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about biodiversity......

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Evs ppt

  2. 2. What is Bio-diversity????????? ‘Biological diversity’ or biodiversity is that part of naturewhich includes the differences in genes among theindividuals of a species, the variety and richness of allthe plant and animal species at different scales inspace, locally, in a region,in the country and theworld, and various types of ecosystems, both terrestrialand aquatic,within a defined area.
  3. 3. Genetic diversityEach member of any animal or plant species differs widely from other individuals in its genetic makeup because of the large number of combinations possible in the genes that give every individual specific characteristics. Thus, for example, each human being is very different from all others.
  4. 4. Genetic diversity
  5. 5. Genetic diversity
  6. 6. •Species diversityThe number of species of plants and animals that arepresent in a region constitutes its species diversity. Thisdiversity is seen both in natural ecosystems and inagricultural ecosystems
  7. 7. Values of Biodiversity:Food: About 80,000 edible plants and about 90% of present day food crops have been domesticated from wild.Drugs & Medicines: About 75% of world’s population depend on plants or plant extracts.Fuel: Forests have been used since ages for fuel wood. Fossil fuels are also products of Biodiversity.Social Value: Many of the plants like Tulsi, Lotus, Peepal etc are considered holy plants. About 2.1 million species have been identified till date, while many more species are believed to exist.
  8. 8. A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with asignificant reservoir of biodiversity that is threatened withdestruction. An area is designated as a hot spot when it contains atleast 0.5% of plant species as endemic. There are 25 such hot spots of biodiversity on a globallevel. These hot spots covering less than 2% of the world’s landarea are found to have about 50% of the terrestrialbiodiversity
  9. 9. BIOGEOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION OFINDIA The Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Thar Desert of Rajasthan.
  10. 10. Criteria for determining hot-spots: No. of Endemic Species i.e. the species which are found nowhere else. Degree of threat, which is measured in terms of Habitatloss.
  11. 11. A habitat is the physical and biological environment used by an individual, a population, a species, or a group of species.
  12. 12. Habitat Loss has occurred when quality of the environment is so low that it is no longer usable by a given species.
  13. 13. Habitat Degradation is the process by which habitat quality for a given species is diminished.
  14. 14. Causes of Habitat Loss include man made objects such as roads, dams, Etc.
  15. 15. Roads are structures used to facilitatemovement. However, they are barriers for animals such as amphibians, small reptiles, and invertebrates.
  16. 16. Damming streams and rivers have destroyed many aquatic ecosystems. Many animalsmove up and down the streams searching for places to breed.
  17. 17. Consequences of Habitat Loss include theendangerment and extinction of species, as well as the destruction of land and ecosystems.
  18. 18. Other structures that are considered to be a cause of Habitat Loss are parking lots, mines, buildings, and railroads.
  19. 19. Causes of Habitat Degradation are AirPollution, Water Pollution, and Pesticides.
  20. 20. A combination of CFC’s and halons reduce the concentration of the ozone, allowing UVrays to reach the earth surface, forming toxic clouds called smog.
  21. 21. Water Pollution includes material such asmud that smothers the bottom of aquatic ecosystems at high concentrations.
  22. 22. Pesticides, Insecticides, and Rodenticides areused to kill animals that would eat our crops.
  23. 23.  Protecting remaining intact sections of natural habitat. Educating public about the importance of natural habitat and biodiversity. Devloping family planning programs in areas of rapid population growth. Finding ways to increase the agricultural output by organic farming.
  24. 24.  refers to the variety of species in a specific area increases as one moves toward the equator (WHY?)
  25. 25. …without it, we will not survive.
  26. 26.  supports many basic natural services for humans, such as fresh water, fertile soil and clean air helps pollinate our flowers and crops, clean up our waste and put food on the table
  27. 27.  Habitat loss Habitat fragmentation Edge effect Habitat degradation Water pollution Land pollution Exotic species
  28. 28.  Conservation Biology – study and implementation of methods to protect biodiversity Legal Protections of species Preserving habitats Habitat corridors
  29. 29.  Working with people (park rangers and the like) Reintroduction and species preservation programs Captivity Protecting plant species
  30. 30. ThinkGreen...!
  31. 31.  Poaching is the illegal hunting, killing or capturing of animals Simple as taking an animal without a permit Using a prohibited weapon/ trap Stealing an animal from a zoo/ sanctuary Common in developing countries Poaching leads to extinction
  32. 32.  Tusks-ivory Rhino horn BushMeat
  33. 33.  Hides ,meats, and bones are sold to dealers Clothes, food, and jewelry production Religious significances/ shaman usage Collectors
  34. 34. MaskedpoachersPoachingfor moneyQuick profitWeapons
  35. 35.  Drugs Weapons
  36. 36. The militaryCaught in act NativesFinedWeapons
  37. 37. What happens to the animal?
  38. 38. Model50050 Cal.
  39. 39. • Ivory from elephant tusks: jewelry, flatware handles, piano keys, sculptures• Leopard skin: said to give kings magical powers when placed upon his throne• Tiger Penis: Used in Asia as a pain killer or aphrodisiac• Lion Meat: said to give superhuman strength and increase sex drive
  40. 40.  Elephant Rhinoceros Leopard Tiger Lion Panda
  41. 41.  EastAfrica Siberia IndiaSouthAmerica
  42. 42.  RangersPetitionsFundsRisingawareness
  43. 43.  Friendship
  44. 44.  You personally? Nothing realistic. Donating money to your favorite wildlife protection and conservation organization helps, but does little to fundamentally stop international poaching The best thing would be to join one of these organizations and volunteer as an anti poaching ranger. Good luck with that.
  45. 45.  The word ‘ conflict’ is defined as ‘ an incompatibility between opinions or principles ‘ a situation that arises because of differences in perception, attitude and insufficient understanding, mostly, on part of the wiser party.’‘ any conflict that arises where the behavior of one (either people or wildlife) is unacceptability disadvantageous to the other’.
  46. 46. Cont,,,, INTRODUCTION….. With the increase in wildlife population in response to protection, human-wildlife conflict also has increased. Large-scale forest degradation, rapid infrastructure development and population explosion, conflicts between domestic stock and wild carnivores have increased.
  47. 47.  Man – wildlife conflicts: The conflict between man and wildlife started with the evolution of man, but intensity increased due to the activities of modern man Due to the lack of stable food and disruption of movement, wild animals came out of forest area and attack the agricultural field and humans and in turn got killed by the humans.
  48. 48.  Tiger Wild Dog Wild Boar Leopard Elephant
  49. 49.  Due to the minimum disturbance caused by the residents with in the buffer zones to the habitat, the prey base is considered to be balanced Therefore the conflict related to the tiger is very minimum though not absolutely nil.
  50. 50.  Main problem of the man animal conflict is caused by the wild dogs (Cuon alpinus) and the leopard (Panthera pardus) The main reason for the conflict from the wild dog is that the wild dogs are occasionally found in groups and with the combined effort, it easily kills the livestocks specially and the cattle’s become victim
  51. 51.  Wild Boar is the greatest enemy of the residents of the area who cultivates potatoes as their cash crop
  52. 52.  Second most prevalent conflict with the leopard The conflict caused by the leopard kill is more on sheep and horses and its preferences to these species over other animals are not yet known
  53. 53.  Studies by Raman Sukumar in three locations in India suggested that up to 20% of elephant deaths were caused directly by crop defence. These studies took place in 1982 and the situation is thought to have worsened since. In Sri Lanka it is reported that up to 150 wild elephants are shot or poisoned by farmers every year.
  54. 54. Killing of HumansHouse DamageDamage to Agri. crop Type of conflict s Accidental Killing of injury livestock
  55. 55. Year Livestock Human1998 244 921999 207 842000 253 1212001 375 1222002 269 105 Ref : Shri Dhirendra Bhargava, IGNFA
  56. 56. Crop Loss Houses Humans Year (ha.) (No.) (No.) 2002 - 3903 1508 30 032003-04 4211 1071 432004-05 4201 1674 412005-06 4697 1194 33 Ref :Shri Dhirendra Bhargava, IGNFA
  57. 57.  From 2001 to 2006 ◦ 100 people lost their lives ◦ 781 ha. Of crop has been damaged ◦ 61.5 lakh Rs. Has been spent on compensation
  58. 58. LIvestock Killed, 2004 Bear Tiger – 125 9% Snow leopard – 23 Tiger Bear – 65 18% Leopard - 499 Leopard 70% Snowle opard 3% Ref: Lhendup Tharchen F.T , IGNFA
  59. 59. Anthropogenic/Man made causes  Habitat loss  Agricultural practices  Entry into forests  Insufficient prey base  Poverty  Population pollution  Exploitation of forests  Culture and society
  60. 60.  There are some common field between Man and animal, Which ultimately leads to conflict due to resource limitation like:  SPACE  FOOD  SHELTER Increasing population of human beings  Loss of forest  Decrease in quality of forest  Development activities
  61. 61.  Mitigation Reaction: ◦ Driving away wild animals ◦ Removing problem animals ◦ Killing problematic animals ◦ Law enforcement
  62. 62.  Preventive methods: ◦ Creation of physical barrier. (Wall & Fencing) ◦ Habitat enrichment ◦ Preventive Spatial separation (By wall formation)
  63. 63. “Conservation is theapplication of common senseto the common problems for the common good.”
  64. 64. bye