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  • Omar Abderrahim, Mohamed Amine Didi, Abdelhakim Kadous, Didier Villemin / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.431-436Comparative Study Of Uranium(VI) Extraction Between Lewatit TP 260, Polyethyleniminephenylphosphonamidic Acid & Diaminotriphosphonic Acid Grafted Polystyrene Divinyl Benzene ResinsOmar Abderrahim1, Mohamed Amine Didi*1, Abdelhakim Kadous1, Didier Villemin2 1 Laboratory of Separation and Purification Technologies, Department of Chemistry, Tlemcen University, Box 119, Tlemcen-Algeria. 2 Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire et Thioorganique, UMR CNRS 6507, INC3M, FR 3038, ENSICAEN & Université de Caen, 14050 Caen, FranceABSTRACT Phosphonic complexing moiety was presently considered most promising. There are acovalently linked to polyethyleneimine liquid variety of inorganic and organic adsorbents and/orresin and to polystyrene divinyl-benzene ion exchanger developed so far. These resins shouldpolymer. This stable extractor of metal ions was have high thermal and chemical stability as well astested and compared to another commercial the possibility of regeneration repeatedly. The mostphosphorus resin, Lewatit TP 260 in disodium chelate forming resins are characterized by reactiveform, in the sorption of uranyl ions from aqueous functional group P and O donor atoms and capablesolutions. Batch study was carried out to of coordinating to uranium ions [7]. Manyoptimize various process parameters such as pH researches have been published investigating theof aqueous phase, time contact, initial extractive properties of various phosphorus resinsconcentration of uranyl ions, ion strength and toward uranyl ions [8]. The effect of manytemperature. The results showed that parameters like pH, contact time, amount of thepolyethyleniminephenylphosphonamidic acid resin, concentration of the uranyl ions in aqueouscould exchange uranyl better at high acidity phase, ionic strength, presence of foreign ions were(pH≈1.5) whereas diaminotriphosphonic acid investigated to find out the metal uptakegrafted polystyrenedivinyl benzene adsorbs characteristics of the resins [8, 9]. The present workuranyl effectively at low acidity (pH≈3.5). The deals with the preparation of phosphonic acid groupoverall sorption capacities for UO22+ ions were covalently linked to polyethylenimine or tofound to be 39.66, 41.76 and 58.33 mg.g-1 with polystyrene divynil-benzene and reports the sorptionpolyethylenimine- phenylphosphonamidic acid, of uranyl ions by this sorbents and another onediaminotriphosphonic acid grafted commercialised by Fluka (Lewatit TP 260 inpolystyrenedivinyl benzene and Lewatit TP 260 disodium form). The effect of contact time, pH,resins, respectively. The adsorption behavior of concentration of uranyl ions, ion strength anduranyl on diaminotriphosphonic acid grafted temperature on the efficiency of these phosphonicpolystyrenedivinyl benzene followed Freundlich resins in sorption of uranyl ions, in batch process, isisotherm. In the case of the Lewatit TP 260 resin, followed suitably a Langmuir isotherm.Thermodynamic parameters showed the II. EXPERIMENTALadsorption of an endothermic process and A. Instrumentationspontaneous nature at higher temperature. Infrared spectra were recorded on a Perkin- Elmer Spectrum One equiped with ATR accessory.Keywords - Lewatit TP 260, Phosphonic sorbent, Absorbencies were measured using Perkin-Elmer-phosphonamidic acid, solid phase extraction, uranyl Lambda 800 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. pHions. measurements were taken on a potentiometer Consort C831. 13C {-1H}, 31P {-1H} and 1H NMRI. INTRODUCTION spectra were measured on a Bruker AC 250 working During the past decades, the separation and at 250 MHz in D2O /Na2CO3 solution and Elementalpurification of uranium has gained considerable analyses were carried out on a Thermoquest CHNSimportance with the increasing demand for this analyzer.element [1]. Various kinds of separation andpreconcentration methods such as liquid – liquid,liquid – solid extraction, … etc have been used.[2-6]Among these, the liquid – solid extraction method is 431 | P a g e
  • Omar Abderrahim, Mohamed Amine Didi, Abdelhakim Kadous, Didier Villemin / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.431-436 B. Reagents Fig. 2: Scheme of DATPA resin synthesis, PS: P, P – dichlorophenylphosphine oxide polystyrene polymer (C6H5P(O)Cl2), chloromethyl styrene- The presence of phosphonic acid group divinylbenzene copolymer (S-3% DVB), Lewatit was confirmed by the appearance of absorption TP 260 resin (fig. 1 and table 1), toluene, bands at 920 cm-1 (P=O) and 2400 cm-1 (P-OH). diethyleme amine and acetone were supplied by The experimental CHNP analysis data of DATPA- Fluka. Polyethylenimine (Lupasol WF) is PS-DVB was C (%):57.44, H(%): 6.39, N(%): 7.00 commercially available from BASF with ratio of and P(%): 4.95. prim.: sec.: tert. amines (1: 1.07: 0.77) and a 2.Synthesis of molecular weight (Mw) of 750 000. Arzenazo III polyethyleneiminephenylphosphonamidic acid {3,6-bis[(2-arzonophenyl)azo]-4,5-dihydroxy-2,7- The new PolyEthylenIminePhenylPhosphonAmidic naphthalene disulphonic acid}, uranyl nitrate Acid resin (PEIPPA) was synthesized by reaction hexahydrate, uranyl acetate dehydrate, potassium between commercially available polyethylenimine nitrate, sodium acetate, sodium chloride, sodium (Lupasol WF, primary and secondary amine) and P, sulfate and sodium nitrate were purchased from P – dichlorophenylphosphine oxide (C6H5P(O)Cl2) Merck. Hydrochloride acid (36%), nitric acid (65%) (Fig. 3). and phosphorus acid were purchased from Reidel de The structure of the final complexing agent was Haen. identified and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. + Na - The spectra showed the expected characteristic O bonds for P-OH group (2341, 2324 and 1044 cm-1) Polystyrene  DVB P O P=O at 1136 cm-1 and NH at 1593 and 750 cm-1, as H2C N - matched to the proposed structure (Fig. 3) [11]. O Cl H + Na i) Reflux, 8 h ( HN CH 2 CH 2 ) x ( N CH 2 CH 2 )y + P ( HN CH 2 CH 2 ) x ( N CH 2 CH 2 )y Fig.1. Structure of Lewatit TP 260 n O C6H5 ii) H 2O CH CH n CH 2 CH 2 Cl a 2b 2 NH2 NH P Table 1: Physical and chemical characteristics of O H5C6 OH Lewatit TP 260 cation exchange resin. Lupasol WF PEIPPA Characteristics Value Units Ionic form as Di-Na + - - Fig. 3: Scheme of PEIPPA synthesis from Lupasol shipped WF Bead size > 90% 0.4 - 1.25 mm Effective size 0.55 ± mm D. Sorption procedure Shipping 0.06 770 g.L-1 The new grafted resins and the commercial weight Density 1.2 g.mL-1 one have been investigated in liquid-solid extraction Water 59 – 61 % of uranyl cation from aqueous solution. An retention accurately weighed mass of resins was separately Total Hydrogen 2.3 Eq.L-1 added to 5 mL of uranyl solution (with known capacity, min. form H+ Volume Na+ -25 max.% concentration and fixed pH) in a 50 mL glass flask. change The mixture is subjected to vigorous stirring for a Stability temperature -10 – 85 °C range determined time, then, the aqueous phase was pH range 0 – 14 separated from the functionalized resin by filtration. Storability of product 2 min. The uranyl concentrations in the aqueous phase temperature -20 – 40 years °C were determined, before and after extraction range spectrophotometrically with Arzenaso III at pH 2 C. Synthesis and characterisation of new [12]. The absorbance of Arzenazo III - uranium (VI) functionalized resins complex was measured at 651 nm. 1. diaminotriphosphonic acid grafted polystyrenedivinyl benzene resin III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The new sorbent, DiAminoTriPhosphonic A. Effect of pH on the uptake of uranyl ion Acid grafted Polystyrene DiVinyl Benzene resin The modifying resins have an O=P-OH, a (DATPA), was synthesized from commercially nitrogen atom and/or -NH group. This makes it available chloromethyl styrene- divinylbenzene suitable for complex formation with uranyl ion. copolymer (S-3% DVB) according to the Comparing the behaviour of these three resins Moedrizer-Irani reaction (Fig. 2) [10]. towards the uranyl ion, in aqueous phase, at initial Cl NH2 PS O pH values ranging from 1.4 to 6.0 (Fig. 4) shows Toluene NH N P OH that for the PEIPPA extractant, the retention of + NH2 HCl/H 2O HO N PS NH2 Reflux, 24 h H3PO 3, HCHO HO P O OH U(VI) is high in acidic solutions and increases by PS HOMerrifield chloromethylated resin P OH decreasing the pH and the maximum uptake (31.09 mg.g-1) was attainted at initial pH = 1.5. [13]. For O 432 | P a g e
  • Omar Abderrahim, Mohamed Amine Didi, Abdelhakim Kadous, Didier Villemin / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.431-436the other resins (DATPA and Lewatit TP 260), the The kinetics of uranyl adsorption on these three ionretention of U(VI) increases with the pH from 1.5 to exchangers resins followed the first order rate3.5, then the adsorption capacity decreases at pH expression given by Lagergren, equation 1 [14]:higher than 4.5. Uptake of uranyl (37.45 mg.g-1) ishigher for DATPA resin at pH=3.5. 40 DATPA Lewatit TP 260 where qt and qe are the amount of U(VI) PEIPPA adsorbed at time, t and equilibrium time, 30 respectively, and k is the sorption rate constant of Lagergren equation. Linear plot of log (qe – qt) versus t (Fig. 2) shows the applicability of the above -1 q, mg.g 20 equation for PEIPPA, DATPA-PS-DVB and Lewatit TP 260 resins. The sorption rate constant values, calculated from the slope of the linear plots 10 and the correlation coefficients of the linear plots is 0.7255 min-1 are given in table 2. 0 2 3 4 5 6 Table 2: Sorption rate constant values and the Initial pH correlation coefficients. resin PEIPPA DATPA Lewatit TP 260Fig. 4: Effect of solution pH for efficient extraction Equilibrium 30 180 120of uranyl ion time (min) K, (min-1) 0.7255 0.0259 0.0254B. Adsorption kinetics r 0.9949 0.9940 0.9960 Figure 5 shows the change of the uptake ofuranyl ion from his aqueous solution at the natural C. Sorption capacitypH as a function of time by resins PEIPPA, The sorption capacity of functionalizedDATPA-PS-DVB and Lewatit TP 260. resin was determined by equilibrating 0.1 g of theThe uptake values of Lewatit TP 260 and PEIPPA resin with 5 mL of uranyl ion solutions at differentwere higher than that of DATPA-PS-DVB resin. concentrations. The amount of uranyl ion needed for saturation was obtained as follows (eq. 2): 60 PEIPPA DATPA Lewatit TP 260 where C0 and Ce denote the initial and 40 equilibrium concentrations of U(VI) in the aqueous phase (mol L-1), V is the volume of the aqueous q (mg.g ) -1 phase (5 mL), W is the weight of grafted resin 20 (0.100 g) and 238.03 is the molar weight of Uranium (g.mol-1). The experimental capacity obtained for PEIPPA, DATPA and Lewatit TP 260 0 resins are 39.66, 41.76 and 58.33 mg/g, respectively. 0 40 80 120 160 200 Time, min D. Adsorption isotherm The adsorbed amounts of uranyl on resins have been determined as a function of the metalFig. 5: Effect of stirring time on the adsorption of concentration in the supernatant at the equilibriumuranyl on the resins state and ambient temperature (25±2 °C). Two models were tested, the Langmuir and Freundlich. The It is seen that the uptake increases rapidity Langmuir treatment [15] is based on the assumptionwith the PEIPPA, only 30 minutes are required for that (i) maximum adsorption corresponds to saturatedthe attainment of equilibrium. For Lewatit TP 120 monolayer of adsorbate molecules on the adsorbentand DATPA-PS-DVB, the uptake continued to surface, (ii) the energy of adsorption is constant andincrease even after 30 minutes, and becomes (iii) there is no transmigration of adsorbate in the planeconstant after 120 minutes and 180 minutes, of the surface.respectively. Ce 1 Ce   (3) qe q0 b q0 433 | P a g e
  • Omar Abderrahim, Mohamed Amine Didi, Abdelhakim Kadous, Didier Villemin / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.431-436The Freundlich equation was also applied to the 30adsorption. The Freundlich equation is basicallyempirical but is often useful as a means of datadescription. It generally agrees quite well compared 20to Langmuir equation and experimental data over a -1 Ce/qe, g.Lmoderate range of adsorbate concentrations. The 10Freundlich isotherm is represented by equation 4: 1log q e  log K F    log C e (4) n 0 0 150 300 450 600 750 -1 Ce, mg.L where Ce is the equilibrium concentration(mg l−1), qe the amount adsorbed at equilibrium and Fig. 7: Langmuir plot for the adsorption of U(VI)q0 and b are Langmuir constants related to on Lewatit TP 260 resinadsorption capacity and energy of adsorption,respectively. KF and n are the Freundlich constants E. Effect of the extractant to analyte ratiocharacteristic of the system. KF and n are indicators Figure 8 shows the recovery of uranyl ionof adsorption capacity and adsorption intensity, as a function of resin/UO22+ ratio (g/mmol). It canrespectively. be observed that the recovery increased with In case of PEIPPA resin, the non linear plot increase in the resin/UO22+ ratio in both cases due toof Ce/qe versus Ce and logqe versus Log Ce show the increasing amount of resins available for uranylthat adsorption not obeys Langmuir and Freundlich complexation. The recovery of uranyl by Lewatitmodels. Deviation from linearity indicated the TP 260 and DATPA-PS-DVB are higher than withpresence of multi-model interaction [16]. PEIPPA and in both cases recovery does not changeWith DATPA, the plot of log qe versus log Ce (Fig. at resin/UO22+ ratio higher than 20/1.6) is linear and the constants Kf and n were found tobe 1.537 and 1.418, respectively. The value of 1 < n 100< 10 shows a favourable adsorption of uranyl ontothis resin. The correlation coefficient for the 80Freundlich plot was found to be 0.997 indicating a Recovery, % 60better fit of the experimental data compared toLangmuir plot (0.995). 40 20 Lewatit TP 260 1.6 DATPA PEIPPA 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 2+ -1 Resin/UO2 ratio, g.mmol 1.2 Log qe Fig. 8: Effect of the uranyl to resins ratio on the 0.8 recovery of uranyl 0.4 F. Effect of electrolyte on uranyl ion extraction 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 Sodium salts are the major component in LogCe soil and sediment samples, a study to ensure a good tolerance for this electrolyte for quantitative uranylFig. 6: Freundlich plot for the adsorption of U(VI) extraction becomes essential [17]. For this study anon DATPA resin amounts of resins were stirred with increasing NaCl concentration. It is evident from Fig. 9: With Lewatit TP 260, the linear plot of - That for PEIPPA resin, there is a small positiveCe/qe versus Ce shows that adsorption obey effect on increasing NaCl concentration from 0 toLangmuir adsorption model (Fig.7). The correlation 0.1 mol.L–1coefficient for the linear regression fits of the - That for DATPA-PS-DVB, there is no effect onLangmuir plot was found to be 0.9996. q0 and b extraction efficiency in interval concentration [0 -determined from the Langmuir plot were found to 0.01 mol.L-1]. However, a negative trend wasbe 63.371 mg g−1 and 0.0165g mg-1 respectively. observed at salt concentration higher than 0.01 mol.L-1. This can be attributed to the formation of more stable anionic chloro-complex formation in aqueous solution and/or to the screen effect of Na+ which affects the diffusion of ions within the resin. 434 | P a g e
  • Omar Abderrahim, Mohamed Amine Didi, Abdelhakim Kadous, Didier Villemin / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.431-436- That for Lewatit TP 260, we observe the decrease The plot of log Kc vs 1/T is a straight line, as shownof recovery; this could be due to the formation of in Fig. 10, with correlation coefficient r = 0.9980.more stable anionic chloro-complex formation in The numerical values of ΔH, ΔS are computed fromaqueous solution and/or to the screen effect of Na+ the slope and intercept of the graph are given inwhich affects the diffusion of ions within the resin. Table 3. The negative value of Gibbs free energy for the sorption of UO22+ by the Lewatit TP 260 as 100 shown in Table 3 indicates the spontaneous nature of sorption from bulk or aqueous phase, while 80 decrease ΔG values with increasing temperature in Recovery, % case of PEIPPA and DATPA indicate that the 60 sorption is better at high temperature. Positive values of ΔH of all sorbents reflect the endothermic 40 sorption behavior. PEIPPA 20 DATPA Lewatit TP 260 Table 3: Thermodynamics parameters for sorption 0.00 0.03 0.06 -1 0.09 0.12 process of UO2+2 on the resins [NaCl], mol.L Sorbent T, ΔG, ΔH, ΔS, r K kJ.mol- kJ.mol- J.mol-Fig. 9: Effect of NaCl concentration on the 1 1 1 .K-1extraction of U(VI) with grafted resins 288 1.20 PRIPPA 295 1.07 +6.49 +18.37 0.992G. Effect of temperature on extraction 303 0.92equilibrium 318 0.65 The effect of temperature on the sorption 298 1.30of uranium (VI) ions was studied. Different DATPA 308 0.45 +26.45 +84.40 0.998thermodynamic parameters were computed using 318 -0.39equations 5, 6 and 7. 328 -1.23 308 -4.57 Lewatit 318 +61.74 +215.3 0.989 TP 260 -6.72 328 -8.88 where ΔH, ΔS, ΔG, and T are the enthalpy,entropy, Gibbs free energy, and temperature in The increase in entropy favors the stabilityKelvin, respectively. The values of equilibrium ratio of the sorbed complex via covalent interaction type(Kc), was calculated at each temperature using the chemisorption. The main source of this entropy gainrelationship 8. may be due to the rupturing of the hydration zone formed around a central metal atom in mother liquid (8) to a great extent and direct interaction of U(VI)- where Fe is the fractional attainment of Functional group complex of resins results in netequilibrium at time t, obtained by the expression Fe positive entropy effect [18].= q/qm, where qm is the maximum adsorptioncapacity at optimal conditions. IV. CONCLUSION Two new type of ion exchange polymers 0.9 PEIPPA DATPA based on the commercially available Lewatit TP 260 polyethylenimine polymer (Lupasol WF) and Merrifield resin were developed in this study. 0.6 This new phosphonated ion-exchangers obtained and another commercialized by Fluka are used as Log Kc 0.3 support material for UO22+ sorption from aqueous solution in batch process. The extraction efficiency 0.0 for the extraction of uranium by these sorbents was determined as a function of various parameters such -0.3 as time contact, pH, uranyl initial concentration, 0.0030 0.0031 0.0032 0.0033 0.0034 0.0035 extractant to uranium ratio, NaCl concentration and -1 1/T, K temperature. The results showed that: - The sorbent PEIPPA was the fastest to reach theFig. 10. Variation of equilibrium ratio (Kc) with sorption equilibrium (t=30 min)temperature for the sorption of U(VI) ions onto - The sorption capacity of 58.33 mg.g-1 wasresins obtained by the Lewatit TP 260, where as for 435 | P a g e
  • Omar Abderrahim, Mohamed Amine Didi, Abdelhakim Kadous, Didier Villemin / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.431-436DATPA and PEIPPA it were only 41.76 and 39.66 [9] M. Merdivan, M. Zahir Düz, C. Hamamci,mg.g-1, respectively. “Sorption behaviour of uranium(VI) with- The presence of ions (Na+, Cl-) do not affect the N,N-dibutyl-N’-benzoylthioureaselectivity of PEIPPA for UO22+, but with DATPA Impregnated in Amberlite XAD-16,“and Lewatit TP 260 the extraction was found to Talanta, vol. 55, pp. 639–645, 2001.decrease with increase in NaCl concentration, [10] K. Moedritzer, RR. Irani, “Direct synthesis- The PEIPPA sorbent is more suited for the of α-aminomethyl phosphonic acid:sorption of uranyl from acidic solution (pH1.5) Mannich type reactions with o-phosphoruswhile DATPA can be used at moderate pH acid,” J Org Chem., vol. 31, pp.1603-(pH3.5). 1607, 1966. [11] H. Kesim, Z.M.O. Rzaev, S. Dincer, E.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Piskin, “Functional bioengineeringWe gratefully acknowledge the CMEP-TASSILI No copolymers. II. Synthesis and10 MDU 799 for their financial support. characterization of amphiphilic poly(N- isopropyl acrylamide-co-maleic anhydride)REFERENCES and its macrobranched derivatives,” [1] S. Girgin, N. Acarkan, A.A. Sirkeci, “The Polymer, vol. 44, pp. 2897–2909, 2003. uranium(VI) extraction mechanism of [12] H. Rohwer, N. Rheeder, E. Hosten, D2EHPA-TOPO from a wet process “Interactions of uranium and thorium with phosphoric acid,” J Radioanal Nucl Chem, arsenazo III in an aqueous medium,” Anal. vol. 251, N° 2, pp. 263-271, 2002. Chim. Acta, vol. 341, pp. 263-268, 1997. [2] X. Ye , S. Cui , V.F. de Almeida , B.P. [13] B.N. Singh, B. Maiti, “Separation and Hay and B. Khomami, ”Uranyl nitrate preconcentration of U(VI) on XAD-4 complex extraction into TBP/dodecane modified with 8-hydroxyquinoline,” organic solutions: a molecular dynamics Talanta vol. 69, pp. 393–396, 2006. study,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., vol. 12, [14] Y.S. Ho, G. McKay, “A comparison of 15406-15409, 2010. chemisorption kinetic models applied to [3] M. Mahramanlioglu, I. O. Bicer, T. Misirli pollutant removal on various sorbents,” and A. Kilislioglu, “Removal of uranium Process Safety Environ. Prot., Vol. 76B, by the adsorbents produced from coffee pp. 332–340, 1998. residues,” J Radioanal Nucl Chem, Vol. [15] Langmuir, “The constitution and 273, N° 3, pp. 624-624, Oct. 2007. fundamental properties of solids and [4] E. Constantinou, I. Pashalidis, “Uranium liquids,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 38, pp. determination in water samples by liquid 2221-2295, Nov. 1916. scintillation counting after cloud point [16] A. Gurel, “Adsorption characteristics of extraction,” J Radioanal Nucl Chem, vol. heavy metals in soil zones developed on 286, N° 2, pp. 461-465, 2010. spilite,” Environ. Geol., vol. 51, pp. 333– [5] N.K. Jena, M. Sundararajan and S.K. 340, 2006. Ghosh, “On the interaction of uranyl with [17] C.S.K. Raju, M.S. Subramanian, functionalized fullerenes: a DFT “Sequential separation of lanthanides investigation,” RSC Advances, vol. 7, N° thorium and uranium using novel solid 2, pp. 2994-2999, 2012. phase extraction method from high acidic [6] E. Karapinar, N. Kabay,“ Synthesis, nuclear wastes.” J Hazard Mater, vol. 145 characterization and liquid-liquid N° 1–2, pp. 315–322, 2007. extraction properties of new [18] A. Rahmati, A. Ghaemi, M. Samadfam, methoxyaminobiphenylglyoxime “Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of derivatives and their complexes with some uranium(VI) adsorption using Amberlite transition metals,” Trans. Metal Chem., 32, IRA-910 resin,” Annals of Nuclear Energy, N° 6, pp. 784-789, 2007. vol. 39, pp. 42–48, 2012. [7] S. Katragadda, H.D. Gesser, A. Chow, “Extraction of uranium from aqueous solution by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam,“ Talanta, vol. 44, pp. 1865–1871, 1997. [8] M. Petersková, C. Valderrama, O. Gibert, J.L. Cortina, “Extraction of valuable metal ions (Cs, Rb, Li, U) from reverse osmosis concentrate using selective sorbents,“ Desalination, vol. 286, pp. 316–323, 2012. 436 | P a g e