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Experimental analysis of channel interference in ad hoc network

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In recent times, the use of ad hoc networks is a common research area among a researcher. Designing an …

In recent times, the use of ad hoc networks is a common research area among a researcher. Designing an
efficient and reliable network is not easy task. Network engineer faces many problems at the time of
deploying a network such as interference; Signal coverage, proper location of access point etc. channel
interference in one of them which must be considered at the time of deploying WLAN indoor environments
because channel interference impacts the network throughput and degrade the network performance.
In this experiment, we design a two WLAN BSS1 and BSS2 and investigate the impact of interference on
nodes. BSS1 contains three FTP clients and BSS2 contains two FTP client and their jobs is to upload data
to FTP Server Initially, they are far from each other. BSS1 moves toward BSS2 and after some time at
particular position both BSSs overlaps to each other. When BSSs overlaps to each other interference is
high and decrease network performance and increase upload time.

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  • 1. International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.4, No.1, February 2014 DOI:10.5121/ijcsa.2014.4120 197 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL INTERFERENCE IN AD HOC NETWORK Anup Bhola1 , Uma Sharma2 , Dr. CK Jha3 1,2,3 Department of Computer Science, Banastahli Univeristy, Tonk, Newai ABSTRACT In recent times, the use of ad hoc networks is a common research area among a researcher. Designing an efficient and reliable network is not easy task. Network engineer faces many problems at the time of deploying a network such as interference; Signal coverage, proper location of access point etc. channel interference in one of them which must be considered at the time of deploying WLAN indoor environments because channel interference impacts the network throughput and degrade the network performance. In this experiment, we design a two WLAN BSS1 and BSS2 and investigate the impact of interference on nodes. BSS1 contains three FTP clients and BSS2 contains two FTP client and their jobs is to upload data to FTP Server Initially, they are far from each other. BSS1 moves toward BSS2 and after some time at particular position both BSSs overlaps to each other. When BSSs overlaps to each other interference is high and decrease network performance and increase upload time. KEYWORDS Keywords—AP, BSS, IEEE,FTP WLAN. 1. INTRODUCTION In recent times, the use of Wireless local area networks (WLAN) is common in all government offices, universities and industrial unit and so their use grows every day. The wireless network replaces wire network because wire technology is expensive and sometime it is prohibitive to lay cables. Wireless networks have advantages for notebooks and other small computer equipment for getting access to the internet due to easy installation and maintenance. This wireless technology has a various other characteristics that enable the user to access network without having wired connections. The wireless system keeps the user free from being restricted to the use network in limited location such as their rooms, corridor, and computer laboratories. Wireless network also eliminates any time restrictions associated with traditional wired network. In short, a WLAN will enable the user to access information and communicate anytime and anywhere within coverage area. Wireless network at the educational institutions is being used to connect staff and students to outside corporate network. An analysis, found that the use of WLAN at educational institutions is a good for preparing a suitable study environment for the students, and enhance the work capacity of the current students and staffs. Most of the universities are switching over from wire to wireless technology, there are some of them use both wire and wireless. Wireless technology is crucial to the growth of higher education because it has the following advantages for higher education.
  • 2. International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.4, No.1, February 2014 198 Flexibility Wireless technology enables students and faculty to access information from anywhere, anytime. Students and staffs can access information indoor and outdoor without having physically in plug to network. Whether you are in a library, hostel, lab, classroom, ground, and corridor wireless technology allows you to communicate with other students, teachers, administrators and the staff. Deployment Wireless technology removes the physical obstacles that are in wired deployment. There is no need of wire in wireless technology that makes it easier to setup, maintain and integrate with other technologies. Cost Wireless is time and cost effective technique because it eliminates the high cost of installing different types of wire communication media. Performance Wireless technology provides high performance compare to wire technology. Wireless technologies also help in preparing a suitable working environment for the students, and also improve the working capacity of the current staff. Wireless network can be deployed in two ways:- (a) Single-hop infrastructure mode in which APs are connected to the backhaul using wire Ethernet. The access points work like central hub, giving connectivity to wireless devices, computer . In a corporate environment, large number of access points work together to give wireless coverage for an entire building or campus. (b)Ad hoc network in which each node is directly connect to each other, without any infrastructure. Ad hoc network is useful in many applications where infrastructure is either not available, or impractical, such as: military, scientific, academic, natural, maritime, business- related, etc Figure1: Infrastructure and peer to peer mode for WLAN’s
  • 3. International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.4, No.1, February 2014 199 2. Problem Statement & Methodology The channel interference is one of the areas of concern when designing large network indoor environments because channel interference, expected in WLANs, causes severe throughput degradation, and eliminating. This problem has become an important step in order to improve the network performance. In these experiments, we will only study how channel interference impacts the network delay, throughput, and retransmission and degrade the network performance. In this experiment, we design a network using a powerful simulation tool, which is called Optimum Network (OPENT) performance [1]. OPNET provides various powerful features for designing and simulation of network like object oriented, GUI, thousands of different vender devices and protocol. OPNET visualized simulation environment make it more intercalative for network modeling. The popularity of OPNET is to test new applications and protocols in field of data communication and computer network environment. Several network equipment manufacturers also use OPNET to evaluate the performance of newly developed products prior to introducing in market. OPNET is structured into a number of modeling layers. In this experiment, we designed scenario by creating a two WLAN BSS 1 and BSS 2. BSS1 has three and BSS2 has two FTP wlan_station_adv mobile nodes and they are doing regular upload, and both have one FTP server. In BSS1 WLAN uses data rate 2 Mbps and BSS2 uses 5.5 Mbps. In this, BSS 1 we set channel 1 and BSS 2 channel 5. Since both of the channels overlap to each other, so the both IBSSs get closer to each other, and that become precise problem because distance of two networks gets smaller. The nodes of BSS 1 moves towards BSS 2 along their trajectory and both of them finish their movement before the end of the simulation and pause at the starting and in the mid of simulation. They pause for 2 minutes when two BSSs (BSS_One and BSS_Two) on top of each other and in the same geographical location. The current network configuration details of overall network are shown in table1 and fig 2. WLAN IBSS1 & IBSS2 Client 5 FTP client for frequent upload operation and 5 FTP Client for receiving data Server One FTP server Data Rate 2 Mbps and 5 Mbps Channel 1(2.401-2.423 and 5( 2.421-2.443 GHz band Table 1: current network configuration details of overall network Figure 2: current network configuration details of overall network
  • 4. International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.4, No.1, February 2014 200 3. Literature Review A literature survey is both a summary and explanation of the complete and current state of knowledge on a limited topic as found in academic journal articles and books, including projects report, research papers, and organizational projects. A summary of previously related work is discussed below. The problem of coexistence between IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4 networks has received significant interest from the research community. Most early work concentrated on developing probabilistic models that capture the dependence of interference-related packet loss in a 802.15.4 network based on frequency overlap and duty cycle, transmit power and distance of an 802.11 interferer [2]. Others analyzed the reverse problem, that is the impact of 802.15.4 networks on 802.11devices [3], concluding that it is little to non-existing. A recent experimental study comes to a different conclusion, reporting that 802.15.4 devices may cause significant packet loss in an 802.11 network under conditions [4]. Prior work assessing the impact of WLAN interference on static 802.15.4 networks in lab environments typically reported on severe packet loss at small distances between the interfering devices [5]. Recently several 802.15.4 radio chip manufacturers have published guidelines to mitigate interference effects between the two technologies [8,9,10], for example, through minimal frequency of set of 20MHz, spatial separation of 2 m and the use of the complete protocol stack (using ARQ to translate losses into latency) [6]. Acknowledging the problem, the IEEE 802.15 Task Group 4e currently investigates how to incorporate frequency hopping in the MAC layer. Meanwhile, recent revisions of standards that build on top of the 802.15.4 already incorporate simple frequency agility methods like periodic random channel hopping [11, 12]. Study of the Impact of WLAN Interference on IEEE 802.15.4 BANs 15There is not so much experimental work on the specific challenges and opportunities of 802.15.4 BANs. Some recent studies have examined the performance of mobile 802.15.4 person-to-person communication, as well as with static receivers [3, 12]. This work targets the impact of the human body on an inter- BAN communication link under specific mobility patterns, rather than external RF interference. Despite their static setup, the study presented in [7] is closest to our work: it focuses on detecting and mitigating the WLAN interference impact on 802.15.4 networks in a once setting. Targeting stationary networks, their measurement setup is optimized for more stable interference configurations, which is also reflected in the significantly higher duration of the sweep time compared to our setup (1.6 s vs. 85 ms). Their results confirm the correlation between 802.15.4 packet loss and 802.11 activities, as well as the suitability of noise-based predictors of WLAN interference. Taher et al.[13] used laboratory measurements to develop an analytical model of microwave oven signals. Karhima et al.[14] performed measurements on an ad-hoc wireless LAN under narrowband and wideband jamming. They found that in case of wideband jamming, 802.11g can offer higher transmission rates due to its DSSS modulation scheme. Golmie et al.[15] explored the mutual impact of interference on a closed loop environment consisting of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth networks. They found that even by sufficiently increasing the transmission power levels of the Wi-Fi network to that of the Bluetooth network could not reduce packet loss. Our work complements these studies. We use measurements to characterize a wide range of common non-Wi-Fi devices(including microwave ovens and Bluetooth) at the physical layer and use experiments to qualify their impact on different traffic workloads.
  • 5. International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.4, No.1, February 2014 201 Vogeler et al.[16] presented methods for detection and suppression of interference due to Bluetooth in 802.11g networks. Ho et al.[17] studied the performance impact on a Wi-Fi network due to Bluetooth and HomeRF devices using simulations and described. 4. Result In simulation, source nodes of IBSS1 moves towards destination nodes of IBSS2 during simulation and continually sends traffic, at some point during the simulation, both BSSs overlaps to each other and increase the interference and upload time and degrade network performance. In this experiment, we analysis the effect on interference on following parameter:- 4.1 FTP Upload Response Time Figure 3 shows the FTP upload response time of client 4 of BSS2. This graph clearly shows the negative effects of interference for the node 4. When the IBSSs do not overlap each other, the interference is low and FTP uploads take less time. On the other side, while two IBSSs overlap to each other, interference is high and upload time take more time. Figure3: FTP upload response time (in sec) in clients on left and right BSS 4.2 Delay In, figure 4 we observed wireless LAN delay of clients of right side BSS. In figure4 shows very low delay at beginning position which is around 0.011 sec. because IBSSs are far from each other. On the other side, while two IBSSs are overlap to each other, delay is very high and reaches up to 0.017 sec and Figure 5 shows the wireless LAN media access delay observed on the clients of right hand side BSS. The graph shows that when the IBSSs do not overlaps to each other and are far from each other, the media access delay is low and are below to 0.008 sec. and on the other side, while two IBSSs overlap to each other, the media access delay is high and reach up to 0.013 sec.
  • 6. International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.4, No.1, February 2014 202 Figure4: Wireless LAN delay (sec) Figure5: WLAN Media Access Delay (sec) 4.3 Retransmission Attempts Figure 6 shows the wireless LAN retransmission attempts (packets) of clients of BSS Right: The graph clearly shows that when the IBSSs are at distance of each other, the retransmission attempts is low around 0.015 to 0.040 and on the other side, while two IBSSs overlaps on each other, the retransmission attempts is high and reach up to 0.070 packets. Figure 6: Wireless LAN Retransmission Attempts (Packets)
  • 7. International Journal on Computational Sciences & Applications (IJCSA) Vol.4, No.1, February 2014 203 5. Conclusion A Channel Interference of network depends on distance .Network provides a smooth performance when two BSS are at particular distance but when BSS overlaps on each other, increase the interference and degrade the network performance. 6. References [1] Wireless Network Performance Optimization Using Opnet Modeler http://www.scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=itj.2006.18.24&linkid=pdf [2] S. Y. Shin, D. G. Yoon, W. H. Kwon, and H. S. Park. Packet error rate analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 under IEEE 802.11b interference. Vehicular Technology Conference,2006. VTC 2006-Spring. IEEE 63rd, 3:1186{1190, May 2006. [3] J. Gutierrez and I. Howitt IEEE 802.15.4 low rate - wireless personal area network coexistence issues. Wireless Communications and Networking, 2003. WCNC 2003.2003 IEEE, 3:1481{1486 vol.3, March 2003 [4] S. Pollin, I. Tan, B. Hodge, C. Chun, and A. Bahai. Harmful coexistence between 802.15.4 and 802.11: A measurement-based study. Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications, 2008. CrownCom 2008. 3rd International Conference on, pages 1{6, May 2008. [5 ]N. Golmie, D. Cypher, and O. R ebala. Performance analysis of low rate wireless technologies for medical applications. Computer Communications, 28(10):1255{1275, 2005. [6] G. Thonet, P. Allard-Jacquin, and P. Colle. ZigBee - WiFi coexistence, white paper and test report. Technical report, Schneider Electric, 2008. [7] R.Musaloiu-E.andA.Terzis.Minimising the effect of WiFi interference in 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks. Int. J. Sen. Netw., 3(1):43{54, 2008 [8] Jennic Ltd. Co-existence of IEEE 802.15.4 at 2.4 GHz - application note. http://www.jennic.com/. [9] G. Thonet, P. Allard-Jacquin, and P. Colle. ZigBee - WiFi coexistence, white paper and test report. Technical report, Schneider Electric, 2008. [10] Freescale Semiconductor. Mc1319x coexistence - application note. http://www.freescale.com. [11] HART field communication protocol specification:TDMA data link layer specification.HCF-SPEC- 15.2008 [12] ZigBee Alliance.ZigBee Specification.ZigBee Document 053474r17, 2008. [13] Taher,T.,Al Banna,A.,Ucci,D.,LoCicero,J.: Characteriz –tion of an Unintentional Wi-Fi Interference Device-The Residential Microwave Oven.In:Proc of Military Communications Conference(MILCOM).Washington D.C.,U.S.A.(October,2008). [14] Karhima,T.,Silvennoinen,A.,Hall,M.,Haggman,S:IEEE 802.11 b/g WLAN Tolerance to Jamming.In:Proc of Military Communications conference(MILCOM).PP.1364- 1370.Monterey,U.S.A.(October,2004). [15] olmie,N.,VanDyck,R.,Soltanian,A.,Tonnerre,A.,Rebala,O.:Interference evaluation of Bluetooth and IEEE 802.11 b/g Systems.Wireless Networks 9(3),201-211(May,2003). [16] Vogeler,S.,Brotje,L.,Kammeyer,K.D.,Ruckriem,R.,Pech tel,S.:Suppression of Bluetooth Interference on OFDM in the 2.4 GHz ISM Band.In:Proc of International OFDM. Workshop(INOWo).Hamburg,Germany(September,2003) [17] Ho,M.J.,Rawles,M.,Vrijkork,M.,Fei,L.:RF Challenges for 2.4 and 5GHz WLAN Deployment and Design.In:Proc of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference(WCNC).PP.783- 788.Orlando,U.S.A. (March,2002).