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B26007011

  1. 1. Ashish Dadhich, Gurudutt Sharma, Devendra Kumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.007-011 Future Effect Of Nano-Medicine On Human Generation Ashish Dadhich(M.Tech)1, Gurudutt Sharma(M.Tech)2, Devendra Kumar(M.Tech)3 1, 2, 3 (Department of Digital Communication, Bhartiya Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sikar (India)Bhartiya Institute Of Engineering And Technology NH No11 Jaipur-Bikaner By-Pass Near Sanwali Circle Sikar Pin 332001 (Rajasthan,India)ABSTRACT Nanomedicine is the process of Nanotechnology is a generic term used for a broaddiagnosing, treating, and preventing disease and range of different activities and applications rangingtraumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of from energy production and storage, manufacturing,preserving and improving human health, using information technologies to medicine. For thatmolecular tools and molecular knowledge of the reason often the plural form “nanotechnologies” ishuman body. In the mid-term, biotechnology will used.make possible even more remarkable advances in Nanobiotechnology, the convergence ofmolecular medicine including microbiological nanotechnology and biotechnologyengineered organisms. In the longer term, (Nanobiotechnology is defined as a field that appliesperhaps 10–20 years the earliest molecular the nanoscale principles and techniques tomachine systems and nanorobots may join the understand and transform living or non livingmedical armamentarium, finally giving biosystems and which uses biological principles andphysicians the most potent tools imaginable to materials to create new devices and systemsconquer human disease, ill-health, and aging. integrated from the nanoscale and in particular itsNanomedicine is defined as the monitoring, applications in the medical sector are considered asrepair, construction and control of human one of the most promising and most advanced areasbiological systems at the molecular level, using of nanotechnology. Applications include e.g.engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. nanoparticles for molecular diagnosis, imaging andNanomedicine ranges from the medical therapy as well as complex nanostructure surfaces toapplications of nanomaterials to nanoelectronic control tissue repair on a cellular level. It isbiosensors and even possible future applications expected that nanobiotechnology applications inof molecular nanotechnology. The aim of medicine will bring significant advances in thenanomedicine is the improvement of healthcare diagnosis and treatment of disease. This has lead tofor the benefit of the patient. Nanomedicine is an a steadily increasing research activity in this areaimportant and rapidly growing field, which is over the past decade.emerging from the application of nanotechnology The present document focuses onto healthcare. Nanomedicine can offer impressive nanobiotechnology applications in medicine, whichresolutions for various life threatening diseases in in the last two years are referred to aschild (nano drug addicted next generation). “nanomedicine”, a term that will also be used in this document. There are many ways of definingKeywords – DNA, Nanomedicine, nanoparticles, nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is the application ofnanotubes, nanobiosensor, nanorobotics, nanotechnology to health. It exploits the improvednanomaterials and often novel physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials at the nanometric scale. InI. INTRODUCTION contrast to the often used limitation to size Nanotechnology is emerging as one of the dimensions of 1-100 nm, in nanomedicine sizekey technologies of the 21st century and is expected dimensions of 1-1000 nm are included. This is dueto enable developments across a wide range of to the fact that in medicine nanotechnology aims tosectors that can benefit citizens and improve improve and optimize material properties for theirindustrial competitiveness. There is as yet no interaction with cells and tissue, to allow e.g.common definition of nanotechnology. The passive tumour targeting, crossing of the blood-nanometer scale is usually set at 1 to 100 nm and brain barrier, or to improve the bioavailability. Thisnanotechnology makes use of the new properties of approach makes use of nanoscale materials largermaterials at this scale that differ from those at a than 100 nm. Polymer therapeutics are situated atlarger scale. Recent advances in the capabilities to the borderline between nanotechnology andmanipulate atoms and molecules have pushed the macromolecular chemistry, they are, however, oftendevelopment of nanotechnology. classified as nanomedicine. On the other hand biochips are often considered per se as nanotechnology, regardless if they include 7|Page
  2. 2. Ashish Dadhich, Gurudutt Sharma, Devendra Kumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.007-011nanoscale components. In this document biochips diamonds are nothing like the gems used in jewelry.are only included if they contain nanoscale Theyre just a few nanometers across. A nanometercomponents. The above given definition of is one billionth of a meter. This new technology isnanomedicine, is therefore amended by the the use of Nanodiamonds having a coat of the drugfollowing statements: and proteins that targets the Caner cell in body and1. Nanoparticles for medical applications are destroy the cancerous cells without affecting any defined, as common in pharmaceutical sciences, normal cell. Nanodiamonds are the diamond crystals as particles with a size between 1 and 1000 nm. less than 100 thousands million of meter in size.2. Biochips are only classified as nanotechnology, Delivery of drug using this system reduces the side if they include nanoscale components. effects and improves the targets. [2] The3. Polymer therapeutics are classified as nanodiamond surfaces are that they like to attract nanomedicine. water, for example, as well as other molecules, like The study covers several nanomedicine drugs. This property to bind anti-cancer drugs toapplication areas: drug delivery, drugs and nanodiamonds, the value of nanoparticles made oftherapies, in vivo imaging, in vitro diagnostics, diamond is multifaceted. Made of carbon, theyrebiomaterials, and active implants. Tissue nontoxic, and the bodys immune system doesntengineering and regenerative medicine are included attack them. They can bind tightly to a variety ofas far as biomaterials are concerned. [3] molecules and deliver them right into a tumor. And because they are only 2 to 8 nanometers in diameter,II. WORKING OF NANO-MEDICINE they are easy for the kidneys to clear from the body Nanodiamonds drug delivery system shows before they block up blood vessels, a long-standinga new path to the medical science. This technology problem in nanoparticle therapy. [5] Thesereveals many roads toward the effective and safe nanomaterials can shuttle chemotherapy drugs totreatment of Cancer. Nanodiamonds have many cells without producing the negative effects ofother advantages that can be utilized in drug todays delivery agents. Clusters of thedelivery. They can be functionalized with nearly any nanodiamonds surround the drugs to ensure thattype of therapeutic. They can be suspended easily in they remain separated from healthy cells until theywater, which is important for biomedical reach the cancer cells, where they are released.applications. The nanodiamonds, each being four to More beneficial part is that these nanodiamondssix nanometers in diameter, are minimally invasive have been shown not to induce inflammation in cellsto cells, biocompatible and do not cause once they have done their job Figure-3inflammation, a serious complication. New Nanodiamonds for nanomedicine:- Carbontechnology may make cancer drugs more effective nanomaterials for biological applications revealedand ease the burden of chemotherapy. that carbon nanodiamonds are much moreA nanotube is a nanometer-scale tube-like structure. biocompatible than most other carbonIt may be of following types: nanomaterials, including carbon blacks, fullerenes 1. Carbon nanotube and carbon nanotubes. The noncytotoxic nature of 2. Inorganic nanotube nanodiamonds, together with their unique strong and 3. DNA nanotube stable photoluminescence, tiny size, large specific 4. Membrane nanotube surface area and ease with which they can be One of the important properties of functionalized with biomolecules, makesnanotubes is that they can easily penetrate nanodiamonds attractive for various biomedicalmembranes such as cell walls. In fact, long and applications both in vitro and in vivo. The synthesisnarrow shape makes them look like miniature and surface functionalization of diamondneedles, so it makes sense that they can function like nanoparticles for nanomedicine as well as ana needle at the cellular level. Using this property by overview of the recent progress in this exciting fieldattaching molecules that are attracted to Cancer cells by focusing on the potential use of nanodiamondsto nanotubes to deliver drugs directly to diseased and their derivatives for single particle imaging incells. Nanotubes bound to an antibody that is cells, drug delivery, protein separation andproduced by chickens have been shown to be useful biosensing.Figure-4in lab tests to destroy breast cancer tumors. Theantibody carrying nanotubes are attracted to proteins III. IMPACT ON HUMAN BODYproduced by a one type of breast cancer cell. Then It is known that the exposure to ultrafinethe nanotubes absorb light from an infrared laser, dust particles poses health risks for humans. Thisincinerating the nanotubes and the tumor they are implies that exposure to engineered nanoparticlesattached to. Improve the healing process for broken could pose health risks too. Particularly because ofbones by providing a carbon nanotube scaffold for their mobility across biological barriers, size relatednew bone material to grow on. [8] chemical activity effects and their ability to Combination of cancer medicine with tiny penetrate cells, nanoparticles show properties thatparticles of carbon called nanodiamonds. These could result in increased toxicity compared to bulk 8|Page
  3. 3. Ashish Dadhich, Gurudutt Sharma, Devendra Kumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.007-011materials. [9] Nanoparticle sources are natural (e.g. IV. ADVANTAGE ANDsalt spray from the ocean), unintentionally produced DISADVANTAGE OF(e.g. cooking, material fabrication, diesel exhaust) NANOMEDICINEor, relatively new, engineered nanoparticles. With the help of nanomedicine diseases canGenerally two forms of application of nanoparticles be easily cured with no side effects and no surgeryneed to be distinguished with respect to exposure is required. Its detection is also very easy. Theand possible health risks: disadvantage appeared with nanomedicine is its1. Nanoparticles bound into a chemical matrix, implementation difficulties and high cost. such as a polymer or a metal. Unless nanoparticles are released due to chemical V. CONCLUSION processes or wear, these materials are generally Nanotubes are superimposed on DNA considered as safe. strand which change the whole capability of DNA2. Free nanoparticles in the air or in fluids that can strand. By this the generation after generation DNA be taken up by the body via the lung, skin or the will travel in a same manner giving future intestinal tract. advancement and more capability in efficiency of Nanoparticle emission, intentionally or Human being see figure 5 Nanomedicine, one of theunintentionally, can occur during research and important applications of the nanotechnology hasdevelopment activities, manufacturing, use, and made a revolutionary development in the medicalafter use/during disposal, and after their dispersion field. The evolution is what will lead us to our newin the environment. Potentially exposed groups future and as in our past with medicine and how wecomprise staff in R&D, manufacturing, diagnosis were able to make certain disease obsolete likeand treatment, disposal, recycling, remediation and Typhoid Mary, T.B., smallpox, chicken pox andcleaning, transport and trade, and accidents, mononucleosis. This evolution will possibly be thepatients, and the general population. [7] end of cancer by nanodiamonds and aids which willAdditionally, ecosystems might be affected. greatly increase our chances for survival as well asTherefore toxicologists warn that health and our children. Nanotechnology will radically changeenvironmental effects of nanoparticles and exposure the way we diagnose, treat and prevent cancer.of workers need to be investigated. There is Nanomedicine for cancer has the ability to improveconsensus among stakeholders that the present level health care dramatically. [8]of knowledge is insufficient for risk assessments.The need to1. Develop harmonized nomenclature and criteria VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors are highly thankful to Dr. for nanoparticle characterisation, Develop Bharat Soni vice principal of Bhartiya Institute of methodologies for routine measurements, Engineering and Technology for their regular2. Develop equipment and methods for the support. The authors are again grateful to the determination of the environmental fate of faculty of Department of Electronics and nanoparticles and for the detection in the Communications Engineering for their moral environment, and for exposure assessment to support. nanoparticles,3. Understand toxicity and eco toxicity of nanoparticles, REFERENCES4. Conduct epidemiological studies 1. Wu YR, Phillips JA, Liu HP, Yang RH, It has been shown that nanomaterials can Tan WH. Carbon nanotubes protect DNAenter the human body through several ports. strands during cellular delivery. ACSNanoAccidental or involuntary contact during production 2008;2(10):2023-28.or use is most likely to occur via the lungs, from 2. Monteiro-Riviere NA, Nemanich RJ,which a rapid translocation is possible to other vital Inman AO, Wang YYY, Riviere JE.organs through the bloodstream. On the cellular Multiwalled carbon nanotube interactionslevel, an ability to act as a gene vector has been with human epidermal keratinocytes.demonstrated for nanoparticles. Carbon black Toxicol Lett 2005;155(3):377-384nanoparticles have been implicated in interfering 3. Wilkinson JM. Nanotechnologywith cell signaling. There is work that demonstrates applications in medicine. Med Deviceuses of DNA for the size separation of carbon Technol 2003;14:29- 31nanotubes. The DNA strand just wraps around it if 4. Li K.C, Pandit S.D, Guccione S, Guccionethe tube diameter is right. Though excellent for the S, Bednarski MD.Molecular imagingpurposes of separation, this tendency raises some applications in nanomedicine. Biomedconcerns over the consequences of carbon Microdevices 2004;6:113- 6.nanotubesentering the human body 5. Homola J. Present and future of surface plasmon resonance biosensors. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2003; 377: 528-539. 9|Page
  4. 4. Ashish Dadhich, Gurudutt Sharma, Devendra Kumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.007-0116. Zhang XK, Meng LJ, Lu QG, Fei ZF, and, D.A.T omalia, and J.R.Bak er, Jr., Dyson PJ. Targeted delivery and controlled Bioconjug. Chem. 10, 271 (1999). release of doxorubicin to cancer cells using 10. National Science Foundation. National modified single wall carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology Initiative: research and Biomaterials 2009;30(30):6041-47. development FY 2002. Available at:7. Roco MC. Nanotechnology: convergence www.nano.gov/2002budget.html. Accessed with modern biology and medicine. Curr on 27 Sept 2004. Opin Biotechnol 2003;14:337- 46. 11. I.Lee, B.D.Athe y, A.W .W etzel, A.Kar ,8. Rasooly A., Jacobson J. Development of W.Meixner , and J.R. Baker, Jr., biosensors for cancer clinical testing. Macromolecules 35, 4510 (2002). Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2006; 21: 12. J.R.Bak er, Jr., A.Quintana, L.Piehler , 1851-1858. M.Banazak-Holl, D.T omalia, and9. J.D.Reuter , A.Myc, M.M.Hayes, Z.Gan, E.Raczka, Biomed. Microdevices 3, 61 R.Ro y, D.Qin, R.Y in, L.T .Piehler , R.Esf (2001). Fig.1: Nanodiamond Fig.2: Nanodiamond stracture 10 | P a g e
  5. 5. Ashish Dadhich, Gurudutt Sharma, Devendra Kumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.007-011 Fig.3: Nanodiamond in cancer treatment Fig.4: Nanomedicine Fig.5: Gene therapy with nanodiamond 11 | P a g e

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