International Journal of Computational Engineering Research(IJCER)

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International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) is dedicated to protecting personal information and will make every reasonable effort to handle collected information appropriately. …

International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) is dedicated to protecting personal information and will make every reasonable effort to handle collected information appropriately. All information collected, as well as related requests, will be handled as carefully and efficiently as possible in accordance with IJCER standards for integrity and objectivity.

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  • 1. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2Issue. 8 Implementation of Serial Communication IP for Soc Applications 1 K. Raghuram, 2A.Lakshmi sudha, 1 Assoc.Professor,Pragati Engg College, Kakinada, AP, India. 2 Post Graduate Student, Pragati Engg College, Kakinada, Ap, India .Abstract: The serial co mmunication is very co mmonly used communicat ion protocol between various peripherals andprocessor. The current trend is all high speed buses are built with serial co mmunicat ion interface. The ALTERA’s NIOS II soft processor and PowerPC hard processor are widely used in FPGA based CSOC(configurable system on chip) applications. These processers don’t have programmable serial lin ks for interfacing withembedded peripherals wh ich are mostly off chip. In this project it is proposed to imp lement dynamically configurable serial co mmun ication block in Verilog. Thedeveloped module shall be interfaced with NIOS II soft processor as a general purpose IO port. The serial interfaceblocks shall be imp lemented to handle high data rate serial links and provide paralle l interface to the processor.The Nios II IDE (EDK) shall be used for developing the test application in C programming language. The serial interfaceblocks which are coded in Verilog shall be synthesized using QUARTUS II EDA tool. The CYCLONE III family FPGAboard shall be used for verifying the results on board.I. INTRODUCTION In electronic design a semiconductor intellectual property core, IP core, or IP block is a reusable unit of logic,cell, or chip layout design that is the intellectual property of one party. IP cores may be licensed to another party or canbe owned and used by a single party alone. The term is derived fro m the licensing of the patent and sourcecode copyright intellectual property rights that subsist in the design. IP cores can be used as building blocks within ASIC ch ip designs or FPGA logic designs It IP cores in theelectronic design industry have had a profound impact on the design of systems on a chip. By licensing a design multipletimes, IP core licensor spread the cost of development among mult iple chip makers. IP cores for standard processors,interfaces, and internal functions have enabled chip makers to put more of their resources into developing thedifferentiating features of their ch ips. As a result, chip makers have developed innovations more quickly.II. Typres of Ip Cores: The IP core can be described as being for chip design what a library is for computer programming ora discrete integrated circuit co mponent is for printed circuit board design.A. SOFT CORES: As the complexity of embedded systems designs increased over time, designing each and every hardwarecomponent of the system fro m scratch soon became far too imp ractical and expensive for most designers. Therefore, theidea of using pre-designed and pre-tested intellectual property (IP) cores in designs became an attractive alternative. Soft-core processors are microprocessors whose architecture and behavior are fu lly described using a synthesizable subset of ahardware description language (HDL). They can be synthesized for any Application -Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)or Field Programmab le Gate Array (FPGA ) technology; therefore they provide designers with a substantial amount offlexib ility. The use of soft-core processors holds many advantages for the designer of an embedded system. First , soft-coreprocessors are flexible and can be customized for a specific application with relat ive ease. Second, since soft -coreprocessors are technology independent and can be synthesized for any given target ASIC or FPGA technology, they aretherefore more immune to beco ming obsolete when compared with circuit or log ic level descriptions of a processor. Finally, since a soft-core processor’s architecture and behavior are described at a higher abstraction level using an HDL,it becomes much easier to understand the overall design. Th is paper presents a survey of the available soft -coreprocessors that are used to design and implement embedded systems using either FPGAs or ASICs.B. HARD CORES : Hard cores, by the nature of their low-level representation, offer better predictability of ch ip performancein terms of t iming performance and area.Analog and mixed-signal logic are generally defined as a lower-level, physical description. Hence, analog IP(SerDes, PLLs, DAC, ADC, etc.) are p rovided to chip makers in transistor-layout format (such as GDSII.) Digital IPcores are sometimes offered in layout format, as well. Such cores, whether analog or digital, are called "hard cores" (or hard macros), because the cores applicationfunction cannot be meaningfully modified by chip designers. Transistor layouts must obey the target foundrys processdesign rules, and hence, hard cores delivered for one foundrys process cannot be easily ported to a different process orfoundry. Merchant foundry operators (such as IBM,Fu jitsu, Samsung, TI, etc.) offer a variety of hard-macro IP functionsbuilt for their o wn foundry process, helping to ensure customer lock-in.||Issn 2250-3005(online)|| ||December|| 2012|| ||||Pa ge 116
  • 2. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2Issue. 8III. Commercial Cores and Tools: Nios II, Micro Blaze, Pico Blaze and Xtensa are the leading soft-core processors provided by Altera, Xilin x andTen silica respectively. In this section, we will d iscuss the important features of each soft -core processor. Nios II byAltera Corporat ion: Altera Corporation is one of the leading vendors of Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) andFPGAs. They offer the Stratix, Strat ix II and Cyclone families of FPGAs that are widely used in the design of embeddedsystems and digital signal processing (DSP) applications. They also provide associated CAD tools such as Quartus II andSystem-on-Programmable-Ch ip (SOPC) Builder that allow designers to synthesize, program and debug their designs andbuild embedded systems on Altera’s FPGAs. The Nios II Processor is their flagship IP soft-core processor and can be instantiated with any embedded systemdesign. This processor is the successor of Altera’s original Nios softcore processor and features major improvementsfocused on the reduction of logic element (LE) consumption on an FPGA and improved performance. The Nios II Soft-Core Processor is a general purpose Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) processor coreand features Harvard memory arch itecture. This core is widely used with Altera FPGAs and SOPC Builder. Thisprocessor features a full 32-b it Instruction Set Architecture (ISA), 32 general-purpose registers, single-instruction 32x32mu ltip ly and divide operations, and dedicated instructions for 64-b itand 128-b it products of mult iplication. The Nios II also has a performance of more than 150 Dhrystone MIPS (DMIPS) on the Stratix family of FPGAs. Thissoft-core processor comes in three versions: economy, standard and fast core. Each core version modifies the number ofpipeline stages; instruction and data cache memories and hardware components for multiply and divide operations. Inaddition, each core varies in size and perfo rmance depending on the features that are selected. Adding peripherals with the Nios II Processors is done through the Avalon Interfac e Bus which contains thenecessary logic to interface the processor with off-the-shelf IP cores or custom made peripherals. Micro Blaze and PicoBlaze by Xilin x Incorporated: Xilin x Incorporated are the makers of the Spartan and Virtex families of FPGAs. Inaddition, they also offer soft IP cores that target their FPGAs.The fundamental co mponents that build up a HW/SW system are a CPU (Central Processing Unit) wh ich processes theinformat ion in a system, On-chip RAM (Rando m Access Memory) to store the instructions for the CPU and a JATGUART (Jo int Test Access Group Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter) for commun ication with the hostcomputer. These components communicate with each other through the system bus, see figure below. Figure1. system ArchitectureThe system is generated with the help of SOPC Bu ilder tool. This tool makes easy to specify the system components andtheir connections and generate a complete system-on programmable- ch ip (SOPC) in much less time than usingtraditional, manual integration methods.IV. Software Development For The System In Niosii Ide: By this stage the HW structure of the system is co mplete. To utilize it and verify whether it is working correctly,software has to be created. The programming language that is u sed is ANSI C. ANSI C (Standard C) is one standardizedversion of the C programming language. Before the code (software) can be generated and executed, a project has to bebuilt in Nios II IDE(”user application project”) which in turn needs a system library pro ject (”Hardware AbstractionLayer (HA L) system library project”). The system library is created by Nios II IDE automatically after the userapplication project is created.||Issn 2250-3005(online)|| ||December|| 2012|| ||||Pa ge 117
  • 3. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2Issue. 8 Figure 2. Nios II IDE window. Figure 3 Perfo rmance report PERFORMA NCE REPORT: Figure 4. Fmax. Su mmary report of slo w corner.V. Conclusion The serial interface blocks are implemented to handle high data rate serial lin ks and provide parallel interface tothe processor. The serial interface is interconnected with processor finally through FPGA imp lementation we verified thefunctionality. The serial interface blocks which is coded in Verilog is successfully synthesized using QUARTUS II EDAtool. We got the speed rate of around 150M Hz clock rate.||Issn 2250-3005(online)|| ||December|| 2012|| ||||Pa ge 118
  • 4. I nternational Journal Of Computational Engineering Research (ijceronline.com) Vol. 2Issue. 8Reference [1] X. Wang and S.G. Ziavras, “Parallel LU Factorization of Sparse Matrices onFPGA -Based Configurable Co mputing Eng ines,” Concurrency and Computation:Practice and Experience, vol. 16, no. 4, (April 2004), pp. 319-343. [2] Altera Corporation, “Nios Embedded Processor System Develop ment,” [OnlineDocu ment, Cited 2004 February 2], Availab le HTTP:http://www.altera.co m/products/ip/processors/nios/nio-index.ht ml [3] Xilin x, Inc., “MicroBlaze Soft Processor,” [Online Document, Cited 2004 February2],vailableHTTP: http://www.xilin x.co m/ xln x/ xil_prodcat_product.jsp?title=microblaze [4] K. Co mpton and S. Hauck, “Reconfigurable Co mputing: A Survey of Systems andSoftware,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 34, no. 2 (June 2002), pp. 171-210. [5] R. K. Gupta and Y. Zorian, “Introducing Core -Based System Design,” IEEE Design andTest of Computers, vol. 14, no. 4 (October-December 1997), pp 15-25. [6] Opencores.org Web Site, [Online Docu ment, Cited 2004 February 9] [7] Altera Corporation, “Excalibur Devices,” [On line Document, Cited 2004 February 7],Available HTTP: http://www.altera.co m/products/devices/arm/arm-index.html [8] Xilin x, Inc., “PowerPC Embedded Processor Solution,” [On line Document, Cited 2004February 7], Available HTTP:http://www.xilin x.co m/ xln x/ xil_prodcat_product.jsp?title=v2p_powerpc [9] Xilin x, Inc., “MicroBlaze Processor Reference Gu ide,” [On line Document], 2003September, [Cited 2004 February 2], Available HTTP:http://www.xilin x.co m/ise/embedded/mb_ref_guide.pdf [10] Xilin x, Inc., “PicoBlaze 8-Bit Microcontroller for Virtex-E and Spartan-II/IIE Devices,”[Online Docu ment], 2003 February , [Cited 2004 February 2], Availab le HTTP:http://www.xilin x.co m/bvdocs/appnotes/xapp213.pdf [11] V. Bet z, J. Rose, and A. Marquardt, Architecture and CAD for Deep-Submicron FPGAs,Kluwer Academic Publishers: Norwell, MA, 1999. [12] Altera Corporation, “Strat ix Dev ice Handbook,” [On line Docu ment], 2004 January, [Cited 2004 February 3], Available HTTP:http://www.altera.co m/ literature/hb/stx/stratix_handbook.pdf||Issn 2250-3005(online)|| ||December|| 2012|| ||||Pa ge 119