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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of …

International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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  • 1. R.S. Yadav, N.K.Khandelwal / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.531-536531 | P a g eEffect of variousEnergy inputs on Energy requirement for WheatProduction in Agro-Climatic Region (Kamore plateau andSatpura Hill), M.P. India.R.S. Yadav*, N.K.Khandelwal*** M.Tech student and ** Associate Professor,Deptt.of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College ofAgricultural Engineering, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.)ABSTRACTEnergy in agriculture is important interms of crop production and agro processingfor value adding. The energy requirement invarious facets of agriculture varies considerablydue to variation in the technology level adoptedby the farmers and also because of the diverseagro-climatic conditions. The increased use ofinputs such as fertilizer, irrigation water, diesel,plant protection chemicals, electricity etc.demands more energy in the form of human,animal and machinery. The aims of this studywere to determine direct input energy andindirect energy in Kamore plateau and SatpuraHillRegion,which belongs to wheat-rice zone ofMadhya Pradesh, to investigate the efficiency ofenergy consumption. Data were collected from120 farmer of Agro-Climatic Region by using aface to face questionnaire method. The resultsrevealed that wheat production in year of 2010-11 consumed a total of 14345MJ/ha of whichchemical fertilizer, diesel fuel and electric energyconsumption was 31.1%, 20.5% and 24.2%,respectively. Direct and Indirect energy were49.6% and 50.4% respectively. Output Energywas 56595 MJ/ha. Output– input energy ratioand specific energy of production andproductivity were 3.9, 3.7 MJ/kg and 0.27 kg/MJ,respectively. The use of commercial source is toohigh as compared to non-commercial energysources. Commercial sources contributed about93.4 per cent of total energy (14345 MJ/ha).Onthe basis of linear programming the predictionof energy requirement for different levels ofyield reveals that there exist a significant scopeto enhance wheat productivity through increaseduse of input energy through fertilizer andmachinery. This is mainly due to the reason thatstill agricultural farms of Madhya Pradesh areapplying 50-75% of recommendation of fertilizerand machinery use.Keyword: Wheat, Energy ratio, Specific Energy,Yield, Productivity.1. IntroductionEnergy has an influencing role in thedevelopment of key sectors of economic importancesuch as industry, transport and agriculture. This hasmotivated many researchers to focus their researchonenergy management. Energy has been a key inputof agriculture since the age of subsistenceagriculture. It is an established fact worldwide thatagricultural production is positively correlatedwithenergy input (Singh, 1999). Agriculture is botha producer and consumer of energy. It uses largequantities of locally available noncommercialenergy, such as seed, manure and animate energy,as well as commercial energies, directlyandindirectly, in the form of diesel, electricity,fertilizer, plant protection, chemical, irrigationwater, machinery etc. Efficient use of these energieshelps to achieve increased production andproductivity and contributes to the profitability andcompetitiveness ofagriculture sustainability in ruralliving (Singh et al., 2002). Energy use in agriculturehas beenincreasing in response to increasingpopulation, limited supply of arable land, and adesire for higherstandards of living (Kizilaslan,2009).The increased use of inputs such asfertilizer, irrigation water, diesel, plant protectionchemicals, electricity etc. demands more energy inthe form of human, animal and machinery. Thecommercial energy used in agriculture increasednearly six fold with growth rate of 11.8%between1980-81 to 2000, but the share ofagriculture in total energy consumption in thecountry increased 2.3 to 5.2% during the sameperiod (Surendra Singh, 2002). About 57% of theIndian population depends upon agriculture.The animate power contributed 92 percentof the total farm power in 1960-61 and mechanicaland electrical together contributed only 8 percent.However the contribution of animate power camedown to only 19 percent in 1999-2000(Singh.2005).A study on energy consumption pattern intransplanted paddy cultivation. They reported that,irrigated farms consumed 57 to 201% more energymainly through electricity, fertilizer, and diesel ascompare to rain fed farms and resulted in to 20.4 to67.3% higher crop productivity. Operational energyuse was 40 to 50% of the total energy usage.Irrigation was the most energy consuming operationin irrigated farms followed by tillage, harvesting,threshing and transplanting.
  • 2. R.S. Yadav, N.K.Khandelwal / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.531-536532 | P a g eMadhya Pradesh is the largest state havinggeographical area 31 million hectares along with thecropping intensity of 117.5% which is belownational average 135% with the net sowing area of19million hectare. Agriculture contributes 44% tothe state economy. Multiple cropping schemes inMadhya Pradesh were possible through theextension of irrigation facility (32% in 2002), andintroduction of farm equipment such as tractors,seed drills, multi crop threshers and combine(custom hiring). The tendency of farmers to utilizemore energy to get higher productivity resulted in tohigher farm power availability, which enhancedfrom 0.64 kW/ha in 1998 to 1.0 kW/ha in 2005.The aims of this study were to determinedirect input energy and indirect energy in Kamoreplateau and Satpura Hill Region which belongs towheat-rice zone of Madhya Pradesh, to investigatethe efficiency of energy consumption.2. Materials and MethodData were collected from 120 farmers ofdifferent village of Kamore plateau and Satpura HillRegion of Madhya Pradesh by using a face to facequestionnaire in December to April 2010-11. Thesimple random sampling method was used todetermine survey volume (Kizilaslan, 2009).In the formula, the below signs and lettersrepresent: n is the required sample size, s is thestandard deviation, t is the t value at 95%confidence limit (1.96), N is the number of holdingin target population and d is the acceptable error(permissible error 5%).Farmers were randomlyselected and contacted with the help of Gram-Pradhan. After collecting preliminary information’srelated to their inventory, irrigation sources andtype of farming system. It was tried that maximumfarmers are contacted to have required informationin present Performa. The farmers were classified asmarginal, small, medium-sized and large farmers onthe basis of their land holding as:1. Marginal farmers (< 1.0 ha)2. Small farmers (1.0-2.0 ha)3. Medium farmers (2.0-4.0 ha)4. Large farmers (> 4.0 ha)The criteria were adopted in conformity with theusual practice as recommended by Mittal andDhawan (1988).Availability of power:The inventory of hired (permanent andtemporary) and family labour, draught animals(including all animals used for draught purposecarrying out agricultural operations), all power unitsincluding mobile (tractors) and stationary(diesel/gasoline engines and electric motors) weretaken.Crop yield:The crop yield was also recorded byinterviewing the farmers of the selected villages.Information like harvested crop and threshed cropin terms of weight was recorded in the pre-testedquestionnaires.Calculation of EnergyEnergy from Direct Sources:DE = HLH x 1.96 + BPH x10.10+ FC x 56.31 + ECx 11.93 …. (1)Where,DE = Direct Energy, (MJ)HLH = Human labor hours used, (h/ha)BP = Bullock pair hours used, (h/ha)FC = Fuel consumption, (l/ha)EC = Electricity consumption,(kWh/ha)Source: Research digest on energy requirement inagriculture sector, CAE, PAU, Ludhiana (1985)Energy from Indirect Sources:IE = (C x WM x HUM x OA) + FYM X 0.3 MJ/kg+ S x 14.7 MJ/kg + Ch. x 120 MJ/l x fertilizer (NX 60.0 X P X 11.1 X K x 6.7)……………… (2)Where IE = indirect energy input frommachinery, (MJ)C = energy coefficient, (MJ/Kg)WM = Weight of machinery usedper hour, (Kg)HUM = hours use of machinery, (h)OA = operational area (ha)FYM = farm Yard Manure,(Kg/ha)S = seed, (Kg/ha)Source: Research digest on energy requirement inagriculture sector, CAE, PAU, Ludhiana (1985)Total energy:TE = DE + IEWhere,DE = Direct Energy, MJIE = Indirect Energy, MJBased on theenergy equivalents(Pansar andbhatnagar, 1987 ) of the inputs and output output–input energy ratio, energy productivity, specific andenergy net energy gain were calculated (Singh,2002; Mohammadi et al., 2008; Sartori et al., 2005;Demircan et al., 2006... (3)N =
  • 3. R.S. Yadav, N.K.Khandelwal / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.531-536533 | P a g e..... (4)… (5)Cropyield:The crop yield was also recorded byinterviewing the farmers of the selected villages.Information like harvested crop and threshed cropin terms of weight was recorded in the pretestedquestionnaires.Computerization of data:The primary data were computerized as perrequirement of FORTRAN Programme availablewith energy requirement scheme. The data of wheatcrop and inventory was subsequently pooled forfurther processing.Processing of computerized data:FORTRAN Program available with energyscheme was used for processing of data. Thecollected raw data were coded to in required format(MS DOS) and processed by using differentprogrammes to being to in usable tabular form.These processed data in FORTRAN then translatedto MS- EXCEL worksheet for further analysiswork. The individual farmer-wise followinginformation were used. Operation wise energy requirement(MJ/ha). Source wise energy use by farmers(MJ/ha). Crop yield (Kg/ha). Energy input through indirect sources. Energy input through direct sources.3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSOperation wise energy use pattern:Table 3.1 shows that the operation wiseenergy requirement during 2010-11 varied from7737-10320 MJ/ha with mean value of 9318MJ/ha,therewas significant difference in theenergy utilization amongst all the category offarmers was observed in performing all theoperations for wheat cultivation. Table 3.1indicates that irrigation was the highest energyconsuming operation and consumed (3670 MJ/ha)followed by seedbed preparation (2038MJ/ha),harvesting and threshing (1752 MJ/ha) andtransportation (800MJ/ha) for wheat cropproduction in 2010-11.Table 3.1.Operation wise energy use pattern (MJ/ha) for wheat crop.Field operations MF SF MSF LF Wt.avg.Seedbed PreparationSowingIrrigationHarvestingThreshingTransportation16199923229409109839022431071400352211197962137105434815041340979215611143968572144210682038105836705021250800Total energy (MJ/ha) 7737 9754 9495 10320 9318The effect of operation wise on wheat can be related by linear equation.Relationship between operation wiseenergy use and yield for wheat cultivation.y = -0.000x2 + 1.559x +439.5R² = 0.745200022002400260028003000320034003600380040001000 2000 3000Yield(kg/ha)Seedbed Preparation(MJ/ha)Yield(kg/ha)Poly. (Yield(kg/ha) )Fig.3.1 relation between seedbed preparationenergy and yield of wheat crop.y = 3.327x - 220.6R² = 0.7281500200025003000350040004500500 700 900 1100 1300Yield(kg/ha)Sowing (MJ/ha)Yield(kg/ha)Fig.3.2 relation between sowing energy and yield ofwheat crop.
  • 4. R.S. Yadav, N.K.Khandelwal / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.531-536534 | P a g eSource wise energy use patternTable 3.2 shows that the total energy input from different source was 14345 MJ/ha. The variationamong the total energy input on the different categories of farmers was 13306 -15787 MJ/ha. Electricity anddiesel contributed 24 percent and 20 percent of total energy in 2010-11. Electricity was used for irrigation andthreshing whereas diesel was used mainly for tillage. The energy inflow through electricity was 3477 MJ/hafollowed by diesel 2939 MJ/ha. Among the indirect source of energy the fertilizers supplied maximum(4468MJ/ha).Table 3.2 Source wise energy use pattern (MJ/ha) for wheat crop production.Source of energy MF SF MSF LF Wt.Avg.HumanAnimalDieselElectricSeedsFertilizerMachinery6842525933158199742326176921526313282211345825737180.285335012287442461867803682396921794632647693102939347721444468614Total energy (MJ/ha) 13306 13888 14401 15787 14345Table 3.3 Average energy use pattern and productivity.Parameters (MJ/ha) MF SF MSF LF Wt. Avg.Direct energyIndirect energyRenewable energyNon- renewable energyCommercial energyNon- commercial energyProductivity (kg/MJ)Yield (kg/ha)Energy ratio64416846268711737137346900.2631053.4366127268281211068131516990.2838644.1070727332300511399136867180.2840864.17834974612877293051096980.2843454.047118722728459283114207010.2738503.90
  • 5. R.S. Yadav, N.K.Khandelwal / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.531-536535 | P a g eThe effect of source wise on wheat can be related by linear equation.Relationship between source wise energyuse and yield for wheat cultivation.sCONCLUSIONIn this study, energy consumption forinput and output energies in wheat production wasinvestigated in Kamore plateau and Satpura HillRegion of Madhya Pradesh. Data were collectedfrom 120 farmers which were selected based onrandom sampling method. Total energyconsumption in wheat production was 14345MJ/ha of which chemical fertilizer, diesel fuel andelectric energy consumption was 31.1%, 20.5%and 24.2%, respectively. Direct and Indirectenergy were 49.6% and 50.4% respectively.Output Energy was 56595 MJ/ha. Output– inputenergy ratio and specific energy of production andproductivity were 3.9, 3.7 MJ/kg and 0.27 kg/MJ,respectively. The use of commercial source is toohigh as compared to non-commercial energysources. Commercial sources contributed about97% per cent of total energy (14345 MJ/ha).Non-renewable energy was 82.1% total input energythat concluded that wheat production needs toimprove the efficiency of energy consumption inproduction and to employ renewable energy. Onthe basis of linear programming the prediction ofenergy requirement for different levels of yieldreveals that there exist a significant scope toenhance wheat productivity through increased useof input energy through fertilizer and machinery.REFRENCES[1]. Adhoo (1981) energy use pattern fordifferent sizes farms and crops undervarying lands of resource inputs inwardha district of Maharastra state.[2]. Canakci, M., Topakci, I., Akinci, A.,Ozmerzi, (2005), Energy use pattern ofsome field crops and vegetable productionfor Antalya Region, Turkey, EnergyConversion and Management (46): 655–666.[3]. Dhawan, K.C. and Mittal, J.P. 1991.Roleof fertilizers in increasing yield of variouscrops in India.Economic AffairsCalcutta.39 (2): 92-99.y = 0.399x + 1685.R² = 0.62215002000250030003500400045001500 2500 3500 4500 5500 6500Yield(Kg/ha)Diesel Energy (MJ/ha)Yield(kg/ha)Linear(Yield(kg/ha) )Fig.3.4 relation between diesel energy and yieldy = 0.724x - 61.26R² = 0.830200025003000350040004000 4500 5000 5500Yield(kg/ha)Fertilizer Energy (MJ/ha)Yield (kg/ha)Linear (Yield(kg/ha))Fig.3.6 relation between fertilizer energy andyield of wheat crop.y = 0.300x - 1661.R² = 0.8852000250030003500400014000 15500 17000 18500Yield(kg/ha)Total Energy (MJ/ha)Yield (kg/ha)Linear (Yield(kg/ha))Fig.3.7 relation between total energy and yieldof wheat crop.
  • 6. R.S. Yadav, N.K.Khandelwal / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.531-536536 | P a g e[4]. Dipankar, De and Babu, Bhushana(2004), Energy consumption pattern intransplanted paddy cultivation in India,Journal of Agricultural Engineering,Vol.41 (4): 15-20.[5]. Franzluebbers A.J. and C.A. Francis(1995) study on crop managementsystems to help farmers to maintaineconomic profitability.[6]. Gurushami, T., G.R.K., Murthy, S.R.,Desai, M., Mathew, and M.,Veeranngoud, (1992). Energy use patternfor dry land crops in Madhya Pradesh,India, J. Agril. Engg. 2(3): 164-170.[7]. Hatirlia, Ozkanb, SelimAdem, Burhan,Cemal, Fertb, (2005), An econometricanalysis of energy input–output in Turkishagriculture, Renewable and SustainableEnergy Reviews (9): 608–623.[8]. Joshi, N. L. (1989), efficient use ofenergy inputs in rainfed pearl millet,Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment,Vol. 25 (2-3): 91-102.[9]. Mohapatra, P.K; Senapathi, P.C. andSatpathy, D. 1991. Energy studies incropping systems in lateritic soil ofOrissa, India. A.M.A. 22 (1): 49-52.[10]. Monlik T.K., DholakiaBakul H andShulka PR (2008) Ref: Paper publishedby 111M Ahmadabad research &Publication department in its series 11MAworking paper with number 867.[11]. Pannu, C. J. S., Surendra, Singh, M. P,Singh, Sarjinder, Singh, and B. S.,Bhangoo, (1993), Energy use pattern for aselected village in the cotton-belt ofPunjab, Energy, Vol. 18 (11): 1113-1117.[12]. Pathak, B.S. (1985). Energy demandgrowth in Punjab agriculture and changesin agricultural production. Energy in Agri.4:67-78.[13]. Shrivastava, N.S.L (2010) Ref: FarmPower Sources, their availability andfuture requirement to sustain agriculturalproduction. Published in internet in thewebsite.Agricoop.nic.in.[14]. Singh H, Misha D, Nahar N.M andRanjan M (2003) Energy use pattern inproduction agriculture of a typical villagein arid zone, India: part II. EnergyConversion and Management 44: 1053-1067.[15]. Singh, G. (2002). Energy conservationthrough efficient mechanized farming,Agricultural Engineering todays, Vol.24(2).[16]. Thakur, C. L., N. K, Khandelwal, and J.P. Mittal (1990). Energetics andeconomics of wheat production in twoselected villages of Madhya Pradesh,India, held at the JawaharLal NehruKrishiVishwaVidyalaya, Jabalpur,Volume 35, (11).[17]. Vatsa D.K. (2006) Ref: Energy analysisfor mechanizing Himachal Pradesh ofIndia. Published in AgriculturalEngineering today, Vol. 30.