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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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  1. 1. P. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy / International Journalof Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.194-200194 | P a g eDesign And Development Of Small Wind Energy Systems Is ASoft Path For Power Generation And Environment ConservationFor Off Grid Applications In India.P. Srinivasa Rao*, Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy**, Dr. P. RavinderReddy****Associate professor & Head of Mech. Engg, SSJEC, Hyderabad -500075, (A.P), India.**Professor, Dept. of Mech. Engg, JNTUH, Hyderabad -500085, (A.P), India.***Professor & Head, Dept. of Mech. Engg, CBIT, Hyderabad -500075, (A.P), India.ABSTRACT : This paper describes the design anew evolving electrical power generation systemwith small wind turbine. Which offer solutions tomeet local energy requirements of a specificlocation. Energy conservation decreases energyrequirements, promotes energy efficiency andfacilitates development of renewable. Wind energydominates as an immediate viable cost effectiveoption which promotes energy conservation andavoids equivalent utilization of fossil fuels andavoids million ton of green house gas emissioncausing ozone depletion and other environmentalimpacts like global warming. This paper gives anover view about the current status and a possibledevelopment for small wind turbines for off – gridapplications in India.KEY WORDS: wind energy, wind power generationsystem, wind sensor, Energy resources, and windenergy conversion system.I. INTRODUCTIONThe concept of wind energy dates back tonearly 7000 years ago [1]. Wind power technologydates back many centuries. The wind power databack beyond the time of the ancient Egypt ions [2].Hero of Alexandria used a simple wind mill to poweran organ whilst the Babylonian emperor,Hammurabi, used windmills for an ambitiousirrigation projects early as the 17thcentury BC. Thefirst wind powered electricity was produced by aMachine built by Charles F. Bob in Cleveland Ohioin the year 1888 [2]. Electricity can be generated inmany ways. In each case a fuel is used to turn aturbine, which drives a generator. The turbines aredesigned to wind generated electricity: the wind isthe fuel which drives the turbine, which generateselectricity. It is free and clean. Wind power is one ofthe most mature Renewable energy technologies withover 74000 MW installed globally [3]. Wind drivesturbine which generates power for energy use [3].Electricity cannot be seen felt, tasted, smelled, heardor safely touched. In the late 1800 Dane developedthe first wind turbines to produce commercialelectricity [4].The green energy also called theregeneration energy.Energy is the basic building block for socio-economic development of any country. Energy is oneof the most important building blocks in humandevelopment, and, as such, acts as a key factor indetermining the economic development of allcountries. India has been a pioneer in the commercialuse of wind energy in Asia since the 1990s. In theyear 2013 India had the 5thlargest installed windcapacity globally, during present year, India addedinstalled capacity of 17644 MW as on June 2012 [5][9]. It is a 14% annual growth rate and contributed3.5% to the global wind market. India„s totalestimated potential is 48,561 MW [6] withKarnataka, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh as theleading states [7].The Indian energy sector haswitnessed a rapid growth, areas liked the resourceexploration and exploitation, capacity additions, andenergy sector reforms have been revolutionized [8].
  2. 2. P. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy / International Journalof Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.194-200195 | P a g eFig1: schematic of typical wind turbine [14] (Primary components & DimensionsOf one of the 2-MW turbine). Source: Man well teals, 2001)Fig2: wind power potential in India [12] (Source: C-WET), Government of India
  3. 3. P. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy / International Journalof Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.194-200196 | P a g eIndia can become a potential world leader inthe development and deployment of Renewableenergy technologies and play a significant role incombating global climate change. The main policyincentives include a feed in tariff 80%. Accelerateddepreciation, exemptions from excise duties, and taxexemptions for infrastructure related projects. InIndia wind energy has decreased by 12 – 18%. Thissub sector grown an average 30% per annum, andwind mounting and mapping stations installed in 25states and also in union territories. The maximumglobal wind resource is approximately 1.22×1015KWh/yr. India estimates wind energy generationCapacity Quadruple to 89 GW by 2020 [15].II. Wind power generation systemWind energy conversion system (WECS)converts the kinetic energy K.E of a renewableresource-wind- to mechanical energy ME. Thisenergy can be used as electric power EE. The windspeed of 8 to 14 miles per hour (mph) at working site,wind speeds of above 4-5 m/s which makes smallscale wind powered electricity generation anattractive option. The power in the wind isproportional to the area of wind mill being swept bythe wind, the cube of the wind speed and the airdensity - which varies with altitude.The power in the wind is calculated with [22]Power =𝐃𝐞𝐧𝐬𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐨𝐟 𝐚𝐢𝐫 × 𝐬𝐰𝐞𝐩𝐭 𝐀𝐫𝐞𝐚 𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐜𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐜𝐮𝐛𝐞𝐬𝟐P =𝟏𝟐 A V 3(1)WhereP is power in watts (W).A is swept rotor area in square miles (m2).V is wind speed in meters per second (m/s). is the air density in kilogram per cubicmeter (Kg/m3).The fact that the power is proportional to thecube of the wind speed is very significant. The actualpower depends on several factors such as the type ofmachine rotor, the sophistication of blade designfriction losses etc. The wind mill can only possiblyextract a mass of 59.3% of the power from the wind(this is known as the ‘Batz limit’). Themodified formula for „power in the wind ‟and thepower which is produced by the wind machine can begiven by [22].PM =𝟏𝟐CP  A 𝑽 𝟐(2)WherePM is power (in watts) available from themachine.CP is the coefficient of performance of thewind machine.The output can be obtained from a wind machine [22].PA = 0.2 A V3(3)WherePA is the average power output in watts overthe year.V is the mean annual wind speed in m/s.The gross annual CO2 emissions reduced by a windpower project GCE wind can be estimated as [22].GCEwind = (8760 PLFwind Pwind) CEFe ) (4)WherePwind (in fraction) – plant load factor of thewind power project.CEFe − The emission factor ofelectricity.8760 – Annual amount ofelectricity saved by the wind power project.Levelised cost of Electricity generation LCOE, theformula used for calculates the LOCE of renewableenergy Technologies is [10].LCOE = = 𝟏𝒏𝒕𝐈𝐭+ 𝐌𝐭 + 𝐅𝐭=𝟏𝒏𝒕 𝐄𝐭 ∕ (𝟏+𝐫)𝟐(5)WhereLCOE = the average life time levelised costof electricity generation;It = Investment expenditures in theyear t;Mt = operations and maintainceexpenditures in the year t;Ft = Fuel expenditures in the year t;ET = electricity generation in the year t;r = discount rate andn = Economic life of the systemWind power technologies can be evaluated formodeling (or) policy development.III. Energy resourcesEnergy resources are classified in to twogroups: primary non renewable and secondary-renewable resources, with respect to change inQuantitative [21].A. UN renewable energy resources: Unrenewable energy resources are the ones thatdecay partially or vanish with the time orneeds decades for reuse, such as oil, coal andcoal derivatives, natural gas wood andradioactive atoms (uranium).B. Renewable energy resources: Renewableenergy resources are the ones that arepersistently, available and renewing itself withthe time, industrialization and increasingworld population has remarked the use of
  4. 4. P. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy / International Journalof Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.194-200197 | P a g erenewable energy resources wind power, solarpower, bio mass, tide, wave power,geothermal power is known ones.C.Wind power: The wind energy is a renewablesource of energy .The energy available in the winddepends on the density and air velocity. Windturbines are used to convert the wind power intoelectric power. Electric generator inside the turbineconverts the mechanical power into electric power.Small wind turbine systems are available rangingfrom 50 W to 100 W. Any wind turbine having lessthan 30KW rated capacity can be termed as a smallwind turbine Small wind turbines of different ratingsfrom 50W, 400W, 1KW, 3KW, 5KW, 10KW up to30KW are available in the global market [17].Table1: The classification system for smallwind turbine [22](Source: spear,1994 and Gipe`, 1999)Wind energy conversion system WECS convert theKE of a renewable resource – wind to mechanicalenergy. This can be uses as electrical power .We willneed an average monthly wind speed 8 to 14 milesper hour (mph) at our site. An Anemometer is used tomeasure wind speed.Fig3: schematic of the horizontal and verticalaxis wind turbine [11] Fig4:schematic of typical wind turbine [13](Source: www.centreforenergy)(Source: Man well et al, 2001AC To DC: The electricity generated by a windturbine Converted to alternating current AC and usedwithout storage. Stored in batteries and later used asdirect current DC or Alternating current [18].D.Types of small wind turbines: Horizontal andVertical axis wind turbines (HAVT & VAWT) camein variety of sizes and they are located on shore or offshore applications. The power generation of winddetermined by the capacity of the turbine in kw orMw, the wind speed, height and diameter of the rotor,3 or 5 blade modern wind turbine rotating withhorizontal axes, The turbine classification including,rotor, placement up wind or down wind, no of bladesOutput regulation system for the generators & gearbox design, hub connection to the rotor. Small windScale RotordiameterPowerratingMicro Lessthan3m50Wto2KWSmall 3m to12m2KWto40KWMedium12mto45m40KW99KWLarge 66mandlargeMore than1.0MW
  5. 5. P. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy / International Journalof Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.194-200198 | P a g eturbines is defined as a turbine capacity of 100kw orless generally have higher capital cost and achievelower capacity factor. It will be used for off- gridElectrification. It shares 14% global wind powermarket. It meet the electrical needs of homes, forms,refuges, small communities, and wind energy playan important role in rural electrification science1970‟s, trying to improve operating reliability andreduce noise concerns to acceptable level. Advancedairfoils, upper – magnet, generators smart powerelectronics, tall towers, low –noise factures will helpimprove performance and electricity generation fromsmall wind turbines. UK & CANADA are the largestmarket for small wind. At the end of 2012 small windturbines reached 540Mw from 656000 turbines [16]throughout the world.IV. WIND ENERGY SYSTEM DESIGN:Converting energy in wind into a sociallyuse full electrical or mechanical involves manyprocesses.1ststep the extraction of energy isconverting the KE of wind to ME in a rotor via anaerodynamic lift. Rotor has 5 blades, are constructedprimarily of composite material and its havehorizontal axis rotation is also possible, rotor isprovided by a yaw system. The gear box provides anincrease in speed such that the speed of the gear boxoutput is matched to the speed requirements of thegenerator. In step 2 the conversion of ME to EE, Theshafts, gear box generated and associated equipmentare contained a nacelle which located on top of atower.Electricity is carried down the tower with a dropcube. The electrical output of most turbines now daysare directed into congenital electrical networks. Inmost sites considered for Wind energy developmentthe average wind power density is in the range of200-800 W/m2[19]. Speed measurements aretypically averaged over ten minute intervals for usein performance and economic assessments. Theaverage power from wind turbines is typicallybetween 20% and 40% of this ratio maximum.Fig 5: inside the wind turbineFig6: The future of up scalingof modern(Source: India wind turbine manufacturersassociation) electricityproducing wind turbines. [10]It is estimated that approximately 2% of thesunlight that falls on the earth is converted to windenergy. Wind energy is derived fundamentally fromsolar energy via a thermodynamic process. Sun lightwarms the ground causing air above it to raise theensuring pressure differential caused air formelsewhere to move in resulting in air motion (Wind).Air motion is also affected by the earths‟ rotation.The total energy impinging an at the outeratmosphere, assuming a solar constant of 1,367W/m2, is 1.53×1018kWh/ per year. The Solarenergy to wind has been estimated to occur at anefficiency 2% approximately 35% of this is in thelower boundary; layer where out could potentially beextracted by wind turbines. According to thisestimate the Max global wind resource isapproximately 1.22×1015Kwh/yr.The onshoretechnical potential of wind is about 1.0×1014Kwh/yr,and of shore wind energy resource at water, depletesup to 50 m is another 3.7×1013KWh/hr. The globalconsumption of electricity at the present time is about1.6×1013Kwh/yr [20]. Modern turbines have evolvedprimarily from ‘Danish concept’.Main market Development in 2013The Indian market is emerging as one of themajor manufacture hubs for wind turbines in Asia;Nearly 17 manufacturers have annual productioncapacity of 7,500 MW. According to the wise, andthe annual wind turbine manufacturing capacity inIndia is likely to exceed 17000 MW by 2013.Policy support for wind power in IndiaIn India still the 2003 Electricity Act isfollowing, the Annual growth rate is 29.5% in thewind energy sector. The key financial incentives forwind power development, the possibility to claim upto 80% of the project cost. Within the first year ofoperation and the income tax holiday on all earningsgenerate from the project. In 2009 MNRE approvedGeneration based incentive GBI scheme for windpower projects, the incentive tariff of RS /- 0.50/Kwh
  6. 6. P. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy / International Journalof Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.194-200199 | P a g egiven to eligible projects for a max period of 10years. It is valid for wind forms installed before 31stMarch 2012.Benefits of wind energy: Wind energy is highlypractical in places where the wind speed is 10mph.wind energy is used in large scale wind farms toprovide electricity to rural areas and other farreaching locations [17]. Wind energy is economically competitive. Unlike most other electricity generationsources, wind turbine do not consume water Wind energy is inexhaustible and infinitelyrenewable. Wind energy has many environmentalbenefits. Wind energy is clean energy thatproduce no emissions, which means it doesnot contribute to acid rain and now , globalclimate change, smog regional haze ,mercury contamination , water withdrawal,and particulate-related health effects. Wind energy‟s “fuel” is free; it reduces therisk associated with volatile fossil fuelprices.V. Small wind energy systemdevelopment:The Model 50.5 solid state wind sensor isused in this system sensor has high qualityperformance. This gives a bit output to a microcontroller that could be controlled through APRAPAN make power controller with Auto modes,no moving parts, digital and Analog out puts Timproven design, sensor emulation. The battery bankhas a nominal voltage of 120v.It is formed by 12elements of 12v connected in series. Practically it isobserved that 5 blade propeller about 35mindiameter, in a 60km/hr wind pressure with a rotationwind speed of 47rpm produced a maximum power 12MW.Fig: 7 Actual wind turbineFig: 8 Battery systems.
  7. 7. P. Srinivasa Rao, Dr. K. Vijaya Kumar Reddy, Dr. P. Ravinder Reddy / International Journalof Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.194-200200 | P a g eFig: 9 battery storage unit & controller.VI. Conclusion:This wind energy power generation systemwill be highly effective in rural areas and other farreaching locations. India‟s rural areas and in reducingconsumption of fossil fuels which is essential forfuture energy security of the country. It outlines thepolicies that have been followed to foster the growthof this sector and also indicates the targets and thefuture pathway. So there is a great need of windenergy source in India power sector remove GHGemission for the environment protection. In terms ofwind energy security, environmental protection andeconomic efficiency for effective promotion of windenergy. Increased recognition of the contributionwind energy makes to rural development, lowerhealth costs, energy independence, and climatechange mitigation is shifting wind energy from thefringe to the mainstream of sustainable development.Therefore, it is the most reliable wind power orelectricity resources with the least expenditure in theglobe.References:[1] N. Kodama,T.Matzuaka,and N.Inomita,“power variation control of a windturbine using probabilistic optimalcontrol, including feed- forward control forwind speed”, wind eng, vol24, no1,13-23;jan2000.[2] www.practical[3], Pursuing cleanenergy business in India pp28.[4] L. L Freris, wind energy conversion system,Engle wood Cliffs NJ: prentice-hall, 182-184 1990.[5] small wind worldreport summary 2012.[6] MNRE. “Wind power potential in India,“ wpp.htm.[7] Indian wind energy Association (INWEA).“Wind energy program in India”[8] Energy statistics 2012pp2-3.[9][10] IRENA volume1: power sector issue 5/5wind power pp-9.[11][12] CDM potential of wind power projects inIndia by pallov purihit, Axel Michaelowpp10[13] ISPRE –PP20.[14] Technology white paper on wind energypotential on the U.S. outer continental shelfpp-7[15] India – wind energy outlook 2012.[16] WWEA, 2012.[17] Electrical India vol 51 No 4 april2011 pp22-23.[18] Wind power fact sheet “building inALASKA EEM-01352 PP1-4[19] Gustafson MR (1979) limits to wind powerutilization science vol, 204, PP13-17.[20] World wind energy resource distributionestimation (NREL).[21] F.C.Treble, 1991, generating Electricityfrom the sum, pergaman press, OX ford,England.[11] M.R. Patel, 1999, wind andsolar power systems CRC press, Florida.[22],practical action andtechnical brief pp2-3.