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  • 1. T.Venkata Subba Rao, K.Srinivas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.297-302 Performance Analysis of Vegetable Oil Blended With Diesel Additive 1 2 T.Venkata Subba Rao K.Srinivas 1 P.G student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, V.R Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, A.P,2 Assistant professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, V.R Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, A.P,Abstract Biomass derived fuels are preferred as and ethanol in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Thealternative Fuels for IC engine due to its advantages of biodiesel are that it displacesabundant availability and renewable nature. In petroleum thereby reducing global warming gasthe present work, the performance and emissions emissions, tail pipe particulate matter, hydrocarbons,of diesel and diesel additive blended with palm carbon monoxide, essentially free of sulfur &kernel oil is studied, where the fuel, namely, aromatics and other air toxics. Biodiesel improvesmethyl ester of palm kernel oil and diesel with lubricity and reduces premature wearing of fueladditive were chosen and used as fuel in the form pumps there by increased life of moving parts.of blends. Various proportions of palm kernel oiland diesel are prepared and blended with Most of the alternative fuels identified today areadditive on a volume basis and used as fuels in a bio-fuels and are having one or few undesirable fuelsingle cylinder, four-stroke DI diesel engine, to characteristics which are not permitting them tostudy the performance and emission replace the existing fuel completely. However, thecharacteristics of these fuels. In the present various admission techniques experimented by theinvestigation a methyl ester derived from palm researchers are giving good solutions to apply largerkernel oil used as a vegetable oil and additive fraction of replacing fuel in the existing engine andused is considered as an ignition improver. The run accurately.results show a 19% reduction in smoke with B25 Bio fuels are renewable, eco-friendly (Robert etand 23.8% reduction with B25+Additive, 13.3% al., 1995) and are obtained from bio resources suchreduction in HC emissions with B25 and 16% as plants and animals. Compared to animals, plantsreduction with B25+Additive and a 14.16% are the major contributors in supplying of bio fuels.reduction in CO emissions with B25 and 22.22% Generally, plants yield two types of oils namelyreduction with B25+additive for the 25% PKO triglyceride oils (TG oils) and turpene oils (light oil).blend and Additive with a 5.4% increase for B25 Of which, the triglyceride oils are obtained fromblend and 1% decrease when Additive added to plant seeds but Eucalyptus oils are obtained fromblend in NOx emission at full load. There was a leaves and young twigs of the plant (Devan P.K. and2.18% increase in brake thermal efficiency for Mahalakshmi N. V.; 2010).B25 blend and 2.73% increase with Additive toblend for MePKO25-diesel75 blend at full load. The present investigation used the performance and emissions of diesel and diesel additive blended Index Terms-- diesel engine; palm kernel oil; with palm kernel oil is studied and the bestdiesel; diesel additive; emission; performance; performances of oil blends were identified. Theblend; blended form of palm kernel oil and diesel does not require any engine modification. Hence, this I. INTRODUCTION investigation mainly focused on the performance and Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning emissions of diesel and diesel additive blended withalternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable palm kernel oil in the proportionate ratios.resources. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it canbe blended at any level with petroleum diesel to In this work, the palm kernel oil is vegetable oilcreate a biodiesel blend. It can be used in mixed with diesel at different blends and these blendscompression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no are further tested by adding diesel additive. Themodifications. performance and emissions of bio fuel blends were Biodiesel is made through a chemical process evaluated using a naturally aspirated direct injectioncalled transesterification whereby the glycerin is diesel engine and these are plotted on graphs. Everseparated from the fat or vegetable oil. Biodiesel is increasing fuel price, continuous addition of on roadbetter for the environment because it is made from vehicles, fast depleting petroleum resources andrenewable resources and has lower emission continuing accumulation greenhouse gases are theCompared to petroleum diesel. Transesterification is main reasons for the development of alternative fuels.achieved with monohydric alcohols like methanol 297 | P a g e
  • 2. T.Venkata Subba Rao, K.Srinivas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.297-302II. POTENTIAL CHARACTERIZATION III. PROPERTIES ANALYSISOF PALM KERNEL OIL AND DIESEL The properties of methyl ester of palm kernelADDITIVE oil are compared with diesel and given in table2.It is The Oil Palm Elaeisguineensis (guineensis observed that both the oils have important propertiesreferring to its country of origin) is native to West comparable with each other. Viscosity, calorificAfrica. Mature trees are single-stemmed, and grow to value and density of blends of methyl ester palm20 m tall. The palm fruit takes five to six months to kernel oil and diesel oils are given in table 3. Themature. Oil is extracted from both the pulp of the properties of palm kernel oil like lower calorificfruit and the kernel. For every 100 kilograms of fruit value, flash point and viscosity are comparable withbunches, typically 22 kilograms of palm oil and 1.6 diesel oil.kilograms of palm kernel oil can be extracted. Mfeel-Diesel additive is a catalyst for fuel, it Table 2.Properties of diesel, palm kernel oilsaves fuel consumption and pollution control Properties Diesel Palmincreases. kernel oil The Mfeel-Diesel Additive is mixed to blends Kinematic viscosity at 3.25 4.839at a rate of 2ml per liter. 400C(cst) It is Petroleum based Fuel Additive. It is aliquid blend of organic chemicals in a petroleumbase. The ingredients of Additive include Calorific value (KJ/kg) 42700 37250detergents, combustion catalyst, and chemicals. Therest of the ingredients are simply trace amounts of Pour point (0C) -17 2Aromatic Hydrocarbons (in other words, thatNaphtha wasn’t well refined). Flash point (0C) 76 167 The Mfeel-Diesel additive has following Fire point (0C) 78 172benefits1. It helps the environment with substantial 3reductions in the hazardous emissions from engines, Density(kg/ mm ) at 150C 0.845 0.883motor vehicles, chimneys, fuel-based powergenerators, etc. And thereby controls pollution at Cetane number 45 55Grade “A” level.2. It also the most cost-effective fuel additive,saving fuel costs. Table 3.Variation of calorific value and3. Also eases the pressure on non-renewable viscosityfuel resources by saving Fuel Consumption. With respect to palm kernel oil4. It washes out Carbon Deposits and extendsengine life. OilsBlends Viscosity Calorific Density 35. It is easily mixable and fully compatible with all (cst) value (kg/mm )varieties of Petroleum based fuel oil. It can be used to (KJ/kg)treat fuels like Petrol, Diesel, Furnace Oil andKerosene with equal benefits. Diesel 3.25 42700 0.845 Table 1.Compositions of Mfeel-Diesel Palm kernel 4.839 37250 0.883 additive oil Diesel 90% 3.408 42155 0.844 Composition Percentage -PKO 10% (%) Diesel 85% 3.488 41882.5 0.846 Solvent naphtha 5-10 -PKO 15% Naphthalene 0.1-1 Diesel 80% 3.567 41610 0.848 Pseadocumene 0.1-1 -PKO 20% Mesitylene 0.1-1 Diesel 75% 3.647 41337.5 0.850 Poly Sulfone 5-25 -PKO 25% Polymeric 5-25 Diesel 70% 3.726 41065 0.852 Polymine -PKO 30% Oil-Soluble 5-30 sulfonic acid 298 | P a g e
  • 3. T.Venkata Subba Rao, K.Srinivas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.297-302IV.EXPERIMENTAL SETUP efficiency of 29.94 and it is 1.11% higher than that of standard diesel. And when Additive is added to B25 blend it has the efficiency of 31.56 and it is 0.55% higher than that of efficiency obtained from B25 (PKO25%+diesel75%). The Brake Thermal efficiency is decreased when the load was increasing to maximum i.e. from 12kgs to 15kgs. LOAD vs BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY DIESEL 35 D+ADDITIVE BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY (%) 10%PKO+90%D 30 15%PKO+85%D 25 20%PKO+80%D 25%PKO+75%D 20 30%PKO+70%D B10+ADDITIVE 15 B15+ADDITIVE 10 Figure 1.Experimental Set up B20+ADDITIVE B25+ADDITIVE 5 B30+ADDITIVE1-Diesel Engine; 2-Eddy current Dynamometer; 03- Dynamometer Control; 4-Anti pulsating Drum; 0 3 6 9 12 155-Oil Blends; 6-P-IV computer with DAQ; 7-Gas LOAD (kg)Analyzer Fumigator; 8-Smoke sampling pump; 9-Exhaust Temperature indicator; 10- Air inlet Fig. 2 Load Vs Brake Thermal Efficiencytemperature indicator; 11-Two way valve; 12-FuelInjection Pump; 13- Crank angle Encoder; 14-manometer. B. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) From figure 3 it is seen that at low load the It is capable of developing 3.72 kW at a BSFC is 0.597 KG/KW hr for diesel and for B25 blendconstant speed of 1500 rpm and coupled to Pony is 0.578KG/KWhr. At full load the BSFC is 0.312brake dynamometer. The Inlet side of the engine KG/KW hr for diesel and for B25 blend is 0.289consists of anti-pulsating drum, air Heater and air KG/KW hr. The brake specific fuel consumption of thetemperature, measuring device. The exhaust Side B25 blend and the BSFC after mixing Additive wasof the engine consists of EGT indicator, Exhaust lower than that of all other. This may be due to bettergas Analyzer and smoke sampler. The setup alsoconsists of a Separate fuel measuring device for combustion and an increase in the energy content of themeasuring consumption of Diesel-oil blends. blend. Additive mixed blend and diesel have low BSFC. V. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS A. Brake Thermal Efficiency LOAD vs BSFC DIESEL Figure 2 shows comparatively higher brake 0.7 D+ADDITIVEthermal efficiency for MePKO25-diesel 75 blend 10%PKO+90%D 0.6and with additive. When they are added the 15%PKO+85%Dviscosity is reduced and moderate calorific value. 0.5 20%PKO+80%D BSFC (kg/kw hr)This may be the reasons for better performance of 25%PKO+75%D 0.4 30%PKO+70%DMePKo25-diesel75 blend than that of standard B10+ADDITIVEDiesel operation. The reduction in viscosity leads 0.3 B15+ADDITIVEto improved atomization, fuel vaporization and 0.2 B20+ADDITIVEcombustion. It may be also due to better utilization B25+ADDITIVE 0.1of heat energy and better air entrainment. The B30+ADDITIVEmixing of additive oil in the blend causes longer 0 0 3 6 9 12 15ignition delay and rapid combustion. During LOAD (kg)longer ignition delay engine accumulate more fuelbefore commencement of combustion and releasemore heat during premixed phase of combustion. Fig. 3 Load vs BSFCThe brake thermal efficiency of MePKo25-Diesel75 is 31.01% and it is 2.18% higher than thatof standard diesel operation. On the other hand, themixing of diesel additive to diesel has the 299 | P a g e
  • 4. T.Venkata Subba Rao, K.Srinivas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.297-302 C. Exhaust gas temperature (EGT) load is increasing from 0 to 15 kegs. Similarly B25 Figure 4 shows that the exhaust gas blend also has low emissions on low load and temperature of the B25 blend is higher than that of increasing it by load on an engine. All the blends diesel. This may be due to the lower cetane number have low CO emissions at all loads compared to and higher ignition delay of the blend. The cetane diesel. The value of CO percentage in exhaust gas is number of the fuel was reduced with an increase of nearer to all blends at lower loads and it is much the diesel oil content in the fuel. The exhaust gas more difference at higher loads. temperature of the B25 blend is higher than the standard Diesel fuel. But the temperature after LOAD vs CO mixing additive to diesel and diesel+Palm kernel DIESEL oil blends is little bit lower. The graph clearly 0.4 D+ADDITIVE shows that the increase of exhaust gas temperature 0.35 10%PKO+90%D 15%PKO+85%D in all palm kernel oil and diesel oil blends. At the 0.3 20%PKO+80%D maximum load operation diesel has the exhaust gas 0.25 25%PKO+75%D temperature 398°C and at the same load Palm CO (%) 30%PKO+70%D kernel oil (at 25% blend) has the temperature of 0.2 B10+ADDITIVE 479°C, it was an increment of 81°C. It is observed 0.15 B15+ADDITIVE that the increase in exhaust gas temperature in all 0.1 B20+ADDITIVE B25+ADDITIVE the palm kernel oil to diesel blends, but slight 0.05 B30+ADDITIVE decrease in the temperature when the mixing of 0 additive to the diesel as well as to diesel-palm 0 3 6 9 12 15 kernel oil blends. The blends have little bit LOAD (kg) difference in exhaust gas temperatures of blends at lower loads and there is a greater increase in Fig. 5 Load vs CO Emissions temperature when load is increasing. B. HC Emission LOAD vs EXHAUST GAS TEMP The Fig. 6 shows that the variation of HC DIESEL D+ADDITIVE emission of Diesel- PKO blends fuel under various 500 10%PKO+90%D engine loads. The HC level reduces with increase in load for diesel as well as blends. It is seen that HC EXHAUST GAS TEMP (°C) 15%PKO+85%D 400 20%PKO+80%D emissions for diesel fuel is 48 ppm at low load and 112 25%PKO+75%D 300 30%PKO+70%D ppm at full load and for B25 blend it is 45 ppm at low B10+ADDITIVE load and 97 ppm at full load. For B25 blends, the HC 200 B15+ADDITIVE emissions are lower than that of diesel fuel, and this B20+ADDITIVE B25+ADDITIVE may be due to complete combustion. There are 100 B30+ADDITIVE normally some regions within the combustion chamber 0 of an engine fueled with methyl ester where the mixture 0 3 6 9 12 15 is either too rich to ignite the partially decomposed and LOAD (kg) oxidized fuel in the exhaust. Those un-burnt species are collectively known as un-burnt hydrocarbon emissions. Fig. 4 Load vs exhaust gas temperature The mixing of Additive to diesel have HC emission 47 at low load and 92 at full load, similarly adding additive VI. EMISSION ANALYSIS to B25 blend has the HC emission 44 at low load and A. CO Emission 94 at full load. Always there was reduction in HC The figure 5 shows the CO emission of blends emissions in both B25 blends and mixing of additive towith various loads. At low and medium loads, CO fuels. The reduction in HC Emissions is goes onemissions of the blends were not much difference increasing with increase in load from no load to highfrom standard diesel fuel operation. The CO emission load. It is better to use 25% palm kernel oil and 75%of B25 blends decreased significantly at full load. diesel blended fuel for reduced emissions of HC. It isThis may be due to the enrichment of oxygen in the observed that the reduction in HC emission at 15kgPalm kernel oil, in which an increase in the load running on B25 blend was 13.3%, but at low loadsproportion of oxygen promotes further oxidation of the reduction in emissions is less compared to theCO during the engine exhaust process. There was a diesel. The graph clearly shows that there is a14.1% reduction of CO emission for the B25 blend at decrement in HC emission in diesel and palm kernel oilfull load. The mixing of Additive to diesel and B25 blends and diesel and palm kernel oil blends tested byblend has 22.22% reduction in co emissions when mixing diesel additive.compared to diesel. At no load the diesel has verylow CO emission and it is goes on increasing as the 300 | P a g e
  • 5. T.Venkata Subba Rao, K.Srinivas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.297-302 D. Oxides of Nitrogen ( NOx) LOAD vs HC DIESEL Fig. 8 shows that the variation of NO x emission 120 D+ADDITIVE for Diesel-palm kernel oil blends and standard diesel 10%PKO+90%D for different engine loads. The increase in trend may be 100 15%PKO+85%D due to the presence of oxygen in methyl ester of palm 20%PKO+80%D 80 kernel oil. Many researchers reported that oxygenate 25%PKO+75%D fuel blends can cause an increase in NOx emission.HC (ppm) 30%PKO+70%D 60 B10+ADDITIVE Normally complete combustion causes higher 40 B15+ADDITIVE combustion temperature which results in higher NOx B20+ADDITIVE formation. Another reason for the increase in NOx 20 B25+ADDITIVE emission is the cetane suppressing property of oil. B30+ADDITIVE Usually, low cetane fuels offer longer ignition delay 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 and release more heat during the premixed phase of LOAD (kg) combustion. For MePKo25-Diesel 75 blend, the NOx emission was 1292 ppm compare to 1225 of Standard diesel. It decreases slightly by adding additive. It is Fig. 6 Load Vs HC Emissions observed that the decrease in NOx is more at maximum loads compared to low and no loads. At maximum load C. Smoke Intensity diesel has NOx emission 1225 ppm, where as it is 1102 The smoke emission with various load conditions ppm when additive is mixed to diesel and operated at is shown in Fig 7. It compares the Bosch smoke same load and same compression ratio. At B25 blend number (BSN) of various blends with standard diesel the NOx emission is 1292 it is higher than the emission operation. It is observed that the B25 blend shows recorded when the engine is running on diesel fuel. For higher reduction of smoke at all loads. More diesel and Diesel-Palm kernel oil Blends there was a specifically, at full load, B25-additive offers 23.8% reduction in NOx emissions. The increase in NOx lower smoke than that of standard diesel operation. emission is observed in not only Palm kernel oil but This is due to the Production of higher combustion also in all vegetable oils due to the presence of oxygen temperature and rapid release of intermediate in the oil extracted from vegetable products. From the compounds. The diesel has a smoke of 4.2 and it is figure 8,it is observed that there is no much more reduced to 3.8 by mixing diesel additive to diesel, it increase in NOx emission at lower loads but greater is 3.4 with B25 blend and 3.2 with additive mixed to increase may observe when the load on engine is B25 blend (25% palm kernel oil-75%diesel-additive). increasing to maximum value. In the graph NOx value The additive mixed to diesel and diesel with palm is less and it is closer for diesel, diesel-palm kernel oil kernel oil blends enables the smoother combustion. blends and additive mixed to all the fuel blends Additive mixed to fuel blends act as an ignition between 0kgs to 9kgs load. Diesel has lower NOx improver. emission level when additive is mixed to it. The reduction in NOx emission observed in palm kernel oil- LOAD vs SMOKE diesel blends when additive mixed is very low because DIESEL of additive properties those allows little bit changes in 4.5 D+ADDITIVE fuel used in engines to reduce NOx emissions. 10%PKO+90%D 4 15%PKO+85%D 3.5 20%PKO+80%D LOAD vs NOxSMOKE (bsu) 3 25%PKO+75%D DIESEL 2.5 30%PKO+70%D D+ADDITIVE 2 B10+ADDITIVE 10%PKO+90%D 1200 B15+ADDITIVE 15%PKO+85%D 1.5 B20+ADDITIVE 1000 20%PKO+80%D 1 B25+ADDITIVE 25%PKO+75%D NOx (ppm) 0.5 800 B30+ADDITIVE 30%PKO+70%D 0 600 B10+ADDITIVE 0 3 6 9 12 15 B15+ADDITIVE LOAD (kg) 400 B20+ADDITIVE B25+ADDITIVE 200 B30+ADDITIVE Fig. 7 Load Vs Smoke Intensity 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 LOAD (kg) The production of intermediate compounds splits the spray Particle into finer one and provides least chances for formation of soot. This may be the main Fig. 8 Load Vs Nox Emissions reason for lower smoke emission of B25 blend. 301 | P a g e
  • 6. T.Venkata Subba Rao, K.Srinivas / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.297-302 VII. CONCLUSION Based on the experimental investigation 3. Canakei, M. and Van Gerpen, J. 2003.conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine Comparison of engine performance andusing methyl ester Palm Kernel oil-Diesel blends and emissions for petroleum diesel fuel, yellowadditive the following major Conclusions are arrived. grease biodiesel and soybean oil biodiesel.1. The results showed that the mixing of high cetane American Society of Agricultural Engineers.fuel of methyl ester of palm kernel oil with diesel oil 46(4): 937-944.up to 25% increases brake thermal efficiency by 2.18percentage from the standard diesel fuel and 1.11% 4. Y. Yoshimoto, M. Onodera and H. Tamaki,by adding additive to diesel and 2.73% by adding “Performance and emission characteristics ofadditive to B25 blend. diesel engines fueled by vegetable oils”, SAE3. Approximately 19% smoke reduction was Technical Paper Series, Paper No.2001-01-achieved with B25 operation, 9.52% by additive 1807/4227.mixing and 23.8% by mixing Additive to B25 blend. 5. F. Karaosmanoglu, G. Kurt and T. Ozaktas,4. The result shows a 13.4% reduction with B25, “Long term C.I engine test of sunflower oil”,17.8% by adding additive to diesel in HC emission International journal of Renewable Energy,and 22.2% reduction in CO emissions with additive Vol. 19, 2000, 219-221.to diesel, 16.7% by B25 and 22.2% for MePKo25- 6. O. M. I. Nwafor and G. Rice, “Performance ofDiesel 75-additive blend. rapeseed oil methyl ester in diesel engine”,5. Comparatively a slighter increment in NOx International journal of Renewable Energy,emission was found while working with MePko25- 0960-1481 Vol. 95, 1995 00022-4.Diesel 75 blend at all loads. And there is a slight 7. Dilip Kumar Bora, Milton Polly, Vikasdecrease by adding additive. Sandhuja and L. M.Das, “Performance6. The added advantage of this Palm kernel oil is it evaluation and emission characteristics of acan blended to diesel and used as fuel without any diesel engine using mahua oil methyl estermodification. The results also proved that the (MOME)”, SAE Technical Paper Series, Paperblending of methyl ester Palm Kernel oil with diesel No. 2004-28-0034.up to 25% increases the engine performance without 8. O. M. I. Nwafor and G. Rice, “Performance ofmuch deteriorating its emission. The additive is rapeseed oil blends in a diesel engine”,blended at 2ml per liter improves engine performance International Journal of Applied Energy,and decreases the emissions. So the MePKo25- Vol.54, No.4, 1996, 345-354.Diesel 75 blend can be used as an alternative fuel in 9. P. K. Devan and N. V. Mahalakshmi,DI diesel engine. “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of poon oil and its diesel blends VIII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT in a DI diesel engine”, Fuel, Vol. 88, 2009, The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr. K. 861-867.Tirupathi Reddy, Head, Department of Mechanical 10. 10.Karthikeyan.R, Nallusamy.N,Engineering, RGM College of Engineering, Nandyala Alugumoorthy.N and Ilangovan.V,A (2010),for giving the permission to conduct the experiments ’Detailed Experimental investigation on hot airand valuable suggestions. assisted turpentine direct injected compression ignition engine’, International Journal of REFERENCES Engineering Science and Technology,Vol 2(9), 5034-49. 1. http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/biodiesel_ 11. Holman JP (2003),’Experimental echniques’, basics/ Tata McGraw Hill Publications. 2. Mazel, M.A., summers, J.D. and Batch 12. Recep Selim C. and S.Y. Huseyin. 2000. The elder, D.G.1985. Peanut, soybean and potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for cottonseed oil as diesel fuels. Trans. ASAE. diesel engines. International Journal of Energy 28(5): 1375-1377. Conversion Management. 42: 529-538. 13. http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090077869 . 302 | P a g e