem of water scarcity since system success. The costof operation and maintainingthe State Water Corporation has been in moribund. the delivery system must not exceed the revenue that can be generated from the sale (supply) of water IRC2.2 Programme and Process (1994).Okpuno water scheme will involve two sets ofprocesses, namely project process involving One of the basic priorities of the Government is theconception, planning, designing and construction, empowerment of previously disadvantage, to makewhile operation processes involving operation, their own decision and to take ownership ofmaintenance, administration and accounting, Fox developmental projects. The education and training(1994). are vital part of every community water supply and sanitation project because the beneficiaries of theseThe focus of this paper is to satisfy the needs of the projects should be an inseparable part of the wholecommunity and to generate revenue towards these development process,from the pre-project phaseneeds. The delivery system must comprise of water through monitoring and evaluation, implementation 630 | P a g e
    • Otti, Victor, Akabuike, Nkiru / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.629-632and finally to the operation and maintenance after a It was discovered that additional cost of five millionproject has been completed according to Wong (₦5M) and two million naira (₦2M) will be required(2005) in his updating the institutional debate in for additional construction and maintenance after asustainable water management. period of time through available funds for these, is six million naira (₦6M). The community which is2.3 System Engineering involved with water scheme, may need to train three The strategic planning of Okpuno water (3) skilled men for the project process and eight (8)resources development involves two sets of skilled men for the operation process at cost of nineprocesses, project process and operation process. A million (₦9M). The question is how should thecost of five million naira (₦5M) and three million fundsbe distributed for the various cost to be able tonaira (₦3M) are allocated for them respectively. make the best of the available funds.In the plan of actions, four (4) project engineers and Therefore linear programming will be ideally used tofive (5) operation engineers are proposed to be used minimized the cost of the project and operation tofor the development of a cost of eight million (₦8M). achieve an optional solution.Linear ProgrammingLet the project process be X1Let the operation process be X2The objective function is thus minimize Z = 5x1 + 3x2Subject to: 4x1 + 5x2 ≤ 8 5x1 + 2x2 ≤ 6 3x1 + 8x2 ≤ 9 x1 ; x2 ≥ 0SolutionMinimize Z -5x1 - 3x2= 0Subject to: 4x1 + 5x2 + S1 = 8 5x1 + 2x2 +S2 = 6 3x1 + 8x2 + S3= 9 x1 ; x2 ≥ 0 Basic Z X1 X2 S1 S2 S3 SolZ 1 -5 -3 0 0 0 0S1 0 4 5 1 0 0 8S2 0 5 2 0 1 0 6S3 0 3 8 0 0 1 9Z 1 -3 1/8 0 0 0 3/8 27/8S1 0 17/8 0 1 0 -5/8 19/18S2 0 17/4 0 0 1 -1/4 15/4X2 0 3/8 1 0 0 1/8 9/8Z 1 0 0 0 31/34 5/34 23 1/34S1 0 0 0 1 -½ -½ ½X1 0 1 0 0 4/17 - 1/17 15/17X2 0 0 1 0 -3/34 5/34 27/34Thus X1 = 15/17 million = ₦882,353 X2= 27/34 million = ₦794,118This implies that from the available resources, the III. Discussiontotal cost available within the constraints is Z = The implication of this project on231/34 million = ₦6,794,118 out of which the community water supply and sanitation can be seenamount available for training of one worker for from two points of view. One looking at purelyproject process X1 ₦882,352 while for amount technical issue and another looking at socio-available for training of one worker for maintenance economic aspect. These are the basic aspects to beprocess is X2 = ₦794,118. taken into consideration when the framework for education and training processes in community water 631 | P a g e
    • Otti, Victor, Akabuike, Nkiru / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 2, March -April 2013, pp.629-632supply and sanitation project is to be developed, IRC [3] IRC, (1994). The Role of Communities in the(1993). Management of Improved Rural Water Supplies in Developing Countries, Participatory FieldHowever, community based organization is proposed Research and the development of Strategies,to be established which is better positioned and closer methods and tools-on inception report. Theto the people, will implement a community-focused Hague, IRC.water supply strategy than an externally based [4] Lerry-Smith, V. (1993). “Rethinking Ruralorganisation. Moreover,the constraints will be Water Supply Policy in the Punjab Pakistaninadequate knowledge, skills and experience that will water Resources Research 29(7) pp 1943- 1954.be required to effectively manage this water scheme. [5] Leach, M. and Fairhead, J. (2001). RuralIf Okpuno community will notunderstand these Perspective and Institutional Dynamic:issues and difficulties to be overcome, poses a threat Challenges for local forest management,according to Meinzen et al (2002) in their collective International Journal of Agricultural Resources.action for managing resources. Governance and Ecology, Vol. 1, Nos 3/4 pp 223-243. IV. Conclusion [6] Meinzen-Dick, R., Rajuk and Gulati, A. (2002). Okpuno as a developing community, should What affects organization and collective actionbe empowered and participate in the project phases of for managing resources? Evidence from Canalthe water supply development, though is invaluable Irrigation System in India.World Developmentin generating, a sense of ownership, responsibility Vol. 30, No. 4.Pp 649 – 660.and commitment within the community, but is not [7] Plattea, J.P. and Abraham, A. (2002).sufficient to ensure sustainability. Therefore a Participatory Development in the presence ofcommunity based organisation should take on the Endogenons CommunityImperfections. Theresponsibility of learning and implementing the skills Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 39, No 2,required to manage, operate and maintain the water pp 104 – 136.scheme. Often time, when the larger, experienced [8] Rowlands, J. O. (1995).water supply utility takes responsibility for water “EmpowermentExamined”. Development insupply in a developing area, the imposition of their Practice 5(2) 101 – 107.own strategy and policies may be inappropriate for [9] TOD, I., Parey, A. and Yadav, R. (2003).“Howthe community concerned, Platteau and Abraham can we design water Resources interventions to(2002). benefit poorer households? Paper presented in the alternative water forum, university of Rowlands (1995) opined in his Bradford, 1-2 May, 2003.empowerment examined, as a result local capacity [10] WHO/UNICEF, (1996). Water supply andand contents may not be developed, so decision sanitation sector monitoring report, 1996 –making is centralised awayfrom the community, the sector status as of 31 December, 1994.people’s needs are generalised or ignored and the [11] Wijk-Sijbesma, C.V. (1989). “What priceoperating cost ultimately increase. Consequently, water-user participation in paying forcommunity empowerment and transfer of community based water supply, IRC the Hague,responsibilities for water scheme management to The Netherland.community based organisational structure may beinefficient initially, but with careful planning andcommunity-based water supply management will bethe most effective option in the long run.Therefore,main purpose of the project is to supplysustainable potable water and gainful employment forthe young school leavers in the community. References[1] Fox, W. F. (1994). Strategic Options for Urban Infrastructure Management, Urban Management Programme, Washington DC.The World Bank.[2] IRC (1993). “Community Management Today” – The Role of Communities in Management of Improved Water Supply System, Occasional papers 20, The Hague, The Netherland. 632 | P a g e