Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue

192

Published on

Since October 1st 2011, when Nigeria Federal Govenrment marked Nigerian�s 51st National Indepedence celebration at Eagles Square Abuja that witnessed the first bomb blast in the country, there have …

Since October 1st 2011, when Nigeria Federal Govenrment marked Nigerian�s 51st National Indepedence celebration at Eagles Square Abuja that witnessed the first bomb blast in the country, there have been a catalogue of avalanche of security challenges throughout the country ranging from bomb blasts, suicide bombings, terrorist attacks, kidnapping for ransoms, ritual killings, political assassinations and political brigande, crude oil bunkering and pipeline vandalism, armed robbery but to mention a few. The Federal and State governments have made much effort through the engagement of the law enforcement agencies and security forces such as Police, Joint Military Task Force (JTF), State Security Service (SSS), Nigeria Security and Civil Defnce Corps (NSCDC) but their combined effort have not yielded much positive result towards arresting these security menace.This paper attempts to proffer a security solution framework using newly emerging security technological solutions known as �smart objects� and �internet-of-things�, combining the cooperative efforts of security technologies such as Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks(WSANs), Global Positioning System (GPS), IP surveillance using specialized cameras and Close Circuit Television Cameras (CCTV) and fusing their cooperative outputs into the Internet using novelty telecommunication networks such as Wi-Fi, 3G, ZigBee, Internet Protocol (IP) to aid security agents to track, trace, apprehend and prosecute the culprits who perpetuate these security challenges.Since October 1st 2011, when Nigeria Federal Govenrment marked Nigerian�s 51st National Indepedence celebration at Eagles Square Abuja that witnessed the first bomb blast in the country, there have been a catalogue of avalanche of security challenges throughout the country ranging from bomb blasts, suicide bombings, terrorist attacks, kidnapping for ransoms, ritual killings, political assassinations and political brigande, crude oil bunkering and pipeline vandalism, armed robbery but to mention a few. The Federal and State governments have made much effort through the engagement of the law enforcement agencies and security forces such as Police, Joint Military Task Force (JTF), State Security Service (SSS), Nigeria Security and Civil Defnce Corps (NSCDC) but their combined effort have not yielded much positive result towards arresting these security menace.This paper attempts to proffer a security solution framework using newly emerging security technological solutions known as �smart objects� and �internet-of-things�, combining the cooperative efforts of security technologies such as Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks(WSANs), Global Positioning System (GPS), IP surveillance using specialized cameras and Close Circuit Television Cameras (CCTV) and fusing their cooperative outputs into the Internet using novelty telecommunication networks such as Wi-Fi, 3G, ZigBee, Internet Protocol (IP) to aid security agents to track, trace, apprehend and pr

Published in: Technology, Business, Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
192
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. International journal of Computer Networking and Communication (IJCNAC)Vol. 1, No. 1(August -2013) 57 www.arpublication.org The Escalating Nigeria National Security Challenge: Smart Objects and Internet-Of-Things to the rescue Obodoeze F.C.1 , Ozioko F.E.2 , Okoye F.A.3 Mba C.N4 , Ozue T.I.5 , Ofoegbu E.O.6 1 Department of Computer Science, Renaissance University Enugu, Nigeria 1 fidelisobodoeze@gmail.com 2,3 Department of Computer and Information Science, Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu, Nigeria 2 ekene.ozioko@esut.edu.ng, 3 francisced@esut.edu.ng 4 Department of Computer Engineering, Caritas University Enugu, Nigeria 4 mbacally@yahoo.com 5 Nyzpat Technologies, Port Harcourt, Nigeria 5 thankjehovah@gmail.com 6 Department of Physics Electronics, Oduduwa University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria 6 edoxnt@yahoo.com Abstract Since October 1st 2011, when Nigeria Federal Govenrment marked Nigerian’s 51st National Indepedence celebration at Eagles Square Abuja that witnessed the first bomb blast in the country, there have been a catalogue of avalanche of security challenges throughout the country ranging from bomb blasts, suicide bombings, terrorist attacks, kidnapping for ransoms, ritual killings, political assassinations and political brigande, crude oil bunkering and pipeline vandalism, armed robbery but to mention a few. The Federal and State governments have made much effort through the engagement of the law enforcement agencies and security forces such as Police, Joint Military Task Force (JTF), State Security Service (SSS), Nigeria Security and Civil Defnce Corps (NSCDC) but their combined effort have not yielded much positive result towards arresting these security menace.This paper attempts to proffer a security solution framework using newly emerging security technological solutions known as “smart objects” and “internet-of- things”, combining the cooperative efforts of security technologies such as Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks(WSANs), Global Positioning System (GPS), IP surveillance using specialized cameras and Close Circuit Television Cameras (CCTV) and fusing their cooperative outputs into the Internet using novelty telecommunication networks such as Wi-Fi, 3G, ZigBee, Internet Protocol (IP) to aid security agents to track, trace, apprehend and prosecute the culprits who perpetuate these security challenges. Keywords: Smart objects, Internet-of-Things (IoT), Global Positioning System (GPS), RFID, Wireless Sensor Network(WSN), aerial surveillance, IP cameras 1. INTRODUCTION Since October 1, 2011 when Nigeria Federal Government marked the nation’s 51st Independence anniversary at Eagles Square Abuja, the nation has not known peace. The first
  • 2. 58 www.arpublication.org Nigerian bomb blast, which claimed no less than 31 lives at the vicinity of Eagles Square Abuja during the 51st Independnce annivsersary celebration, was the first bomb blas Nigeria had ever witnessed and even with high casualty figure. This first bomb blast at Eagles Square acted as a catalyst for more bomb blasts and suicide bombings at public buildings, churches, mosques, schools, military formations, police posts, banks, UN building in Abuja, Police Headquarters Abuja, etc. by the dreaded Islamic fundamentalists known as ‘Boko Haram” which means “Western education is sin” who is fighting for enthronement of Islamic system of government in Nigeria. The number of casualties and destructions as a result of these bombings and shootings by Boko Haram, predominantly in Northern parts of Nigeria, has reached a disturbing rate, statistics has it that more than 3,300 persons have been killed as a result of this insurgence. This security challenge posed by this islamic insurgence in Northern parts of Nigeria is not the only one in Nigeria; downwards in the Southern parts of the country such as South East, South South, and recently South West, other security challenges such as kidnapping for ransom, ritual killings, cult wars, armed robbery especially bank robberies, car snatchings and hijackings and the most worrisome of all of them, crude oil bunkering and oil pipeline vandalism, predominantly in the Niger Delta region of the country, which bears all the crude oil installations and exports of the country. In the South East and South South, kidnapping for ransom has reached an alarming proportion; there is not a single day in these regions that persons are not kidnapped and the kidnappers usually target persons of wealthy background or their relatives in order to cough out huge sums of money from them as ransoms. The ransoms usually range from at least $100,000 in most cases to up to $1million, and even more in some cases depending on the economic status of the victim or his/her rich relatives. The victims are not usually released by the kidnappers until all or huge part of the ransom money have been paid by their relatives or they are luckily rescued by combined effort of security agencies such as Police, State Security Services (SSS) but in the majority of the reported and unreported cases, people are paying up the ransom money in order to secure the release of their kit and kin without any hurt (as some victims have been reported shot dead as a result of botched attempted rescue efforts by the security operatives). In the Niger Delta region which bears Nigerian most crude oil earnings from exports accounting for over 86% of Nigerian annual income, the major security challenge which is threatening the economic base of the country is the activities of crude oil thieves and vandals who vandalise major crude oil pipelines transporting crude oil and other petroleum products from Niger Delta oil wells, flow stations to the refineries or depots in other parts of the country. These economic criminals have set up numerous illegal refineries scattered all over Niger Delta region with the sole purpose of refining their illegally bunkered crude oil into useful petroleum products such as kerosene (DPK), Gas Oil (Diesel) and Petroleum Motor Spirit (PMS) for sale. These criminals collaborate with security personnel, compromise them to turn their eyes the other way to allow them steal crude oil from vandalized pipelines unabated. According to a report by Shell Petroleum, one of the major International Oil Companies (IOCs) operating in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Nigeria loses about 2 billion US dollars annually as a result of activities of crude oil thieves and pipeline vandals who profit illegally from crude oil theft in the Niger Delta region [1]. The Nigerian Federal Government, under the leadership of Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, has tried unsuccessfully to stop the major security and economic menace in the Niger Delta region; the Federal government has made extensive investments as well as the IOCs, to bring the security and economic menace under control but the methodology of tackling these insecurity menaces by the government has always been the same: vote more money to purchase operational vehicles and equipment for the Police, Joint Military Taskforce (JTF), the Navy, State Security Servives (SSS), Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps (NSCDC), recruit more security operatives,
  • 3. International journal of Computer Networking and Communication (IJCNAC)Vol. 1, No. 1(August -2013) 59 www.arpublication.org issue orders for arbitrary arrests or give shoot-at-sight orders, urges all security agencies to collaborate on intelligence gathering and sharing, counter-intelligence but all these efforts have not yielded the much desired results due to obvious reasons: lack of application or inappropriate application of Information Technology (IT) and the problem of corruption prevalent amongst the security forces and government civil servants. Law enforcements as well as security maintenance is not only about carrying arms about and patrolling the neighbourhood but in this 21st century, intelligence gathering and intelligence sharing using innovative IT security solutions can be applied to produce desired effective results. Until Nigerias law enforcement agents and security forces are trained on how to use these available IT security tools to gather intelligence data from the community/neighborhood, share these data amongst the security organs, and use these data to trace, track, apprehend and prosecute the criminals in the court of law successfully and logically, the fight against the upsurge of violent crimes and security menace such as kidnapping, armed robbery, ritual killings, cult wars, car jacking, terrorism and political assissinations cannot be won. Globally, Information Technology (IT) has been adopted in the developed world as a veritable tool in combating the menace of insecurity. One of the approaches of addressing the problem of insecurity is the use of Information Technology (IT) such as Cyberspace or Cybersecurity and Telecommunication networks [2]. Cybersecurity is the body of technologies, processes, practices and methodologies designed to protect networks, programs and data from attack, damage or unauthorized access [3]. Cybersecurity can be combined effectively with other IT tools such as security surveillance which includes aerial surveillance using different types of smart cooperating objects such as wireless and actuator networks (WSANs), security cameras such as IP cameras, Close Circuit Television Cameras (CCTV), Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and other smart cooperating objects to fuse intelligent data from different installed strategic locations or flashpoints in towns, villages, hotels, public utilities, market, shopping mails, airports, bus stations, religion and worship centres, military formations, police posts, foreign missions and embassies, crude oil pipelines and oil facilities to a centralized database which can be accessed and used by law enforcement agencies and security forces 24/7 to be able to nip security threat in the bud before it occurs like bomb blasts, kidnapping or armed robbery or proactively assisting in tracking down criminals or perpetrators and their sponsors anywhere they hide in the country and bring them to face the full weight of the law. 1.1 The Objectives of this Paper This paper is a holistic survey and examinationa of current Nigeria state of Security and how different elements of smart cooperating objects such as wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), Surveillance IP cameras, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Global Positioning System (GPS) which can be used to provide 24-hour complete surveillance and monitoring capabilities for the major locations or flashpoints in the country where these indentified security challenges subsist and how the real-time data obtained from them can fused together to a centralized database for use by security and law enforcement operatives in order to reduce or arrest incidences of these security challenges in Nigeria. At the end of the paper, we will present a holistic implementation framework on how these smart cooperating objects can be fused together to gather intelligence security data that can help law enforcement and security operatives arrest these identified national security challenges. In the future we will design an implementation model and perform simulation experiments to validate our proposed national security framework for Nigeria.
  • 4. 60 www.arpublication.org 1.2 Related Work There is dearth of research work on implementation framework to tackle Nigeria’s current national security challenge. Various security challenges facing Nigeria such as terrorism, armed robbery, kidnapping, cult wars, religious fundamentalism etc. were highlighted by authors in [2]. Here, they proposed a national security implementation framework to solve these myriads of security challenge using Global Positioning System (GPS) only but from our survey of various security challenges facing Nigeria, GPS alone cannot tackle these security challenges but require the fusion of the latest available cutting-edge surveillance technologies using smart cooperating objects and Internet-Of-Things (IoT). 2. SMART COOPERATING OBJECTS AND INTERNET-OF-THINGS (IoT) A smart object is a small computing device that will also have a sensor or actuator as well as a means of communication – mostly, but not always, wireless communication [4]. Smarts objects are embedded in other larger objects and systems including industrial machinery, car engines and lighting and heating systems. Smart objects are the technical drivers behind the smart ecosystems that are emerging in many diverse environments and applications and are the enablers of innovations in monitoring and automation for homes and industrial plants as well as the smart grid and energy efficiency systems. The potential application domains for smart objects is vast – from ad-hoc emergency response systems to smart transport infrastructure for urban areas. The key property of a smart object is its capacity for bidirectional communication. Diverse measurements can be taken of environmental characteristics such as humidity, temperature, wind speed, pressure, vibration and energy consumption. In addition to measurements, the sensors in smart objects can also perform detection of elements in an environment such as pollutants or the presence of a chemical or an intruder. Smart objects are generally low-powered battery operated devices and will have a CPU and memory. Their form factor is small and the goal is that their price should be low – this was not always the case with wireless sensors but prices have lowered in recent years. The Internet-of-Things (IoT) refers to uniquely identifiable objects (things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure. The term Internet-of-Things was first used by Kevin Ashton in 1999 [5, 6]. The concept of the Internet of Things first became popular through the Auto-ID Center and related market analysts publications [5]. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is often seen as a prerequisite for the Internet of Things. If all objects and people in daily life were equipped with radio tags, they could be identified and inventoried by computers. Other smart objects such as wireless sensors, actuators, surveillance cameras, GPS trackers can be combined with RFID to enable a complete Internet-of-Things which is desperately needed to tackle myriads of security challenges bedeviling Nigeria. Fig. 1 shows the roadmap of the Internet of Things (IoT). 2.1 RFID RFID- Radio Frequency IDentification is a a technology that uses tiny computer chips smaller than a grain of sand to track items at a distance. RFID "spy chips" have been hidden in the packaging of Gillette razor products and in other products you might buy at a local Wal-Mart, Target, or Tesco - and they are already being used to spy on people in the United States of America (USA) [8]. RFID eqully means of storing and retrieving data through electromagnetic
  • 5. International journal of Computer Networking and Communication (IJCNAC)Vol. 1, No. 1(August -2013) 61 www.arpublication.org transmission to an RF (Radio Frequency) compatible integrated circuit. It is typically used to label and track items in supermarkets and warehouses. There are two parts to the RFID system - 1. The tag, the simplest version is a tiny microchip that contains a code identifying the thing to which it is attached / glued to. The microchip is often connected to a flat spiral aerial that allows it to work by radio signals and 2. The Reader which is a machine that sends a radio signal to the tag asking for its code. The tag senses the request and sends back its unique code. The reader can then connect to a computer or database and uses the code to identify what the object is (or the identity of the person the tag is attached to). The system works over a foot or so, which is fine when the tags are guaranteed to be close to the reader. The handy thing about the tag is that it needs no power at all - no battery needed. This is because the reader sends it enough radio power Fig. 1 The roadmap of the Internet of Things (IoT)[7] to turn on whilst it is being interrogated [9]. Fig. 2 shows the typical magnified image of actual tag found in Gillette Mach3 razor blades; the chip appears as the tiny black square component. The coil of wires surrounding the chip is the antenna, which transmits your information to a reader device, which can be located anywhere. In USA, Wal-Mart and Tesco, among many others, use RFID systems for management of their supply chains [10]. RFID tags can be categories as active, passive and semi-passive (or indeed, semi-active) tags. An active tag has a battery-powered radio transceiver whereas a passive tag operates without any battery. The latter achieves this by reflecting the RF signal transmitted to it from a reader or transceiver and adds its own data to the signal. Similarly, semi-passive tags use the radio waves of other senders as the energy source for transmitting their data. Unlike passive tags, however, semi-passive tags may have batteries to maintain memory or power other functions. It is not surprising to note that active tags are the most powerful RFID tags available given their larger range, memory and functionality but are also more expensive. Software agents and advanced sensor fusion 2000 2010 2020 Time RFID tags for facilitating routing, inventorying, and loss prevention Surveilance, security, healthcare, transport, food security, document management Locating people and everyday objects Teleoperation and telepresence: Ability to monitor and control Supply-Chain Helpers Vertical-Market Applications Ubiquitous Positioning Physical-World Web Demand for expedited logistics Cost reducation leading to diffusion into 2 nd wave of applications Ability of devices located indoors to receive geolocation signals Miniaturization, power- efficient electronics, and available spectrum Technology Reach
  • 6. 62 www.arpublication.org Fig.2 A magnified image of actual tag found in Gillette Mach3 razor blades [8] Sensing capabilities can be added to RFID tags using the same RFID protocols for reading the tag’s ID. Tags will either have integrated sensors or will allow for adding additional sensors. A number of vendors are offering RFID tags with sensing capability. RFID and wireless sensors are natural complements for supply chain applications as the latter can be used for monitoring temperature in the chill chain and other situations where the recording of environmental conditions is imperative for the preservation of the goods being transported. RFID readers can also be combined with an RF transceiver. Such a wireless device can sense environmental conditions and read IDs from tagged objects as well as transmitting this information to a data capture portal such as Vertoda. The integration of RFID into an ad-hoc WSN opens up many new applications. For example, a healthcare system that leverages RFID and wireless sensor technologies can monitor not only the patient’s vital signs but also their medicine and pill bottles to track when a bottle is removed or replaced by a patient. Automated asset tracking and inventory management would also be facilitated by combining these two technologies [10]. Vehicle tracking to reduce incidences of car jacking in Nigeria can benefit from the combination of these technologies. Global System for Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) or satellite communications can be used with GPS or RFID to track kidnapped victims and their captors or kidnappers wherever they are so that the victims can be rescued while the kidnappers are arrested to face the full weight of the law. RFID technology also can be used for the provision of homeland security; homeland security is needed badly in Nigeria where the scourge of terrorism, bombings, kidnapping, armed robbery, rape is the order of the day. Homeland security also can cover border protection and management. In the Northern parts of Nigeria, porous borders is the reason why Islamic insurgents find it easy to enter Nigeria through the numerous porous borders with Chad, Niger Republic, Cameroun. These porous boarders cannot be manned successfully by Customs or security agents, RFID technology can be used in manning these porous boarders just as it is done in the United States of America (USA) [11]. 2.2 GPS When people talk about "a GPS," they usually mean a GPS receiver. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is actually a constellation of 27 Earth-orbiting satellites (24 in operation and three extras in case one fails). The U.S. military developed and implemented this satellite network as a military navigation system, but soon opened it up to everybody else. Each of these 3,000 to 4,000-pound solar-powered satellites circles the globe at about 12,000 miles (19,300 km), making two complete rotations every day. The orbits are arranged so that at any time, anywhere on Earth, there are at least four satellites "visible" in the sky. A GPS receiver's job is to locate four or more of these satellites, figure out the distance to each, and use this information to deduce its own location. This operation is based on a simple mathematical
  • 7. International journal of Computer Networking and Communication (IJCNAC)Vol. 1, No. 1(August -2013) 63 www.arpublication.org principle called trilateration[12]. Fig.3 shows a typical GPS with multiple satellites (four satellites) with signals used to calculate the position of an object on earth’s surface. Fig.4 shows a flowchart depicting how a typical GPS tracking system works. Fig. 3 GPS system with multiple satellites used to locate the position of an object on earth the surface[12] Fig. 4 The typical workings of a GPS tracking System START GPS Tracker connects to the nearest satellite network The satellite sends the GPS location info to the GPS Is GPRS Available? - Byteworks GPS tracker, - Store the GPS location, timestamp and vehicle info like speed, battery level, etc in SD CARD and send it later to byteworks GPS Server when GPRS is now available - Byteworks GPS tracker, - Send GPS location information, - timestamp and vehicle info like speed, battery level, etc in SD CARD and send it later to byteworks GPS Server for database storage NO YES - Web interface - Extract the data from byteworks GPS database and plot on the map STOP
  • 8. 64 www.arpublication.org 2.3 Surveillance IP cameras Surveillance Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, also called network cameras, can combine camera and computing capabilities into a single unit. These cameras are security cameras that can capture video footages and still images (photos) of a security event such as (breach or threat) real- time and transmit the captured file using wireless or wired communication links onto a PC Server installed with video management software and/or graphic viewer. A Wireless IP camera is an IP camera that utilizes wireless radio communication networks such as Bluetooth, Infrared, Wi-Fi, Zigbee, 3G, or any of the WLAN to transmit or transport captured video/image to a PC server with video management software or to a centralized database and then to a webserver so that the captured images or videos can be viewed from web-based interface using standard browers. Surveillance cameras are especially good for monitoring equipment, asset, utilities, the environment (such as streets or public places) to pick video footage of any security breach. This can lead to the tracking, arrest and prosecution of criminals such as armed robbers, assonists, burglars, terrorists, kidnappers, etc. even after crimes have been committed because of the video or photo evidence. 2.3.1 Considerations when choosing a network/surveillance camera [13]: Many factors should be considered before selecting a surveillance IP camera for a security surveillance application such as public utilities, oil and gas pipelines, critical facilities or military formations. There are different types of IP surveillance cameras based on the following features: • fixed, • day/night, • wireless, • indoor, • outdoor and PZT, etc. • camera multi-function capability For an IP surveillance camera suitable for monitoring critical public utilities such as remote oil and gas pipeline to capture real-time scene of vandalisation, the following features must be present: 1. Day and night capability- because vandalisation can occur at any time in any oil and gas pipelines, in fact most of the reported vandalisation of oil pipelines in Nigeria occurred at nights [14]. 2. Wireless capability – surveillance camera suitable for monitoring critical facilities such as oil and gas pipeline monitoring must utilize wireless communication network to be able to transport the captured video wirelessly to the central gateway and control station for viewing, otherwise the vandals can destroy the captured file. 3. Outdoor capability – An outdoor capability or IP65 features is required by a surveillance camera to be able to monitor critical public facilities especially facilities in remote fields such as oil pipelines that are installed where people are not living. Such camera should be able to withstand tough and harsh weather conditions such as rain, sunlight and strong wind.
  • 9. International journal of Computer Networking and Communication (IJCNAC)Vol. 1, No. 1(August -2013) 65 www.arpublication.org 4. Miniature camera size - Security surveillance cameras come in different sizes: small to medium to big sizes. In general, the smaller the better, because the smaller ones are not easy to attract attention especially when they are installed in unattended hostile environments where they can easily be seen and destroyed by vandals or criminals. Fig. 5 depicts typical Cisco 2500 Series Video Surveillance IP Cameras used for security surveillance application. The Cisco Video Surveillance 2500 Series IP Cameras are feature-rich, professional digital cameras designed for superior performance in a wide variety of environments. The cameras have an enhanced, progressive scan imager for excellent video and color, even in the most demanding lighting conditions. They use MPEG-4 compression to produce DVD-quality video. These fully featured high-resolution cameras include automatic day/night mode, dual streams, bidirectional audio, motion detection, alarm inputs and outputs, and an analog BNC for ease of installation. Fig. 5. Cisco 2500 Series Video security Surveillance IP cameras [15] Fig. 6. Libelium video/image IP surveillance camera board with inserted PIR presence detector (an actuator), LDR sensors and 22 LEDS to aid night vision [16] Fig. 6 depicts a wireless IP surveillance video camera (built by Libelium) that is capable of capturing vandalisation image or video whether in the night or during daylight wherever it is deployed in any section of the oil pipeline infrastructure or any public utility that is at risk of vandalisation or sabotage. It uses ZigBee, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi protocols to send low bandwidth
  • 10. 66 www.arpublication.org data and high speed W-CDMA and HSPA mobile networks to upload high bandwidth data such as video/image. It uses 3G network module with inbuilt SD card with 2GB (extended up to 32GB) to store the photos and videos taken by the Video Camera Sensor Board without the need of being handled by the node Micro Controller Unit (MCU). Close Circuit Television Camera (CCTV) is another special IP surveillance camera that can be used for security surveillance of properties, public and private utilities, roads, streets, markets, shopping malls, airports etc. to gather real-time data of events as they occur; any security breach could likely be picked up and the footage sent to the viewing monitor or a centralized database for viewing later on. The footage can be used to see and track criminals like kidnappers, armed robbers, rapists, terrorists etc. and apprehend them. 2.4 Wireless Sensor Actuator Network (WSAN) Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are IEEE 802.15.4 enabled devices capable of robust and reliable multi-hop communications [17],[18]. Wireless sensors can be deployed in unattended environments and can enable collection of data from there to distant base stations and then to control room [19],[20]. Wireless sensors have found useful applications in varying number of civilian and military applications because of their low-cost and ease of deployment [18],[21],[22]. Because of these inherent and other advantages, wireless sensor networks have found useful applications in environmental monitoring applications especially in oil and gas fields. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) can be combined with Wireless Actuator Networks to form Wireless Sensor Actuator Network (WSAN) which can interact and cooperate together especially in critical security applications. For instance wireless sensors and actuators can be combined effectively in perimeter security applications; the wireless sensors can sense and detect the intrusion using diverse technologies such as Infrareds and the output from the sensor can be combined with an actuator input to trigger an alarm or alert and activates a surveillance IP camera to record the video or photo of such security breach and send it to a PC server for viewing later in order to apprehend the criminal. WSANs can equally be integrated with GPS and RFID for effective security monitoring and surveillance. Fig. 7 depicts a typical wireless sensor nodes or units installed by prominent International Oil and Gas Company (IOC), Shell Petroleum and Development Company (SPDC) in over her 1000 oil wells scattered in Nigeria Niger Delta region to monitor her installed oil pipelines, oil wells, flow stations and rigs to prevent and reduce vandalism and oil theft. Some wireless sensors with the integration of GPS can be used to sense and detect presence of bombs and the locations where they are planted by terrorists and this can help to detect undetonated and unexploded bombs and their locations immediately by security experts in order to save lives. Fig.7 A model of vMBusX-SP battery-powered Smart Wireless Sensor installed by SPDC in her over 1000 oil wells and other oil facilities in the fields of Niger Delta to fight vandalism and theft [22]
  • 11. International journal of Computer Networking and Communication (IJCNAC)Vol. 1, No. 1(August -2013) 67 www.arpublication.org WSANs have many diverse applications. However, it is only through the integration of WSANs with multimedia security cameras such as Close Circuit Television Camera (CCTV), Internet Protocol (IP) cameras, Complemetary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) video cameras etc. with GPS and RFID that WSANs can offer a comprehensive security solution to meet all tracking and monitoring needs for an effectively secure environment. 3. THE PROPOSED NIGERIAN NATIONAL ART COOPERATING OBJECTS AND INTERNET-OF-THINGS (IOTS) In this section, we present and describe the implementation framework for integrating surveillance, tracking and monitoring smart objects of RFID, GPS, WSAN and specialized Internet Protocol (IP) cameras which can be fused together to obtain security data or reports from different security flashpoints or locations all over the country as shown in Fig.8. Fig. 8 The Proposed Nigeria National Security Framework Here in the Fig.8, there is a correlation of security data from different installed locations in public places, streets, banks, market, shopping malls, airports, seaports, schools, public utilities, oil and gas pipelines and other oil installations, government buildings, police posts and checkpoints, military formations and facilities, borders etc. into a common Gateway which is then routed to a secure Centralised Database from which the data can be accessed by logging on to a secure Centralised Internet or Intranet portal by various law enforcement and security agencies from their respective Servers and clients (such as mobile phones, PDAs, smartphones etc.) with appropriate authentications and authorizations. The Common Gateway module of the proposed National Security Framework in Fig.8 is a fusion of many gateways for RFID tracking objects, GPS tracking objects, WSAN tracking objects, surveillance security cameras. A software methodology is used to combine them effectively into a common gateway so that they can come together and their output data Common Gateway for Wireless sensors, RFID objects, GPS satellite objects, Security surveillance cameras from different flashpoints and locations in the country Secure Central Internet or Intranet portal (enabled with Cybersecurity) Server at Office of the National Security Adviser (NSA) Secure Centralise d Database Nigerian Police Server SSS Server JTF Server NSCDC ServerNigerian Navy Server Wireless and Actuator Sensor Network (WSAN) nodes or objects RFID tracking objects GPS satellite objects Surveillance IP cameras (with night vision) Nigerian Customs Server
  • 12. 68 www.arpublication.org channeled into a common central database and then to a common internet/intranet portal so that law enforcement and security agencies can access the portal real-time and get updated information about any security lapse, threat or attack anywhere in the country. Fig.9. depicts the conglomeration of security gateways that make up the common gateway in Fig.8. Fig. 9 The integration of different gateways from WSAN, RFID, GPS and surveillance security cameras into a common gateway 4. CONCLUSION Nigeria is currently facing enormous security challenges especially terrorism and violent crimes. Smart objects and Internet-of-Things can help Nigeria to combat terrorism and other forms of violent crimes by fusing the intelligent ouputs of smart cooperating objects and Internet- of-Things (IoT) adopting monitoring/surveillance technologies such as RFID, GPS, WSAN and surveillance IP cameras. In this paper we proposed a national security framework which is designed to integrate the outputs of these various smart security technologies into a common security gateway and database in such a way it can be accessed by the major law enforcement and security agencies such as the Police, JTF, NSCDC, SSS, Customs, NDLEA through their servers/clients connected via a web-based portal interface at any time from any region of the country. This will enhance intelligence sharing and security collaboration which can help security agencies nip violent crimes and terroris at the bud. We earnestly believe that our proposed security framework, when implemented, can go along way in fusing the surveillance and intelligence data gathered from these innovative security tools so that law enforcement agencies and security forces can tackle these security challenges successfully by preemptively preventing security breaches and challenges and proactively tackling these security challenges by helping to trace, track, arrest and prosecute the criminals that perpetuated these security challenges. 4.1 Future Work The researchers intend to carry out further research on the subject topic by designing an implementation model and then carry out simulation experiments of the proposed Nigeria national security framework using the designed model that can fuse the cooperative outputs of the these identified smart objects and Internet-oF-Things(IoT). RFID Gateway WSAN Gateway GPS Gateway Surveillance camera Gateway Common Security Gateway
  • 13. International journal of Computer Networking and Communication (IJCNAC)Vol. 1, No. 1(August -2013) 69 www.arpublication.org REFERENCES [1] J.L. Akinode, Improving National Security using GPS tracking system technology, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, vol.2(5), October 2011, pp.76. [2] TechTarget.com, Cybersecurity definition, Retrieved online on July 23, 2013 at http://www.techtarget.com/definition/cybersecurity.html [3] Marton, Using IP for Smart Objects and ‘The Internet of Things’, December 22,2009. Retrieved online on April 2, 2013 at http://vertoda.wordpress.com/2009/12/22/using-ip- for- smart-objects-and-the-internet-of-things/ [4] Kevin Ashton, That 'Internet of Things' Thing, In: RFID Journal, 22 July 2009. Retrieved online on 26 July 2013. [5] Wikipedia, Internet of Things, Retrieved on July 26, 2013 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet of Things [6] SRI Consulting Business Intelligence, Retrieved on July 23, 2013 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet of Things [7] Spychips.com, ‘What is RFID?”, Denver University Law Review, 2002. Accessed online on July 26, 2013 at http://www.spychips.com/what-is-rfid.html [8] Teach-ICT.COM, “What is RFID?”, Retrived online on July 28, 2013 from http://www.teach- ict.com/technology_explained/rfid/rfid.html [9] Martcon, “ Wireless Sensor Networks & Complementary Technologies”, Vertoda Blog, December 29, 2009. Accessed online on 22 July 2013 @ http://vertoda.wordpress.com/2010/02/10/wireless-sensor-networks- wind-farms/ [10] Retrived Online at www.dhs.gov/radio-frequency-identification-rfid-what-it.html on July 28, 2013. [11] Marshall Brain and Tom Harris, “ How GPS Receivers Work”, Retrieved online on July 28, 2013 on http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/gadgets/travel [12] ESPOW.com, Considerations when choosing Surveillance cameras , 2013. Retrieved online on April 10, 2013 at "http://www.espow.com/wholesale-security-surveillance- surveillance- cameras-ip-cameras.html?osCsid=1jos40ssgf5h3o1of69dle4jn4. [13] CISCO Systems Inc, USA, CISCO 2500 Series Video security Surveillance IP cameras, Cisco White Paper, 2013. Retrieved online on April 11, 2013 at http://www.cisco.com/. [14] Libelium, Video Camera Technical Guide, Document version: v4.1, April 2013, pp.34. [15] I.F.Akyildiz, W.Su, Y.Sankarasubramaniam and E.Cayirci, A Survey on Wireless Networks, IEEE Communications Magazine, 2002, pp.102-114. [16] S. Petersen, P.Doyle, S.Vatland, C.S.Aasland, T.C.Andersen and D.Sjong, Requirements, Drivers and Analysis of Wireless Sensor Network Solutions for Oil and Gas Industry, IEEE Communications Magazine, 2007, pp.219. [17] G.Sharma, S.Bala, A.K.Verma and T.Singh, Security in Wireless Sensor Networks using Frequency Hopping, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975-8887), 2012, pp.1. [18] C.Bisdikian, An Overview of the Bluetooth Wireless Technology, IEEE Communication Magazine, 2012, vol.39. [19] C.O.Iwendi and A.R Allen, Wireless Sensor Network Nodes: Security and Deployment in Niger- Delta Oil and Gas Sector, International Journal of Network Security and Its Applications (IJNSA), 2011, Vol.3, No.1, pp.68. [20] T.Fasasi, D. Maynard and H.Nasr, Sensors remotely monitor wells in Nigeria swamps, Oil and Gas Journal, 2005, pp.2.
  • 14. 70 www.arpublication.org Authors Engr. ThankGod Izuchukwu Ozue is a Doctoral Research Student in the Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. He is currently working as a Secuirty expert at Nyzpat Technologies Ltd. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. He had his Masters Degree in Control Systems and Computer Engineering at Nnamdi Azikiwe University in 2010 and B.Eng Electrical and Electronic Engineering at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka in 2006. He has authored several conference and research journal publications. Email: thankjehovah@gmail.com Dr. Francis A. Okoye is a lecturer and former Head, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Enugu State University of Science and technology (ESUT), Nigeria. He had his Ph.D in Computer Science in 2008 at Ebonyi Stat University Abakaliki, Nigeria. He obtained his MSc. and BEng. in Computer Science and Engineering at Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Nigeria in 2001 and 1996 respectively. He has several years of experience in both teaching and research. Email: francisced@esut.edu.ng Engr. Fidelis C. Obodoeze is a lecturer at Renaissance University Enugu, Department of Computer Science. He is currently pursuing his PhD programme in the Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria. He had his Masters Degree in Control Systems and Computer Engineering at Nnamdi Azikiwe University in 2010 and B.Sc Degree in Computer Engineering at Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife in 2000. He had authored and co-authored several research papers at reputable local and international journals. Email: fidelisobodoeze@gmail.com Engr. Frank Ekene Ozioko is the Director of ICT office Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) and Lecturer Department of Computer and Information Science, ESUT, Nigeria. He had several years of experience in university ICT administration and engineering as well as in teaching and research. Email: ekene.ozioko@esut.edu.ng Engr. Edward Osita Ofoegbu is currently a Doctoral Research Student in the Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. He is currently lecturing at Department of Physics Electronics Oduduwa Univesity Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. He had his Masters Degree in Control Systems and Computer Engineering in 2012 and B.Eng Electronic and Computer Engineering in 2007 both at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria. He has worked on several commercial ICT projects using latest cutting-edge and innovative technologies. Email: edoxnt@yahoo.com Calista Nnenna Mba is a Lecturer and former Acting Head, Department of Computer Engineering, Caritas University Enugu, Nigeria. She is currently pursuing her Ph.D programme in Computer Science at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria. She had her MSc. Computer Science at University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) in 2009, Nigeria and B.Eng in Computer Science and Engineering at Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Nigeria in 2004. Email: mbacally@yahoo.com

×