ISSN: 2277 – 9043                              International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electron...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                           International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                            International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronic...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                            International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronic...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                           International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics...
ISSN: 2277 – 9043                                   International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Ele...
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  1. 1. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 Multicast Data Transmission Using Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol G.Naveen Samuel, D. Daniel explicitly support broadcasting because of huge amount of Abstract— An experiment based on distance vector traffic it would create with higher bandwidth. Imagine themulticast routing protocol (DVMRP) is described with the traffic generated in the Internet if one person wanted to send aprocedure of multicasting a network using distance vector. This message to everyone connected in the internet.paper describes an efficient data communication within anetwork using multicasting technique. Multicast distance vector In networking, an emerging trend evolves with therouting protocol combines some of the features of RIP (Routing delivery of packets from one or more senders to a group ofInformation Protocol) with the Truncated Reverse PathBroadcasting (TRPB) algorithm. The purpose of DVMRP is to receivers. This mechanism includes bulk data transfer,keep track of the return paths to the source of multicast continuous media streaming, updating web cache, data feedsdatagram. A router that routes both multicast and unicast and interactive gaming [9]. In these applications, a processdatagram’s must run two separate routing processes. DVMRP called multicast is used in extreme. Sending of a packet fromdeals with sending multicast datagram’s to the multicast group. one source (Sender) to multiple destinations (Receivers)Multicasting is done through DV (Distance Vector) routing using a single operation – send is called as Multicasttable. Usually Multicast distance vector routing does not share Communication. Multicast packets sent among hosts are theits routing table with its neighbors. It can be built from the Multicast Groups. Multicast communication is not ascratch or delay information that can be shared from the connection oriented. Multicast datagram is transmitted overneighbors. Multicast datagram packets are forwarded to themulticast group through a minimum cost path. After the destination group members that are reliable as unicast IPcompleting its task, the old routing table can be neglected and datagram.destroyed whereas the delay information is shared periodically.This is a source based routing protocol based on RIP. Forefficient transmission of the data through Multicast distancevector routing, four strategies can be used namely Flooding,Reverse Path Forwarding, Reverse Path Broadcasting, ReversePath Multicasting. Here routers are enabled with routing tablesto monitor the data transmissions in the network. DVMRPresults in reliable and fast transferring of data between thesource and destination in a network. Index Terms— Multicast Routing, Multicast packets,DVMRP, Router. I. INTRODUCTION Delivering of packets from a single source (Sender) to asingle destination (Receiver) is called Unicast. In UnicastCommunication, relationship between the source anddestination is One-to-One [3]. Here both source anddestination addresses in IP datagram are unicast addresses,assigned to the hosts. Protocols providing Unicastcommunication is meant as Unicast Protocols. Communicating with all the hosts that can be called asdestinations using a single source (Sender) can be called as Fig. 1 MulticastingBroadcast Communication. Here the relationship betweenthe source and destination is One-to-All [3]. Internet does not When a router receives a multicast packet, it may have destinations in more than one network. Forwarding of a Manuscript received June 15, 2012. single packet to members of a group requires a shortest path G.Naveen Samuel, Computer Science and Engineering, Joe Suresh tree [4]. If there are ‗n‘ groups, ‗n‘ shortest path trees areEngineering College, (e-mail: Tirunelveli, needed. Two approaches have been used to solve theIndia, Mobile No: 8508987060. problem: Source based trees and Group shared trees. D.Damiel, Information Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore,India, (e-mail: 50 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  2. 2. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 II. RELATED WORKS III. SEVERAL WAYS OF MULTICAST ABSTRACTION Today‘s challenging economy demands that enterprises Using a single send operation, the data‘s are sent and thoseleverage the value of their current technology investments to sent data copies are delivered to many receivers in severalincrease productivity, while at the same time decreases their ways:operating costs. As a result, enterprises are beginning toexplore the benefits of sending single data to multiple One-to-All Unicast: Sender uses separate unicast transportdestinations using Internet Protocol (IP) based network that connection to each receiver [16]. Sender‘s transport layer iscan deliver significant cost savings and help to provide for duplicated and transmitted over each of the individualenterprise continuity [9]. In computer networking, multicast connections. Fig.2 shows the One-to-All unicastis the delivery of a message or information to a group of communication process.destination computers simultaneously in a singletransmission from the source creating copies automatically inother network elements, such as routers, only when thetopology of the network requires it. IP multicast is atechnique for one-to-many communication over an IPinfrastructure in a network. It scales to a larger receiverpopulation by not requiring prior knowledge of whom or howmany receivers there are. Multicast uses networkinfrastructure efficiently by requiring the source to send apacket only once, even if it needs to be delivered to a large Fig.2 One-to-All Unicastnumber of receivers [1, 17]. The nodes in the network takecare of replicating the packet to reach multiple receivers only Application Level Multicast: Unicast transmission is used butwhen necessary. The most common transport layer protocol involving replication and forwarding of data by the receiversto use multicast addressing is User Datagram Protocol [12] as shown in Fig.3. Here sender transmits data to some(UDP). By its nature, UDP is not reliable- messages may be receivers and those receivers may duplicate and forwardlost or delivered out of order. Reliable multicast protocols copies of data to other receivers.such as pragmatic general multicast (PGM) have beendeveloped to add loss detection and retransmission on top ofIP multicast [14]. IP multicast is widely deployed inenterprises, commercial stock exchanges, and multimediacontent delivery networks. A common enterprise use of IPmulticast is for IPTV application such as distance learningand televised company meetings. The purpose of this projectis to transfer the messages to the users of the multicast groupi.e., single user to the multiple user of the assigned group.The main advantages of the multicast distance vector routingprotocol is that DVMRP is cheaper and cost effective whencompared to other alternatives for increasing LAN and WAN Fig.3 Application Level Multicastcapacities, Reduces the load on the sending server, which nolonger supports sequential or concurrent unicast sessions due Explicit Multicast: Router involves replication andto scalability factor. Gets rid of network congestion that is forwarding of data copies on the multiple links to reach thecaused by existing application, which is inefficiently receivers. It provides explicit multicast support in thetransmitting to other groups., Saves cost in utilization of network layer. Fig. 4 shows an explicit multicastnetwork and server resources, As more users are added over transmission.the network, there is no change in the amount of bandwidthover the users, Can add new types of applications due to themulticasting mode of transmission [5, 9]. The action thatcarried out in this project is that the message has beentransmitted to the multicast group. Thus the single messagecan be transmitted without congestion and group of userswithout message replication. Distance Vector routing isimplemented in various environmental networks that hasresulted in an efficient communication process. Nowmulticasting procedure is enveloped with Distance vectorrouting so as to produce a shortest path before transmission Fig.4 Explicit Multicastof messages between nodes and each router is displayed with The path to survive in the network is enhanced with thea routing table to process on with an idea of the paths with its router using multicast abstraction technique. Here a securedelay information. This enhances with a secure, reliable and path is organized between routers and the nodes involvingfast transmission of data within a network structure. transmission of data [6]. Abstracted path of transaction can be analyzed and denoted in a routing table. Thus 51 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  3. 3. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012transmissions are made only with a structured routing table. IV. DISTANCE VECTOR MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOL Unicast distance vector routing is very simple; extending itto support multicast routing is complicated. Multicast routingdoes not allow a router to send its routing table to itsneighbors. The ideas are to create a table from scratch byusing the information from the unicast distance vector tables.Multicast distance vector routing uses source-based trees, butthe router never actually makes a routing table. When a routerreceives a multicast packet, it forwards the packet as thoughit is consulting a routing table [11]. We can say that theshortest path tree is evanescent. After its use (after a packet isforwarded) the table is destroyed. To accomplish this, themulticast distance vector algorithm uses a process based onfour decision-making strategies can improve theshortcomings of the previous one. They are Fig.5 Reverse Path Forwarding  Flooding c) Reverse Path Broadcasting (RPB):  Reverse Path Forwarding(RPF) RPF guarantees that each network receives a copy of the  Reverse Path Broadcasting(RPB) multicast packet without formation of loops. However, RPF  Reverse Path Multicasting(RPM) does not guarantee that each network receives only one copy; a network may receive two or more copies. The reason is thata) Flooding: RPF is not based on the destination address (a group In flooding strategy each router sends the incoming packet address); forwarding is based on the source address. Toto the every interface except the one from which it was eliminate duplication, we must define only one parent routerreceived. Flooding accomplishes the first goal of for each network we must have this restriction: A networkmulticasting i.e., every network with active members can receive a multicast packet from a particular source onlyreceives not a multicast [10]. Although, flooding is through a designated parent router [15]. Now the policy isbroadcast, not a multicast, there is another problem: it creates clear. For each source, the router sends the packet only out ofloops. This will be overcome by the next strategy. those interfaces for which it is the designated parent. This policy is called reverse path broadcasting (RPB). Fig.6 showsb) Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF): a structure of RPB, guarantees that the packet reaches every RPF is a modified flooding strategy. To prevent loops, network and that every network receives only one copy.only one copy is forwarded; the other copies are dropped. InRPF, a router forwards only the copy that has travelled theshortest path from the source the router. To find this copy,RPF uses the unicast routing table. The router receives apacket and extracts the source address( a unicast address). Itconsults its unicast routing table an though it wants to send apacket to source address [17]. The routing table tells therouter the next hop. If the multicast packet has just come fromthe hop defined in the table, the packet has travelled theshortest path from source to the router because the shortestpath is reciprocal in unicast distance vector routing protocols.If the path from A to B is the shortest, then it is also the Fig.6 Reverse Path Broadcastingshortest from B to A. The router forwards the packet if it hastravelled from the shortest path; it discards it otherwise. This d) Reverse Path Multicasting (RPM):strategy prevents loops because there is always one shortest As you have noticed, RPB does not multicast the packet, itpath from the source to router [14]. If a packet leaves the broadcasts it. This is not efficient. To increase efficiency, therouter an comes back again, it has not travelled the shortest multicast packet must reach only those networks that havepath. Fig.5 shows the procedure of enforcing a Reverse path active members for broadcasting to multicasting; the protocolforwarding technique. uses two procedures, pruning and grafting. The designated parent router of each network is responsible for holding the membership information. This is done through the IGMP protocol .The process starts when a router connected to a network finds that there is no interest in a multicast packet. The router sends a prune message to the upstream router so that it can exclude the corresponding interface [15, 19]. That is the upstream router can stop 52 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  4. 4. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012sending multicast messages for this group through thatinterface. Fig.7 shows an RPM state after Pruning. Now ifthis router receives prune messages from all downstreamrouters. It in turn, sends a prune message to its upstreamrouter. Fig.9 Performance Analyzer A performance analyzer is introduced between the routers to Fig.7 RPM (after pruning) analyze the 1) Separation of multicast traffic with the measurement of its statistics, 2) Internal information of theAfter Pruning in enhanced in the network, the useless routes routers are estimated, 3) A specific structure of mapping isare evacuated from the structure and only those needed routes introduced between multicast traffic and internal informationare shown with the transactions. Those pruned route is estimated. Performance analyzer is equipped along with aenhanced in the network using dotted lines showing no tunnel as shown in Fig.9. Different sets of routers connectedconnection between the nodes. along a network are placed inside a tunnel structure. Here the router can be multicast or unicast routers. Several systems are connected with the routers for communicating with them. In those connected systems, some of them may be useful for a transmission to succeed but some of them will be useless for the communication. For analyzing the state of the system (Useful or useless), a performance analyzer is enhance in this mechanism. Fig.8 RPM (after grafting) When if a leaf router (a router at the bottom of the tree) hassent a prune message but suddenly realizes, through IGMPthat one of its networks is again interested in receiving themulticast packet? It can send a graft message. Fig.8 Showsthe RPM state after the grafting process is made. The graftmessage forces the upstream router to resume sending themulticast messages. While grafting occurs, then those prunedroutes are analyzed and the needed route for propagation ofthe message is grafted and considered for transferring data inthe network. V. IMPLEMENTATION OF DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING Fig.10 DVMRP Multicast Analyzer finds the status of the message that is survived DVMRP can be termed as a ―broadcast & prune‖ multicast along the network. It identifies the message status and reportsrouting protocol. It builds per-source group multicast in two different states such as:delivery trees by pruning (removing branches from) the 1) Prune Message: It searches the multicast group addressessource‘s truncated broadcast tree. It performs Reverse Path that are to be prune and analyses the valid and invalid periodForwarding checks to determine when multicast traffic of propagation, if finds an invalid period then the groupshould be forwarded to downstream interfaces [1, 9]. In this address involves the mechanism of Pruning.way, source-rooted shortest path trees can be formed to reach 2) Graft Messages: It searches the multicast group addressall group members from each source network of multicast where the messages are to be grafted and also whiletraffic. analyzing the time period it becomes valid period. Also the time period in pruning can be invalid. 53 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  5. 5. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 VI. NEED FOR MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOL Majority of networking applications purely rely on point-to-point transmission. Over these past few years, networking field has seen a rise in number of new applications that supports multicast transmission. Utilization of point-to-multipoint transmission has been limited to local area network applications. As multicast routing protocols define their delivery paths across an internetwork, it is widely used in several applications [5, 6]. It reduces the network load, as a single packet is transmitted by the source which is then replicated at forks in multicast delivery tree. For defining a multicast group, a multicast address is assigned to a set of receivers. It constructs a multicast delivery tree in Fig.11 Valid and Invalid Time Period which the multicast packets are to be forwarded. It discovers the resources in the network to generate delivery trees. WhileFig.11 shows the ongoing process with the time period multiple routers are connected within a network, the processallocation which can be valid or invalid. Here periodic of pruning useless links when hosts leave group and graftingcalculations of the time period are made only by performance new links when new hosts join a group [13]. Wholeanalyzer present in the structure. It is maintained only by additional levels of complexity are added whenthose Prune and Graft message evolved in this process. considerations are given for exactly how the tree should beAccording to RPM, when the datagram is sent from the formed and how trees are built across inter-domainsource, passes through entire network. Datagram is delivered boundaries. This kind of detail includes the specific protocolsto all leaf routers and may transmit a prune message, when and their features. Suffice it to say that a high levelthere is no group member. If the router that has sent a prune explanation of ―routing‖ is that it is the process of buildingmessage in previous transmission finds new group members, the tree, and it occurs when a leaf router initiates a joinit sends a graft message. Graft messages restore the toward a group‘s source(s) [12]. Routing results in thepreviously pruned branches of the multicast network [4, 16]. creation of forwarding state. A router uses this state to look up a group address and determine which outgoing node interfaces a multicast packet that should be forwarded on. Destination Delay Outgoing Node VII. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS A 0 - B 1 B DVMRP provides a simple model when compared to other C Infinity - multicast routing protocols by making a pure source specific D 1 D multicast distribution trees for deploying and troubleshooting [2, 17]. It uses a own topology mechanism by updating the Table.1 Routing Table routing table each time for enhancing a secure and fast transmission of messages in a network. Multicast routingDestination- Final destination of the Packet(usually multicast maintains an efficient data transmission by calculating thegroup users). shortest path in the network whereas other routing algorithmDelay - It is the time taken for the transmission of the packet may transmit the message through the network without anyi.e., Least Propagation Delay (LPD) between the users. subsequent path [13, 16]. DVMRP routing table that areOutgoing Node-Next hop through which the message to be constructed in multicasting technique can be the enhancedtransmitted part of the forwarding table, in which it shows the specific delay of the transmission. Routing table of each router are At first the Distance vector Multicast Routing protocol automatically updated and deleted for each round or for eachmaintains the routing table by initializing the routing table by data transfers that could enable a continuous task in theassigning the infinity value to the non-neighborhood nodes network. By introducing a performance analyzer in this task,and minimum delay between the systems by sending the we could grasp that the traffic intensity of this multicast datamessage and reception of the response from the system. Then transmission using DVMRP is low. By analysis, only thethe router sends the routing table shown in table.1 to the valid period can be noted in the whole traffic made in theneighboring nodes and by accessing the routing tables each network which would be 49.1% over the monitored link.router updates its routing table [7, 18]. Distance vector Thus it makes a fast data transmission and it can be a reliableenhances the shortest path of the route nodes and makes a structure in networking. Networking can be entitled with thisprocess of detecting is cost with the delay information which DVMRP to make a secure and fast transmission than otheris constructed to be the routing table. Thus the distance vector protocols which could identify its transmission path as earlierrouting table updates and sends the message through the in the network environment.minimum path cost. VIII. CONCLUSION 54 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  6. 6. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 5, July 2012 An enhanced mechanism is dedicated here to survive fit, [15] Charlie Schluting, ―Networking 101: Understanding Multicast Routing‖, Enterprise Networking Planet, Jul 27, this fast changing world. Multicast data transmission using [16] John T. Moy, Addison Wesley Longman, ―Anatomy of an Internetdistance vector multicast routing protocol has brought a Routing Protocol‖, The Internet Protocol Journal - Volume 2, No. 2 ,revolutionary change in the communication field. Routing ISBN 0-201-63472-4, 1998.table concept for multicast data transmission makes an [17] Yuan-Cheng Lai*, Ying-Dar Lin, Wei-Che Yu, ―GMNF-DVMRP: anaffordable communication in the network. Delivery trees that enhanced version of distance vector multicast routing protocol‖, International Journal of Communication Systems, Volume 11, Issue 2,are identified along the network can be efficient. pages 93–101, March/April 1998.Multicasting is made effective using DVMRP procedure for [18] XUE Jian-Sheng, WANG Guang-Xing, ―A Routing Assistant Reliableenhancing a secure transmission of data. Implementation of Multicast Method Based on DVMRP‖, Computer Science, 2006-2007.this mechanism can endure a cost effective, a reliable and a [19] LI Guo-bin, ZHANG Yan-li, ―Management on Address & Host Group of IP Multicast[J]‖; Computer Knowledge and Technology;2006-08.responsible data transmission. Multicasting procedure can beimplemented in upcoming communication fields to make aneffective action. Several enhancements can be made alongthis routing protocol to make a useful propagation.Multicasting using DVMRP is a humble work, which can besubjected to further improvements. In future, this core modelcan be developed with some enhancing software which G.Naveen Samuel has completed hiswould specify only a secure multicasting task in data Bachelor of Engineering (CSE) intransmission and can be used in the development of Wide Sivanthi Aditanar College ofarea networks. Engineering and he is continuing his Master Degree (CSE) in Joe Suresh College of Engineering and doing his research project in Network Security. REFERENCES[1] Behrouz A.Forouzan , ―DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING‖, McGraw-Hill Forouzan Networking Series, New York, NY 10020.[2] Beau Willaimson, ―Developing IP Multicast network vol-I‖, Cisco Press, IN466290 USA.[3] Yuan-Cheng Lai , Nat. Chiao Tung Univ., Hsinchu Ying-Dar Lin ; Wei-Che Yu ; Yuh-Tay Lin, ―GMNF-DVMRP: a modified version of distance vector multicast routing protocol‖, D.Daniel received the M.Tech degree Computer Communications and Networks, 1997. Proceedings. Sixth in Computer Science and Engg from International Conference on 22-25 Sep 1997, Pg:65 – 68. Karunya University. And continues[4] David Mosofis, Kevin Almeoth, ―Multicast Sockets/Practical guide for Doctorate research on security programs‖ Morgan Kaufmann publishers, San Fransisco, CA. services and access of multimedia data[5] Tzu-Lun Huang,, D.T. Lee on ELSEVIER, ―A distributed multicast in Cloud Computing routing algorithm for real-time applications in local area networks‖ paper on journals of parallel and distributed computing.[6] Javvin Technologies, Inc., ―Network Protocols Handbook‖, Javvin Press ,May 15, 2007, Pg:45-82,Pg:235-247.[7] Russ White; Danny McPherson; Sangli Srihari, ―Practical BGP‖, Addison-Wesley Professional, July 06, 2004 , Print ISBN- 10: 0-321-12700-5, Print ISBN-13: 978- 0 -321-12700 -6, Pg:198-223.[8] Arie D. Jones, ―Interdomain Multicast Routing: Practical Juniper Networks and Cisco Systems Solutions‖, Addison-Wesley Professional, April 24, 2002, Print ISBN-10: 0-201-74612-3, Print ISBN-13: 978-0-201-74612-9.[9] Uemo, S. , Kato, T. , Suzuki, K. , ―Analysis of Internet multicast traffic performance considering multicast routing protocol‖, Network Protocols, 2000. Proceedings of International Conference on 2000, Pg: 95 – 104.[10] Jeff CCIE #1919 Doyle; Jennifer DeHavenCCIE #1402 Carroll, ―Routing TCP/IP, Volume II (CCIE Professional Development)‖, Cisco Press, April 11, 2001, Print ISBN-10: 1-57870-089-2, Print ISBN-13: 978-1-57870-089-9, Pg:687-801.[11] Eiji Oki; Roberto Rojas-Cessa; Mallikarjun Tatipamula; Christian Vogt, ―Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications‖, John Wiley & Sons, April 24, 2012, Print ISBN: 978-0-470-49903-0, Web ISBN: 0-470499-03-6, Pg: 21-59, 75-117.[12] ―The Current State Of IP Multicast. (Technology Information)‖ , Network Computing | March 1, 1998.[13] Ruay-Shiung Chang and Yun-Sheng Yen, ―A Multicast Routing Protocol with Dynamic Tree Adjustment for Mobile IPv6*‖, Journal Of Information Science And Engineering 20, 1109-1124 (2004).[14] R. Manoharan and E. Ilavarasan, ―Impact of Mobility on the Performance of Multicast Routing Protocols in MANET‖, International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN), Vol.2, No.2, May 2010. 55 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE