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  • 1. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 iNavigate-An Android Based Navigation Application Ms. Vaishali Zilpe, Dr. P. N.Chatur connectivity on your phone and possible reason is no data Abstract— Android, currently developed by the Open coverage or less signal strength, if you have 3G or 4G dataHandset Alliance, is a platform for mobile devices that includes plans then expect a low coverage to known areas only. Inan operating system, middleware and key applications. The such cases Offline GPS maps are always good for the peopleAndroid Software Development Kit provides the tools andApplication Programming Interfaces necessary to begin which can help them in navigation even though they are notdeveloping applications on the Android platform using the Java connected to the web.programming language. The increase on the usage of phones In this Navigation application, there is no need for all thethat can run applications has resulted to a significant increase time to constant data connection during your navigation. Thisin their number and variety. application is available to navigate through vast area of The approach used in the current project is to develop an Mysore DC of Infosys Limited.android based navigation application to navigate throughMysore DC area of Infosys without requiring internetconnection since it’s not always possible for the user to II. LITERATURE SURVEYcontinuously keep monitoring using GPS and sometimes alsodue to unavailability of the network. Navigation is provided byoffline maps stored in SQLite database. A. Introduction to Android Android is a software stack for mobile devices that Index Terms—Android, Content Providers, SQLite, Xml includes an operating system, middleware, and keyParsing, Intents. applications. The Android SDK provides the tools and libraries necessary to begin developing applications that run on Android-powered devices. Android, as a system, is a I. INTRODUCTION Java-based operating system. Some of the important features Android is a Linux-based operating system for mobile of Android that makes it so useful are as follows:devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Android 1. Android applications are developed using Java and canhas a large community of developers writing applications be ported rather easily to the new platform.("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices.Developers write primarily in a customized version of 2. Android, while recognizing and allowing forJava[1]. Apps can be downloaded from third-party sites or programmatic UI development, also supports the newer,through online stores such as Google Play (formerly Android XML-Based UI Layout.Market), the app store run by Google. In October 2011, therewere more than 500,000 apps available for Android, [2] and 3. One of the more exciting features of Android is that,the estimated number of applications downloaded from the because of its architecture, third partyAndroid Market as of December 2011 exceeded 10 applications-including those that are “home-grown” are executed with the same priority as those that are bundledbillion.[3]. Android was listed as the best-selling smartphone with the core system.platform worldwide in Q4 2010 by Canalys[4][5] with over300 million Android devices in use by February 2012.[6] 4. Aside from SDK and the well-formed libraries that areAccording to Googles Andy Rubin, as of December 2011, available to develop with, the most exciting feature forthere were over 700,000 Android devices activated every Android developers is that we now have access to anythingday.[7] the operating system has access to. Google Maps and GPS-based navigation services havebecome very popular, mainly because they let people to For example, if we want to create an application thatrapidly explore unknown areas also. Since GPS always try to utilizes the phone’s internal GPS, we have access to it.connect with nearest cell tower and tries to catch up signal 5. On top of all the features that are available from theevery time, it consumes more battery on your phone and GPS android, Google has thrown in some very tantalizingis the highest batter draining component on the smartphones. features of its own. Developers of Android applicationsIt’s always not possible to be connected with data will be able to tie their applications into existing Google offerings such as Google maps and Google search. Android applications are written in the Java programming Ms. Vaishali Zilpe ,CSE department, Govt..College of Engg, Amravati,(e-mail:vaishali.zilpe@gmail.com). Amravati, Maharashtra, India, language. The Android SDK tools compile the code—alongPh.no:-9970652975 with any data and resource files—into an Android package, Dr. P. N. Chatur, Head of CSE Department, Govt. College of Engg, an archive file with an .apk suffix. All the code in aAmravati(e-mail:- chatur.prashant@gcoea.ac.in) single .apk file is considered to be one application and is the 89 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 2. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012file that Android-powered devices use to install the B. Android Architectureapplication The following diagram shows the major components of the Android operating system. Each section is described in more detail below. Figure 2.1: Android Architecturea. Applications layer Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by various Android ships with a set of core applications including an components of the Android system. These capabilities areemail client, SMS program, calendar, maps, browser, exposed to developers through the Android applicationcontacts, and others. All applications are built using the Java. framework. Some of the core libraries are System C library,Each of the application aims at performing a specific task that media libraries, LibWebCore, etcit is actually intended to do. d. Android Runtimeb. Application framework Android includes a set of core libraries that provides most The application framework is a set of basic tools with of the functionality available in the core libraries of the Javawhich a developer can build much more complex tools. By programming language.providing an open development platform, Android offers Every Android application runs in its own process, with itsdevelopers the ability to build extremely rich and innovative own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. Dalvik has beenapplications. Developers are free to take advantage of the written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently. Thedevice hardware, access location information, run Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex)background services, set alarms, add notifications to the format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint.status bar, and much more. Developers have full access to the The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by asame framework APIs used by the core applications. The Java language compiler that have been transformed into theapplication architecture is designed to simplify the reuse of .dex format by the included "dx" tool.components; any application can publish its capabilities and The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlyingany other application may then make use of those capabilities functionality such as threading and low-level memory(subject to security constraints enforced by the framework). management.c. Libraries e. Linux Kernel 90
  • 3. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system Before the Android system can start an applicationservices such as security, memory management, process component, the system must know that the component existsmanagement, network stack, and driver model. The kernel by reading the applications AndroidManifest.xml file (thealso acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the "manifest" file). Your application must declare all itsrest of the software stack. components in this file, which must be at the root of the application project directory.A. Application Components The manifest does a number of things in addition to declaring the applications components, such as: • Identify any user permissions the application requires, Application components are the essential building blocks such as Internet access or read-access to the users contacts.of an Android application. There are four different types of • Declare the minimum API Level required by theapplication components. Each type serves a distinct purpose application, based on which APIs the application uses.and has a distinct lifecycle that defines how the component is • Declare hardware and software features used or requiredcreated and destroyed. by the application, such as a camera, Bluetooth services, or a a. Activities multitouch screen. An activity represents a single screen with a user interface. • API libraries the application needs to be linked againstactivity represents a single screen with a user interface. (other than the Android framework APIs), such as the GoogleAlthough the activities work together to form a cohesive user Maps library.experience in the application, each one is independent of theothers. III. APPLICATION RESOURCES b. Services A service is a component that runs in the background to An Android application is composed of more than justperform long-running operations or to perform work for code—it requires resources that are separate from the sourceremote processes. A service does not provide a user interface. code, such as images, audio files, and anything relating to the Another component, such as an activity, can start the visual presentation of the application. For every resource thatservice and let it run or bind to it in order to interact with it. we include in our Android project, the SDK build tools c. Content Providers define a unique integer ID, which we can use to reference the A content provider manages a shared set of application resource from our application code or from other resourcesdata. You can store the data in the file system, an A content defined in XML.provider manages a shared set of application data. You can One of the most important aspects of providing resourcesstore the data in the file system, an SQLite database, on the separate from our source code is the ability for us to provideweb, or any other persistent storage location your application alternative resources for different device configurations. Forcan access .SQLite database, on the web, or any other example, by defining UI strings in XML, we can translate thepersistent storage location your application can access. strings into other languages and save those strings in separate d. Broadcast Receivers files. A broadcast receiver is a component that responds tosystem-wide broadcast announcements. IV. PROPOSED SCHEME A. Hardware-Imposed Design Considerations D. Activating Components Three of the four component types—activities, services, Small and portable, mobile devices offer excitingand broadcast receivers—are activated by an asynchronous opportunities for software development. Their limited screenmessage called an intent. Intents bind individual components size and reduced memory, storage, and processor power areto each other at runtime, whether the component belongs to far less exciting, and instead present some unique challenges. Compared to desktop or notebook computers, mobile devicesyour application or another. We can use Intents to support have relatively:interaction between any of the application components  Low processing poweravailable on an Android device, no matter which application  Limited RAMthey’re part of. This turns a collection of independent  Limited permanent storage capacitycomponents into a single, interconnected system.  Small screens with low resolution For activities and services, intent defines the action to  Higher costs associated with data transferperform (for example, to "view" or "send" something) and  Slower data transfer rates with higher latencymay specify the URI of the data to act on.  Less reliable data connections For broadcast receivers, the intent simply defines the  Limited battery lifeannouncement being broadcast (for example, a broadcast toindicate the device battery is low includes only a known B. Design Detailsaction string that indicates "battery is low"). The Infosys Mysore DC is one of the largest campuses in The other component type, content provider, is not India spread across 345 acres of land, houses the followingactivated by intents. Rather, it is activated when targeted by a facilities:request from a Content Resolver. • Software Development Blocks • Infosys Leadership Institute E. The Manifest File • Global Education Center 91 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 4. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012• Multiplex When the user is navigated to this page, he will be• Hostels prompted to enter Source and destination location values.• Food Courts Here,• Recreation (ECC) • Source and destination fields need to be entered It has many software development buildings (SDB), two compulsorily. Otherwise exception message prompting theGEC centers and 9 food courts (FC). It also has enormous user to make proper selection is displayed.number of hostel buildings to accommodate up to 15,000 • Also, source and destination must not contain sameemployees at a time. location values. Otherwise appropriate exception message An employee who is new to campus will face difficulty to will be displayed on the same screen.locate various buildings like ECC, GEC, and FC etc. To Till both the above conditions are not fulfilled, applicationfacilitate such employees, we can think of developing Google will not move proceed further.map based navigation application called as iNavigate, whichcan be easily installed in employees Android based smart When the proper selections are made, user can click on thephone. “Go” button. When this button is pressed, Using iNavigate application, an employee should be able • Longitude and latitude values of source and destinationto get the directions from one building to another and find out will be displayed to the user.the distance between them. Also should be able to get the • Also, User can see Google map, highlighting the path fromdirections from current place to destination. It should be easy source to destination location.to use. User can go back to home page displaying options by pressing back button. Fig: High level Design Architecture Home page of the application provides three options to theuser as follows:1. Where am I?2. Get Direction3. Get distance User need to select one option amongst the above Fig: Snapshot for where am I?displayed three and click on then ok button placed on thesame screen below these options. 3. Find distance 1. Where am i? If the user selects third option amongst the three options of If the user selects first option amongst three options of home screen and presses OK button, User is navigated to thishome screen, User is navigated to next activity asking the page that allows the user to get the distance from one place touser to enter current location and click “ Where am i?” button another of Mysore DC in meters.to find out user’s current location on the map. When the user is navigated to this page, he will beWhen user clicks on this button:- prompted to select Source and destination location through• Longitude and latitude values of current location are drop down menus. Here,shown to user.• User can see his current position on the Google map of • Source and destination fields need to be selectedMysore DC. compulsorily. Otherwise exception message prompting the• User can click on Zoom in and zoom out by clicking on user to make proper selection is displayed.ZoomIn and ZoomOut buttons. • Also, source and destination must not contain same User can go back to home page displaying options by location values. Otherwise appropriate exception messagepressing Home button. will be displayed on the same screen. 2. Find direction Till both the above conditions are not fulfilled, application If the user selects second option amongst the three options will not move proceed further.of home screen, User is navigated to this page that allows theuser to get the direction from one place to another of MysoreDC. 92
  • 5. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 When the proper selections are made, user can click on the [11] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WebKit [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eclipse_(software)“Go” button. When this button is pressed, [13] http://www.itworld.com/google-android-dr-080213• Longitude and latitude values of source and destinationwill be displayed to the user.• Also, User can see Google map, highlighting the path fromsource to destination location and the textbox indicating thedistance for its path in meters. User can go back to home page displaying options bypressing back button. V. CONCLUSION With all upcoming applications and mobile servicesGoogle Android is stepping into the next level of MobileInternet. Such offline navigation application can help user tonavigate through Infosys Mysore DC without any need to allthe time monitor mobile network, without any hindrance dueto loss of network. As a future Work, this application can be to equipped withturn by turn voice prompt guide. Whether traveling as eitherdriver or pedestrian, the users will enjoy voice guidednavigation. While driver are given lane assistance and realtime traffic updates, pedestrians on the other hand, are guidedto shortcuts, pedestrian only zones and re-routing options. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The special thanks goes to my project guide,Suganthalkshmi R. The supervision and support she gavetruly help the progression and smoothness of the internshipprogram in Infosys Mysore. My grateful thanks to Infosyslimited Mysore for helping me to complete my Mtechdissertation. Special thanks also to Dr. P. N. Chatur-Co-guideand head of CSE department, Govt. college of Engg,Amravati(M.S),India. REFERENCES[1] Shankland, Stephen (November 12, 2007). "Googles Android parts ways with Java industry group". CNET News. http://news.cnet.com/8301-13580_3-9815495-39.html. Retrieved 2012-02-15.[2] a b Epstein, Zach (October 21, 2011). "Android Market surpasses 500,000 published apps". Boy Genius Report. PMC. http://www.bgr.com/2011/10/21/android-market-surpasses-500000-pu blished-apps/. Retrieved 2012-04-28.[3] a b Bonnington, Christina (December 8, 2011). "Googles 10 Billion Android App Downloads: By the Numbers". Wired. http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2011/12/10-billion-apps-detailed/. Retrieved 2012-02-15.[4] Tarmo, Virki; Carew, Sinead (January 31, 2011). "Google topples Nokia from smartphones top spot". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/01/31/oukin-uk-google-nokia-idUK TRE70U1YT20110131. Retrieved 2012-04-29.[5] a b "Googles Android becomes the worlds leading smart phone platform". Canalys. January 31, 2011. http://www.canalys.com/newsroom/google%E2%80%99s-android-be comes-world%E2%80%99s-leading-smart-phone-platform. Retrieved 2012-02-15.[6] Andy Rubin (February 27, 2012). "Google+ post Andy Rubin". https://plus.google.com/u/0/112599748506977857728/posts/Btey7rJB aLF. Retrieved 2012-02-27.[7] a b Schonfeld, Erick (December 22, 2011). "Android Phones Pass 700,000 Activations Per Day, Approaching 250 Million Total". TechCrunch. AOL. http://techcrunch.com/2011/12/22/android-700000/. Retrieved 2012-02-15.[8] http://www.developer.android.com- Android official Webpage.[9] http://code.google.com/android/ - Official Android Google Code Webpage[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SQLite 93 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE