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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of......

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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  • 1. A.Mohamed Ansar, Dalbir Singh, Balaji.D / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.588-591588 | P a g eFatigue analysis of glass fiber reinforced composites1A.Mohamed Ansar, 2Dalbir Singh, 3Balaji.DDepartment of Aeronautical Engineering Hindustan University, Chennai-603103ABSTRACTSome structure materials can match theflexibility and effectiveness of glass fiberReinforced plastic, commonly called GFRP forshort or simply fiberglass. Even it is very highstrength, light weight, strong, and completelywaterproof, it can be molded into free formshapes such as aerospace structures, and thenalso it has its endurance limits. Endurance limitmeans loss of strength and stiffness. This articledescribes about the fatigue life materialproperties of GFRP composites are studiedbased on an extensive experimental study. Thenthe loss of stiffness was used as a damageparameter and related to raise the temperature.The objective of this project is to analyze thedamage and ageing effects in composites andfind the change in physical and mechanicalproperties. The work discusses the experimentalinvestigations carried out on Glass Fiberreinforced plastic (GFRP) composite specimensin which the acquire result is analyzed. Mainlythis article explains about the fatigue analysis ofglass fiber reinforced composites with varyingloads and shown the number of cycles withstand.Keywords: Composite materials, GFRPcomposites, Mechanical properties, Flexuralstrength, fatigue, cyclic impact.1. INTRODUCTIONFRP composites are defined as thematerials that contain fibers embedded in a resinmatrix. The aim of combining fibers and resins thatare different in character is to take advantage of theunique material features of either component toresult in an engineered material with desiredoverall composite action for particular applications.Continuous fiber-reinforced composites containreinforcements contain lengths much more thantheir cross-sectional dimensions. Such a compositeis considered to be a irregular fiber or short fibercomposite if its properties differ with fiber length.On the other hand, when the length of the fiber issuch that any additional increase in length does not,for example, additional increase the elasticmodulus or strength of the composite, thecomposite is considered to be continuous fiberreinforced. Most continuous fiber composites, infact, contain fibers that are similar in length to theoverall dimensions of the composite part.Engineering properties of FRP composites forstructural applications, in most cases, are subject byfiber reinforcements. Additional fibers usually giverise to high strength and stiffness. Excessively highfiber/matrix ratios may, however lead to strengthdecrease or premature failure due to internalfracture. Fiber lengths and orientation also affectthe properties.Glass fibers: The most common reinforcement forthe polymer matrix composites be a glass fiber.Most of the fibers are based on silica (SiO2), withaddition of oxides of Ca, Na, B, Al, and Fe. Theglass fibers are classified into three classes- E-glass S-glass C-glassThe E-glass is chosen for electrical useand the S-glass for high strength. The C-glass is forhigh corrosion resistance, and it is special for civilengineering application. Of the three fibers, the E-glass is the most common reinforcement materialused in civil engineering structures. It is createdfrom lime-alumina borosilicate which can be easilyobtained from plenty of raw materials like sand.The glass fiber strength and modulus candegrade with increasingtemperature. Even if the glass material creepsunder a sustained load, it can bedesigned to perform satisfactorily. The fiber itselfis regarded as an isotropic material and has apoorer thermal expansion coefficient than the steel.E-glass (electrical) Family of glassed with acalcium aluminum borosilicate composition and amaximum alkali composition of 3%. These areused when strength and high electrical resistivityare essential.S-glass (tensile strength) Fibers have amagnesium alumina-silicate composition, whichdemonstrates high strength and used in use wherethe very high tensile strength is required.C-glass (chemical) It contains a soda limeborosilicate composition that are mainly used forits chemical stability in corrosive environment. It isfrequently used on composites that contain acidicmaterials.Structure of glass fiber: Glass fibers have hightensile strength, impact strengths and high chemicalresistance. Then they have relatively low modulus,low fatigue resistance, self-abrasiveness and verylow adhesion to matrix composites. Then the threedimensional network of structure of glass results inisotropic properties of glass fibers, in contrast to
  • 2. A.Mohamed Ansar, Dalbir Singh, Balaji.D / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.588-591589 | P a g ethose of carbon and Kevlar aramid fibers which areanisotropic. The elastic modulus of glass fibersmeasured along the fiber axis is the same as thatmeasured in the transverse direction, acharacteristic unique to glass fibers.Material Preparation: If bidirectional (0°/90°)glass fiber reinforced epoxy laminate will be studyin this project. Here the composite laminate ismade up of seven layers of glass fibers with epoxyresin were fabricated. The plain weave fabric of Eglass E420 fibers and LY 556 Epoxy Resin withXY 951 Hardener were used. The constantthickness of 3.4mm will be maintained throughoutthe experiment. Fiber-volume fraction of thecomposites was 65%. Vacuum bagging techniquewas used for the manufacturing of compositelaminate. Resin and hardener were mixed in theratio of 10:1. Alternate layer of resin-hardenermixture and carbon fibers were applied at roomtemperature. Curing at room temperature was donefor 24 hours and post- curing at 100°C was donefor 2 hours.Material Cutting: Test coupons will be cutaccording to the ASTM E 466-01 for Fatiguetesting by using water jet cutting technique. Thetest coupon will have dimension of length 250mmand width 25 mm and thickness 3mm as shown infigure.Test Coupons Preparation: After cutting thematerial it’s should be cleaned then grippingsurface to attach the coupons as per the ASTME 466-01 standard. If the gripping materialshould be rough in nature so will place the 1mmaluminum plate on both sites. By using thearaldite nature so will place the 1mm aluminumplate on both sites. By using the araldite resin andhardener to paste the plates. Then it’s should de
  • 3. A.Mohamed Ansar, Dalbir Singh, Balaji.D / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.588-591590 | P a g erough by using the fillet. And the test test couponsare as shown in figure.Water Jut cutting machine:Water jet cutting machine is a device which is usedfor to cut the material in exact dimension and itsreduces the wastage. And its specification is58000psi/4000 bar high pressure of stream water.Its spraying value is 11 mach speeds. Then thetolerance value is +/-0.1mm to +/-0.3mm.Fatigue Testing Machine: In this testing machine,materials are subjected to vibrating or oscillatingforces. The apply the materialsunder such load conditions differs from thebehavior under a static load. Because the materialis subjected to repeated load cycles (fatigue) inactual use, designers are faced with predictingfatigue life.ID MARKS AH/31876-1AAH/31876-2BAH/31876-3CTHICHNESS(mm) 2.03 2.03 2.03BREATH(mm) 24.73 24.73 24.73AREA(mm)2 50.20 50.20 50.20LOAD(KN) 15.00 15.00 15.00CYCLES 3293 3199 3196FREQUENCY(HZ) 12 12 12FRECTURE YES YES YESID MARKS AH/31875-1AAH/31875-2BAH/31875-3CTHICHNESS(mm)2.03 2.03 2.03BREATH(mm) 24.73 24.73 24.73AREA(mm)2 50.20 50.20 50.20LOAD(KN) 10.00 10.00 10.00CYCLES 5193 5199 5180FREQUENCY(HZ)12 12 12FREACTURE YES YES YESID MARKS AH/31874-1AAH/31874-2BAH/31874-3CTHICHNESS (mm) 2.03 2.03 2.03BREATH(mm) 24.73 24.73 24.73AREA (mm)2 50.20 50.20 50.20LOAD(KN) 5.00 5.00 5.00CYCLES 11293 11354 11285FREQUENCY(HZ) 12 12 12FREACTURE YES YES YES
  • 4. A.Mohamed Ansar, Dalbir Singh, Balaji.D / International Journal of Engineering Research andApplications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.588-591591 | P a g eRESULT:Test pieces photo:Conclusion and future work :The fatigue test for GFRC shows that it canwithstand the fatigue load efficiently compare toaluminum. In the future this work can be extendedwith different loading conditions to prove who thestress variation can be improved, by knowing thestress variation this can be used in airframe of theaircrafts.REFERENCES1. Analysis of fatigue and damage in glass-fibre-reinforced polypropylene compositematerials. J.A.M. Ferreira a,*, J.D.M.Costa a, P.N.B. Reis b, M.O.W.Richardson c2. Wysgoski MG, Novak GE. Fatiguefracture of long fiber rein-forced Nylon66. Polym Compos 1995; 16(1):38-51.3. Curtis PT. A review of the fatigue ofcomposite materials. Royal AircraftEstablishment, Technical Report 87031,1987.4. Compressive strength of &bre compositeswith random&bre waviness.D. Liu, N.A. Fleck∗ , M.P.F. Sutcli5. Glass Fiber Reinforced PolypropyleneMechanical Properties Enhancement byAdhesion Improvement. MarianaEtcheverry and Silvia E. Barbosa *6. Fatigue resistant fiberglass laminates forwind turbine blades. Daniel D. Samborskyand John F. Mandell7. L. Lorenzo and H. T. Hahn, in“Composite Materials: Fatigue andFracture”, edited by H. T. Hahn, ASTMSTP 907, Philadelphia (PA), AmericanSociety for Testing and Materials, 1986.8. Ellyin, F. and El-Kadi, H.A. (1990). AFatigue Failure Criterion of FiberReinforced Laminates, CompositeStructures, 15(1): 61–74.9. Fatigue Life Prediction of Pultruded E-glass/Polyurethane Composites.PIZHONG QIAO* AND MIJIA YANG10. Hwang, W. and Han, K.S. (1986a).Cumulative Damage Models and Multi-Stress Fatigue Life Prediction,Journal of Composite Materials, 20(2):125–153.