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  1. 1. M.Sujatha,Prof.A.Gopalakrishnayya,Dr.T.Satyanarayana / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, June-July 2012, pp.645-648 Assessment Of Groundwater Quality In Rural Areas Of Vijayawada, A.P. M.Sujatha1 Prof.A.Gopalakrishnayya 2 Dr.T.Satyanarayana3 1.Assistant Professor ,Ecology & Environment, K.L.University, Guntur district A.P. India. 2,3.Department of Civil Engineering, S.R.K.Institute of Technology, Enikepadu, Vijayawada. A.P.India.Abstract: The small portion of available fresh water with great concern, since the quality of water is offor human consumption is being contaminated by vital importance for mankind and it is associated withvarious anthropogenic sources at a very alarming human welfare. With this view, the presentrate. With this view an attempt was made to assess investigation was carried out to assess thethe quality of groundwater in rural areas of groundwater quality, as groundwater is the onlyVijayawada by examining various physico – source for drinking, domestic and as well as otherchemical parameters such as colour, turbidity, purposes in the study area.odour, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolvedsolids, alkalinity, hardness, nitrate, sulphate, Study Areachloride, fluoride, iron and magnesium, to check A part of Vijayawada and its rural areasthe suitability of water for human consumption. such as Ramavarappadu, Prasadampadu, EnikepaduExcept hardness all most all parameters in the and Nidamanuru constituted in the study area, whichcollected ground water samples are within the are located at 160311N longitude and 800371Epermissible limits given by WHO, ISI ICMR. latitudes of krishna district, A.P. Vijayawada is the third largest city inIntroduction Andhra pradesh and its population is around 15 Water is one of the abundantly available lakhs. Vijayawada and its rural areas are situated onsubstances in nature and also called elixir of life. the bank of the River Krishna along NH5. In andWater plays an important role in the wealth of a around the study area, Indrakiladri hills and detachednation, particularly like India, Which is outcrops are observed. The major Geologicalpredominantly an agriculture dependent economy. formations comprise of khondalite suite of gneissicThe importance of water for the existence of life need rocks and their variations. Hydrogelogically, thesenot be over emphasized. rocks are known as Crystallione metamorphic rocks Ground water is the major source for with lack of primary porosity and hydraulicdrinking and domestic purposes in both rural and conductivity. However, the secondary porosity isurban areas. Besides, it is an important source for produced due to weathering and deformation to storeboth agriculture and industrial sectors. It has been and transmit the groundwater. The groundwater flowconsidered as a dependable source of uncontaminated is towards east. The regional trend of the geologicalwater. formations is North – East and South – West. The The above situation is changing very rapidly climate is dry during December to February and hotand at a very alarming rate due to pollutants from from March to June. The study area is developed onvarious sources. Although water can be polluted flat top clayey soils and gravel mixed with clay nearnaturally, due to higher degree of minerals present in hill areas. Due to heavy rainfall, the entire study areathe soils and rocks, the quality of ground water may gets flooded, beacause of flat topography andvary from place to place. In addition to above, rapid absence of effective drainage system.population growth, increasing living standards, The main groundwater recharging areas inuntreated municipal and industrial waste - waters, the study area are Krishna River and Eluru canal. Thefertilizers, application of pesticides, sewers and Krishna River is passing on south side and Elurulandfill areas are the potential sources of canal passes on North – East of the study area. Thegroundwater pollution. Water pollution is considered groundwater levels in open-dug and bore wells are varying from 2 to 3 mts below the ground level. The 645 | P a g e
  2. 2. M.Sujatha,Prof.A.Gopalakrishnayya,Dr.T.Satyanarayana / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, June-July 2012, pp.645-648study area located on the North – East side of the 1599 mg/l. A slightly higher concentration of TDSVijayawada city, which is an industrial area recorded at Nidamanuru (N1) due to organic and(Autonagar) and includes four contignous villages inorganic salts from paddy fields. Water containingnamely Ramavarappadu, prasadampadu, Enikepadu high TDS concentration may cause constipationand Nidamanuru. A drain called Guntathippa, effects on humans (Kumara swamy,1991)discharges the industrial and domestic effluents of Electrical conductivity (EC) is a measure ofAutonagar and other surrounding residential areas the salt content of water in the form of ions. ECinto Eluru canal. The Guntathippa drain flows on values ranged from 726 to 2460 µ mohs/cm. There isSouth – East side of Prasadampadu village. an increase of EC value at Nidamanuru due to thePrasadampadu, Enikepadu and Nidamanuru are presence of salts in clayey soils. A sudden rise inrecently well developed on flat agricultural fields, Electrical Conductivity in the water indicateswhere as Nidamanuru is situated in low lying area. addition of some pollutants to it ( Trivedi and Goel, 1986). The area Nidamanuru (N1) is having theMaterials and Methods highest Electrical Conductivity and also has the Two liters of groundwater samples were highest pH.collected in a clean polyethylene bottles from all the Chloride occurs naturally in all types ofsampling locations in open - dug wells and tube – waters. High concentration of chlorides is consideredwells in the study area after operating the pump for to be the indicators of pollution due to high organic15minutes. Totally twelve ground water samples wastes of animal or industrial origin. Human bodywere collected, three from each village with releases a very high quantity (6 grams per person pernecessary precautions, for determination of physico – day) of chloride (Sharma and Pande, 1988). From thechemical parameters. The water samples were present observation in the study area, maximum (440subjected to physical and chemical analysis by mg/l) and minimum (104 mg/l) chloride values areInternal Water Quality Monitoring Laboratory, Rural reported in Nidamanuru (N1 & N2) among all thewater supply and Sanitation Department, sampling locations. Higher concentration of chloridesVijayawada, Government of A.P. may be due to improper disposal of sewage wastes and feeding of salt to certain type of trees likeResults and Discussion coconuts in the study area. Excess chloride cause The physico chemical characteristics of vascular problems, salt taste to water, steel corrosiongroundwater in the area of investigation are given in and reduced the strength of concrete.Table-1. There is little variation in the physical Alkalinity is a measure of ability tocharacteristics of groundwater, whereas the changes neutralize acids. Excess alkalinity gives bitter taste tohave been observed in the chemical parameters of the water and reacts with cations forming precipitates,groundwater in the study area. which can damage the pipes, valves, etc. However, The Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) is an some alkalinity is required for drinking water toimportant factor in water analysis, since it enters into neutralize acids, such as lactic acid and citric acidthe calculation of acidity, alkalinity and the processes produced in the human body. Minimum andlike coagulation, disinfection and corrosion control. maximum alkalinity values in the study area rangedThe pH of water indicates the form in which the from 92 to 420 mg/l at Nidamanuru locations N2 &carbon dioxide is present. A change of pH from 6 to N1 respectively.7 indicates that there is a tenfold decrease in the Hardness is the chemical property of water,hydrogen ions concentration. In a similar fashion, a which prevents the formation of lather with soap,change of pH 7 to 8 indicates a tenfold increase in caused mainly by the multivalent metallic cations likehydroxyl ions. In all the sampling locations of the calcium, magnesium, iron and strontium. Waters withstudy area, the pH values of groundwater varied hardness greater than 300 mg/l may lead to heart andfrom 7.2 to 7.74, which is reported as alkaline in kidney problem. It is reported that total hardnessnature and also within the permissible limits of varying from 168 to 620 mg/l during investigation. Indrinking water (WHO 1971, ISI 1991) almost all the sampling locations of the study area, Drinking water quality is affected by the the total hardness is within the desirable limits,presence of soluble salts. The total dissolved solids except at Nidamanuru (N1). It is mainly due to(TDS) up to 500 to 1500 mg/l is permitted for calcium, magnesium and chlorides in domesticdrinking as well as other domestic purposes as per the sewage and subsurface clayey soils.standards. TDS also affect the strength and durability Water in contact with natural deposits suchof concrete and palatability of food cooked. The TDS as topaz, fluorspar and criolite are found to containconcentration in the present study ranged from 472 to excess fluoride. The fluoride concentrations in all the 646 | P a g e
  3. 3. M.Sujatha,Prof.A.Gopalakrishnayya,Dr.T.Satyanarayana / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, June-July 2012, pp.645-648groundwater samples of the study area are found which are within the permissible limits, except atwithin the permissible limits. Nidamanuru (N1) sampling location. In groundwater’s, most of the Nitrogen isfound in the form of Nitrates. If these waters show an Conclusions and Recommendationsappreciable amount of nitrates as much as 45 mg/l, In the present study areas such aswhich adversely affect the health of children, Ramavarappadu, Prasadampadu, Enikepadu andproducing a disease called Nidamanuru, groudnwater is the only sourceMethylhaemoglobinaneamia or Blue Baby exploited by the people through number of shallowSyndrome, which results skin colour becomes dark, tube – wells and open - dug wells for drinking,the child falls sick, vomits and in extreme cases dies. domestic and other purposes. The investigationNitrate concentration in all the sampling locations are revealed that all most all the physical and chemicalreported as within the permissible limits (less than parameters are within the permissible limits of45mg/l), except at location N1 in Nidamanuru standards, except at Nidamanuru (N1) near FCI(48mg/l). The higher concentration of Nitrates in the Godowns. Higher concentrations of all the chemicalstudy area may be due to the decomposition of parameters are reported at the above location due toorganic wastes from paddy fields. sewage, poor drainage systems, as well as the Calcium is the major constituent of most of sampling location was situated in paddy field. Hardthe igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. waters are noticed in almost all the sampling stationsThe main sources of calcium content in groundwater due to excavation of wells in clayey soils. Henceare weathering of Plagioclase feldspar, pyroxenes, groundwater in all the sampling sites, can be usedlimestone and gypsum. The calcium values reported safely for drinking and domestic purposes afterin the study area are varying from 64 to 220 mg/l, proper treatment. After thorough observation of the study area and Referenceschemical analysis of the groundwater samples, the 1. APHA, 1996. Standard methods forfollowing suggestions are made. Examination of water and waste water 1. Environmental awareness among the people analysis, 17th Edition, American Public regarding environmental pollutions, Health Association, Washinton DC. particularly different ways of groundwater 2. ISI,1991. Indian Standard Drinking water pollution aspects to be created. specifications. IS: 10500, Bureau of Indian 2. The provision of underground drainage standards, New Delhi. system has to be adopted, to check the 3. Internal water quality Monitoring percolation of sewage water in to the sub- Laboratory, Rural water supply and basins. Sanitation Dept, Vijayawada, Government 3. Providing adequate drainage system with of A.P. proper treatment before disposal of wastes 4. ICMR, 1975. National standards for water and also removal of faulty constructed lined quality. Spl. Rep. No.44.27. or unlined septic tanks and cesspools, which 5. Trivedi, R.K. and Goel, P.K, 1986. may restrict the deterioration of groundwater Chemical and Biological methods for water quality. pollution studies. Environmental 4. Eucalyptus (Nilagiri) trees can be grown at publications, Karad, the sides of streets and roads. Such trees 6. T.Satyanarayana and B.Guru Prasad, 2006. consume more water and hence water Hydrogeological study of subsurface waters. logging problem can be avoided in the study Journal of Nature Environment and areas. Pollution Technology, Vol.5 No.3, PP 459- 5. Each house is to be taken as unit and sewage 461. is let enter into the septic tank. Then only 7. Sharma, S.D.and K.S.Pande, 1988. Pollution the treated effluents from the septic-tank is studies on Ramaganga River, allowed to go into the outside drain. Pollution Res.17 (2):201-209. 647 | P a g e
  4. 4. M.Sujatha,Prof.A.Gopalakrishnayya,Dr.T.Satyanarayana / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 4, June-July 2012, pp.645-648 Table – 1: Physical and Chemical parameters in the study area Sampling Locations R1 R2 R3 P1 P2 P3 E1 E2 E3 N1 N2 N3 Limits asS.No Parameter per IS 10500-19911 Colour 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5-252 Turbidity (in 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5-10 NTU)3 Odour Un objectinable Un objectinable4 PH 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.74 7.2 7.6 6.5-8.55 Electrical 880 1020 1048 1198 1260 1280 940 1080 1060 2460 726 1740 2500 µ Conductivity mohs/cm6 Total 572 663 681 779 819 832 611 702 689 1599 472 1131 500- Dissolved 2000mg/l Solods7 Alkalinity 112 124 140 164 180 188 120 128 128 420 92 268 200-6008 Total 212 236 260 288 300 304 228 252 248 620 168 408 300-600 Hardness9 Carbonate 112 124 140 164 180 188 120 128 128 420 92 288 75-200 Hardness10 Calcium 80 88 100 112 116 120 84 100 100 220 64 140 75-20011 Nitrate 14 16 18 20 22 22 16 18 18 48 12 28 45.10012 Sulphate 26 36 38 48 50 52 24 36 36 102 20 68 200-40013 Chloride 120 140 148 168 168 172 132 140 140 440 104 220 250-100014 Fluride 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.0-1.515 Iron 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.1 0.06 0.08 0.3-1.016 Magnesium 28 32 36 52 58 60 28 34 34 97 24 25 30-150 Index: R1= Ramavarappadu (Highschool road), R2=Ramavarappadu (Railway station), R3= Ramavarappadu (slum area near canal) P1= Prasadampadu (Vivekananda School), P2= Prasadampadu (Kanuru road) P3= Prasamdampadu (Behind Ford Show room) E1= Enikepadu (SRK Institute of Tech) E2= Enikepadu (Vijaya Institute of Tech) E3= Enikepadu (Pradamika High School) N1= Nidamanuru (Near FCI Godowns) N2= Nidamanuru (Poranki road) N3= Nidamanuru (Petrol bunk) 648 | P a g e