International Journal of Computational Engineering Research||Vol, 03||Issue, 4||www.ijceronline.com ||April||2013|| Page 8Ethnomedicinal Investigation of Medicinal Plants Used By theTribes of Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District,Andhra Pradesh, India.1,S. B. Padal, 2,Chandrasekhar P. , 3,K. Satyavathi1,3,Department of Botany, Mrs. A.V.N. College, Visakhapatnam District-530001.2Department of Botany, Govt. Degree College, Yelamanchili, Visakhapatnam District.I. INTRODUCTIONEthnobotany came into being when the earliest man observed the animals mostly the apes and monkeyseating certain plant often to satisfy his hunger and at other times to heal his wound and to get rid from pains andsufferings. The observations on apes and monkeys (which were very close to human beings in morphology andalso in anatomy and physiology) eating certain plant parts-roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds and thebeneficial effects on their body gave a food for thought to these early men and it started the genesis of basicthoughts in human brain. An analysis of such observations provoked them to use plants for maintenance of lifeand alleviation of diseases. In this way, it helped them in formulating the basic concepts of sciences of lifewhich were evaluated rationally, later on over a period of time. Thus, on the basis of the uses of plants first byanimals and later by human beings the concept of ethno zoology and Ethnobotany emerged which merged togive birth to ethno biology.In India it was Dr. S.K. Jain (1986) from NBRI, Lucknow, affectionately known as „Father of IndianEthnobotany‟ who made pioneering investigations. Ethnobotany has assumed new significance and a newdimension today when the modern civilization realized that all those plant products they are using today eitheras a food or as a medicine are the gift of those early men who used those plants to satisfy their hunger and healtheir wounds and to know and evaluate the utility of those plants often experimented on their own body,sometimes also accidentally suffering due to their use, such as in case of some poisonous plants.II. STUDY AREAGenerally the Pedabayalu Mandalam of Visakhapatnam district is with full of tribal population (Fig.1).The tribal communities live in forests, hilly tracts and naturally isolated areas from the civilized urban society.That‟s why in nature they developed their cultures of their own. They depend up on the nature for their food,shelter, and livelihood, thus the vegetation has much influence on the tribal life. The total population ofscheduled tribes in India is 683.81 lakhs and constitutes 8.08% of the total population as per 1991 census report.The tribal population of Andhra Pradesh is 41.99 lakhs which is 6.3% of the total population. 13 tribal groupswho inhabit this Mandalam are, Bagata, Gadaba, Kammara, Konda Doras, Khondu, Kotia, Kulia, Malis, ManneDora, Mukha Dora, Porja, Reddi Doras, Nooka Dora and Valmiki.In Pedabayalu Mandalam the tribals Konda Dora, Kotias, Kondus are lived in group of houses calledhuts. Generally, the houses are constructed with Bamboo (Bambusa arundinancea), Palmyra culms and othertimber yielding plants. Palmya culms are used for thatching the roofs of the houses. The walls are constructedwith mud mixed with ash of burn grass and are smeared with cow dung.Abstract:The present study documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use inPedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Ethnomedicinal uses of 80plant species along with botanical name, vernacular name, family, plant parts, life forms and diseaseare presented. They belong to 70 genera and 21 families. These plants used to cure 30 types of ailments.Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 60% of medicinal use. Most of the remedies werereported to have been from trees and herb species. High number of medicinal plant species available forthe treatment of dysentery, skin disease and fever.KeyWords:Ethnomedicinal plants, Investigation, Tribal people, Pedabayalu Mandalam,Visakhapatnam District,
Ethnomedicinal Investigation Of Medicinal Plants…www.ijceronline.com ||April||2013|| Page 9The tribal communities which live in forest area collect minor forest produce or non timber forestproduce like tamarind, amla, adda leaves, bamboo, beedi leaves, roots, tubers, wild fruits and honey. Theygenerally sell them in the weekly markets or Shandys known as “Santha”. The main occupation of tribal peoplein Pedabayalu Mandalam is agriculture. Podu cultivation is one of the old methods of cultivation particularly inmountain tracts and hill slopes.III. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The approaches and methodologies for ethnobotanical work, suggested by Jones (1941), Schultes(1960, 1962), Croom (1983), Jain (1987, 1989), Bellany (1993), Chadwick and Marsh (1994) and Cotton (1996)were followed. Emphasis was given mainly on intensive field work in selected tribal habitations. The focus ofthe present study is to record the ethnobotanical knowledge with special reference to medicinal plants possessedby the tribal people. They represent the pockets of human gene pool and have distinct habitats and habits withample knowledge on the medicinal properties of their surrounding plants. Plants employed in materiel cultureand plants associated with folk songs, folk tales, worship, mythology, taboos, magico-religious beliefs,ceremonies etc. were studied in addition to vernacular names. Plant identifications were made with the help ofFlora of the Presidency of Madras (Gamble, 1915-1935) using the field observations. The identifications werelater confirmed with the help of Flora of Visakhapatnam District (Rao and Kumari, 2002) and by comparisonwith authentic specimens in the Andhra University Herbarium.Table. 1. Ethnomedicinal plants used by tribal people of Pedabayalu Mandalam.F G/sp. Botanical name Local name Habit Life form Plant parts Disease1 ANNONACEAE1 Annona squamosa. Linn. Sitaphalam Tree Ph-meso Seeds wounds2 Polyalthia longifolia Benth. Naramamidi Tree Ph-mega Bark Rheumatism2 MENISPERMACEAE3 Cissampelos pareira Linn Bankatheega Climber Ph-micro Root Stomachic4 Cocculus hirsutus (Linn.) Diels Dussarateega Climber Ph-nano Root Eczema5 Tinospora cordifolia Miers Tippatheega Climber Ph-micro Stem Jaundice3 NYMPHAECEAE6 Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Tamara Herb C-hydro Rhizome Dysentery7 Nymphaea pubescens Willd. Kaluva Herb C-hydro Root Dysentery4 BRASSICACEAE8 Brassica juncea (Linn.)CzernajewTelle avalu Herb Th Seed Diarrhoea9 Raphanus sativus Linn. Mullangi Herb C-geo Root Urinarytrouble5 CAPPARACEAE10 Cadaba fruticosa (Linn.) Druce Chedonda Shrub Ph-micro Leaf Eczema11 Capparis sepiaria Linn. Nallauppi Straggler Ph-micro Plant Skin trouble12 Cleome gynandra Linn. Vominta Herb Th Leaf Headache13 Cleome viscosa Linn. Kukkavominta Herb Th Seed Pain14 Maerua oblongifolia(Forsk.)A.Rich.Dholo Katkiyo Shrub Ph-micro Root Headache6 MALVACEAE15 Abelmoschus esculentus Moench. Benda Shrub Ph-micro Leaf Dysentery16 Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sw. Thuthurubenda Shrub Ph-micro Leaf Piles17 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Mandhara Shrub Ph-nano Flower Mennorrhagia18 Sida cordifolia Linn. Bala Herb Th Root Leucorrhoea19 Thespesia populnea Corr. Gangaravi Tree Ph-meso Root Diabetes7 BOMBACACEAE20 Adansonia digitata Linn. Bandaru Tree Ph-mega Leaves Dysentery21 Bombax ceiba Linn. Buruga Tree Ph-mega Root Diabetes22 Cieba Pentandra (Linn.)Gaertn. Tellaburuga Tree Ph-mega Leaf Boils8 TILIACEAE23 Corchorus capsularis Linn. Tellanara Herb Th Seed Stomachic24 Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. Chiruchitrica Herb Ph-nano Root Ulcers9 ZYGOPHYLLACEAE25 Tribulus terrestris Linn. Palleru Herb Th Root Diabetes10 RUTACEAE26 Aegle marmelos (Linn). Corr. Maredu Tree Ph-meso Bark Dysentery27 Citrus limon (Linn). Burm. Nimmakaya Shrub Ph-meso Fruit Stomachic28 Citrus medica Linn Madeepalamu Shrub Ph-meso Fruit Dysentery29 Murraya koenigii Spreng. Karivepaku Tree Ph-meso Leaf Vomiting11 MELIACEAE30 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Vepa Tree Ph-mega Bark Skin trouble
Ethnomedicinal Investigation Of Medicinal Plants…www.ijceronline.com ||April||2013|| Page 1031 Melia azedarach Linn. Turakavepa Tree Ph-mega Leaf Fever32 Soymida febrifuga A. Juss. Chavachettu Tree Ph-mega Bark Fever12 RHAMNACEAE33 Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk Rgichettu Tree Ph-meso Seed Diarrhoea34 Zizyphus nummularia(Burm.f.)Wt. & Arn.Nelaregu Shrub Ph-micro Leaf Scabies35 Zizyphus xylopyra Willd. Gotti Tree Ph-meso Bark Asthma13 FABACEAE36 Abrus precatorius Linn. Guruvinda Climber Ph-micro Seed Paralysis37 Butea monosperma (Lam.)KuntzeModuga Tree Ph-mega Bark Piles38 Clitoria ternatea Linn. Sankupulu Herb Th Root Eye disease39 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Sissoo Tree Ph-mega Bark Urinaryinfection40 Derris indica (Lam.) Bennet Nalla theega Tree Ph-mega Root Snake bite41 Mucuna pruriens Bak Durada Gondi Climber Th Seed Eczema42 Petrocarpus marsupium Prain. Yegisa Tree Ph-mega Bark Cough43 Sesbania grandiflora Pers. Avisachettu Tree Ph-mega Bark Diarrhoea44 Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.)MarechalPillipesara Climber Th Seed Fever45 Teramnus labialis Spr. Masaparni Climber Th Root Fever14 CAESALPINIACEAE46 Bauhina racemosa Lam. Arichettu Tree Ph-mega Bark Dysentery47 Caesalpinia bonduc (Linn.) Roxb. Gachapodha Shrub Ph-micro Seed Vomiting48 Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.)Swartz.Phydi thangedu Shrub Ph-micro Flower Fever49 Cassia absus Linn. Chanupalavittu Shrub Th Leaf Cough50 Cassia auriculata Linn. Thangedu Shrub Ph-micro Root Skin disease51 Cassia fistula Linn. Rela Tree Ph-mega Bark Skin disease52 Cassia occidentalis Linn. Kasinta Shrub Ph-micro Leaf Eczema53 Delonix elata (Linn.) Gamble Chittikesaram Tree Ph-mega Leaf Rheumatism15 MIMOSACEAE54 Acacia farnesiana (Linn.) Willd Murikithuma Tree Ph-meso Stem Cough55 Acacia leucophloea (Roxb.) Willd Tella thumma Tree Ph-meso Stem Arthritis56 Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Del. Nalla thumma Tree Ph-mega Bark Dysentery57 Dichrostachys cinerea (Linn.) Wt.& Arn.Veluthuruchett Tree Ph-meso Root Rheumatism58 Pithecolobium dulce (Roxb.)Benth.Cheemachinta Tree Ph-mega Seed Diabetes59 Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) Druce Jammi Tree Ph-mega Bark Skin disease16 CUCURBITACEAE60 Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.)schard.Verri pucha Herb Ch Fruit Jaundice61 Cucumis sativus Linn Dosakaya Climber Th Fruit Urinarydisease62 Lagenaria siceraria (Molina)Standl.Sorakaya Climber Th Root Jaundice63 Momordica charantia Linn Kakara Climber Th Leaf Ulcers17 APIACEAE64 Ammi majus Linn. Pitchikothimer Herb Th Leaf Fever65 Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban Saraswatiaku Herb Th Leaf Diabetes18 RUBIACEAE66 Adina cordifolia Hook. f. exBrandis.Bandaru Tree Ph-mega Bark Dysentery67 Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.)Korth.Battaganapa Tree Ph-mega Fruit Eye disease68 Morinda tomentosa Heyne exRoth.Togaru Tree Ph-mega Root Eczema19 ASTERACEAE69 Ageratun conyzoides Linn Pumpulla Herb Th Leaf Wounds70 Eclipta alba Linn Guntagalaga Herb Th Leaf Jaundice71 Tridax procumbens Linn Gadichamanti Herb Ch Leaf Dysentery72 Xanthium strumarium Linn. Marulamatang Herb Th Seed Small pox20 APOCYNACEAE73 Alstonia scholaris R. Br. Edakula pala Tree Ph-meso Bark Asthma74 Nerium indicum Mill Erraganneru Shrub Ph-micro Root Skin disease75 Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Merr. Patchaganneru Shrub Ph-meso Leaf Cancer76 Wrightia tinctoria Br. Ankudu Tree Ph-meso Bark Psoriasis21 CONVOLVULACEAE77 Argyreia nervosa (Burm f.) Boj. Samudrapala Shrub Ph-micro Root Wounds
Ethnomedicinal Investigation Of Medicinal Plants…www.ijceronline.com ||April||2013|| Page 1178 Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Vishnukrantha Herb Ch Leaf Asthma79 Ipomoea batatas (Linn.) Lam.Tab. Theepigadda Herb Th Leaf Scorpionsting80 Merremia gangetica (Linn.)Cufod.Nallakula tiga Herb Th Root Eye diseaseF=Family, sp=species,IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS:Conservation of biological resources and of the indigenous traditional knowledge is essential forsustainable development and managing of natural resources the world over. The history of indigenousknowledge as an old as the human race. This knowledge has always been very important for the people whogenerate it. It is a matter of survival for them. Many scientists, researchers and environmentalists all over theworld are now striving to explore, know, Document and use the resource base knowledge for the welfare of thewider human race. Documentation of ethnic groups‟ knowledge related to plant resources is known as„Ethnobotany‟. The study deals with the relationships of man to the plant he used or uses. Analysis ofinformation presented in appendix-I indicates that Pedabayalu Mandalam tribes inhabitant of Visakhapatnamdistrict possess rich knowledge about plant resource around them. This is evident form the following fact. Atotal of 80 angiosperm plant species belonging to 70 genera of 21 families have been identified and recorded forethnobotanical uses. Out of the 21 families Fabaceae is the dominated family.Out of the total 80 floweringspecies, 32 are trees, 16 shrubs, 21 herbs, 10 are climber and stragglers. (Table. 1, Fig. 2). This study shows thatTrees are dominating the forest. This is probably owing to the semi-arid conditions and erratic rainfall. Further,the scrubby plant species (small trees and shrubs) can be observed as the dominant perennial vegetation of thearea.The various life form classes (Raunchier, 1934) as phanerophytes (nano, micro, meso, mega, epi) arerepresented by 53 species while chamaeophytes account for 3 species, cryptophytes (geo, helo, hydro) by 3 andtherophytes are represented by 21 of the total number of species. The phanerophytes and therophytes dominatein all the parts (Table –I, Fig. 3). The biological spectrum reflects the adaptation of plants to environment andprimary climate (Smith 1980). Geographically widely separated plant communities can be very usefullycompared with one another on the basis of biological spectrum. Since life forms are related to the environment,biological spectrum is also an indicator of prevailing environment. In the Padabayalu Mandalam,Visakhapatnam district the tribes has been using the indigenous plant species in a crude form. The present studyaccounts for 80 plant species, which are of medicinal value. As there is no medical pharmacy the medicinalplants are an instantly available form of medication for the indigenous/aboriginal people. These plants arepresently receiving an enormous amount of attention. They utilize singly or in combination for the treatment of30 ailments (Table. 1). The frequent health problems are Dysentery and Skin disorders 16 species are used. Themaximum number of plants used for a particular aliment can possibly show the prevalence of the ailment in thearea. Various plant parts, such as roots (20 spp), stem (3 spp) leaves (21 spp), flowers (2 spp), seeds (11 spp),stem bark (16 spp), rhizome (1 spp) entire plant (1 spp) and fruits (5) are used for the treatment of the aboveailments generally through oral administration (Fig.4).fig.1. Study area-Pedabayalu Mandalam.
Ethnomedicinal Investigation Of Medicinal Plants…www.ijceronline.com ||April||2013|| Page 12V. CONCLUSIONS:However, we feel that the indigenous knowledge and practices of the Padabayalu Mandalam tribes onutilization of plant resources as medicine should be reported and preserved before they get lost due to increasingintegration. In the information obtained, there were many details about the appropriate indication of each plant.There are plants that are traditionally employed for specific symptoms or conditions that often accompanyitching, allergy and other skin disorders. This vast array of rare medicinal plants can be used for further researchonly if we ensure proper conservation of these endangered species. Thus researchers should observeethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of drugs for skindiseases which may also be a potential source of modern drug industries.VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:The authors are thankful to the notified and denotified adivasis groups, their vaids, ojhas, bhopas etc.and forest officials who provided valuable information on this subject. We are also thankful to the authorities ofvarious herbaria and, museums for their help and co-operation extended in several ways.REFERENCE: Chadwick, D. J. and J. Marsh (ed.), (1994), Ethnobotany and the search for new Drugs. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, U.K Gamlbe, J. S. and C. E. C. Fischer, (1915-1935), Flora of Presidency of Madras, (3 vols.) (repr. Ed. 1957) Botanical Survey ofIndia, Howrah. Jain, S. K., (Ed.) (1989), Methods and approaches in Ethnobotany, Society of Ethnobotanists, Lucknow. Johne, S., Groeger, D. & Hesse. (1971), Alkaloids. 142. New alkaloids from Adhatoda Vasica. Helv. Chem. Acta. 54:826 Rama Rao Naidu, B. V. A, (2002), Ethno Medicine from Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Ph.D Thesis, AndhraUniversity, Visakhapatnam. Rao, B. T., B. B. Lakhmi, L. M. Rao, K. Ramaneswari and V. Hymavathi, (2000), Medicinal plants of Paderu forest division inthe Eastern Ghats of Visakhapatnam. Asian J. Micr. Biotech. Environ. 1 Sci. 5: 67-80. Rao, V. L. N., B. R Busi, B. Dharma Rao, Ch. Seshagiri Rao, K. Bharathi and M.Vekaiah (2005), Ethnomedicinal practicesamong Khonds of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Vol. 5(2) P.P. 217-219. Rajendran, A, N. Rama Rao and A N. Henry, (1997), Rare and noteworthy plants of Eastern Ghats in Andhra Pradesh with theirethnic uses. Ethnobotany, 9: 39-43. Sudarsanam, G. and G. Siva Prasad, (1995), Medical Ethnobotany of plants. Used as antidotes by Yanadi tribes in South India.,Jour. Herbs Spices and Medical Plants, 3(1): 57-66. Sudhakar, S., (1980), Studies on medicinal plants of Upper East Godavari district, A.P. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 59(Suppl.): 168(abstract). Sudhakar, S. and R. S. Rao (1985), Medicinal plants of Upper East Godavari District, Andhra Prades, India J. Econ. Taxon. Bot.7(2): 399 - 406. Sudhakar, A. and S. Vedavathy, (1999), Wild edible plants used by the tribals of Chittor District (Andhra Pradesh),India. J. Econ. Tax. Bot., 23(2): 321-329. Schultes, R. E., (1960), Tapping our heritage of Ethnobotanical lore. Econ. Bot., 14: 257-262. Schultes, R. E., (1962), The role of Ethnobotanist inthe search of new medicinal plants. Lloydia, 25: 257-266. Venkaiah, M., 1998. Ethnobotany of some plants from Vizianagaram District, Andhra Pradesh. Flora and Fauna. 4: 90-92. Venkaiah, M., (2002), Report of Northern districts of Andhra Pradesh in NATP Biodiversity Project work. (C.S.R. Project).
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