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  • 1. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 Advanced Greenhouse Using Hybrid Wireless Technologies S.U. Zagade1, Prof. Dr. R.S. Kawitkar2 Department of E& TC, Sinhgad College of Engineering, Pune, India.Abstract- In order to reduce effect of climate & increase Greenhouse is a kind of advanced horticulturalcrop production we have to monitor various facility controlling and simulating natural climate inenvironmental parameters which affect the cropdevelopment This paper consists of design & plant cultivation, changing the plant growthimplementation of a WSN that combines to different environment, and creating the suitable conditions forwireless technologies. System is used to monitor the air plant growth, avoiding the outside season change andtemperature & humidity in greenhouse. Monitoring & the adverse effects caused by bad weather. With thecontrol of greenhouse environment play an importantrole in greenhouse production & management. This can development of installation agriculture, the modemhelp farmers to understand the environmental conditions large-scale greenhouse has been widely used in the& they can adopt different methods to increase the precision agriculture. The need of its environmentproduction in greenhouse. ZigBee offers wirelessconnectivity of the sensors with control panel while GSM quality has become higher and higher. Greenhouse isprovides wide coverage. All monitored parameters are playing an important role in the production of out-of-transmitted through a wireless link to cellular device for season vegetables and flowers, as well as high valueanalysis. A cell phone is used instead of computer and delicate plants [1][2]. The purpose of greenhouseterminal keeping mind that system will be used byfarmers & considering power management. environmental control is to get the best conditions for crop growth, increase crop yields, improve quality ofKeywords- humidity, short message service, temperature, crops, and regulate the growth cycle of crops, throughWireless sensor network (WSN), ZigBee. changing environmental factors such as temperature, I. INTRODUCTION humidity & light. Since the traditional monitoring system has One example of sensor network using two differentdisadvantages in network cabling difficulty, technologies is automatic meter reading system [3].maintenance costs high and node scalability, the Here ZigBee module is connected to each customer‟swireless communication technology has been applied meter. The GSM module takes data from the ZigBeeto protected agriculture. So the monitoring system modules which are in its range and transfer it tobased on radio frequency (RF) module, central computer. Another example is wireless sensormicrocontroller unit (MCU) and sensor technology network deployed in crop field [4]. Temperature,can provide a new way for real-time collecting humidity & light intensity in brinjal field is sensed bygreenhouse environment parameters in long-range. different sensor nodes deployed in field. This data isRecently, several wireless technologies have been transferred to centralize computer for monitoringused in the research of greenhouse such as Bluetooth purpose.and GPRS (General Packet Radio Service). Althoughthese achievements may meet the requirements in In this work, wireless sensor network has beenspecific application, there are still some shortcomings implemented, that can monitor the air temperature,such as expensive equipment, protocol complexity and humidity and ambient light intensity in a crop field.high power consumption. Also, ZigBee is another Continuous monitoring of these key environmentalwireless technology which can be used in wireless variables can help farmers in improving the qualitycommunication effectively. It is perfect solution for and productivity of crops. The design also includeslow cost & low power applications. But, it has implementation of necessary network services, powerlimitation of short distance communication. To management, status monitoring of sensor nodes &resolve this problem we have combined two different remote data access.wireless technologies in one system which usesadvantages of two different wireless technologies i.e., The design is based on integration of two differentZigBee & GSM. wireless technologies for increasing the wireless range & for reducing the cost. There are different points at 31 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 2. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012which sensors are deployed in greenhouse so that area III. SENSOR NODE DESIGNgets increased. Increase number of measurementpoints should not dramatically increase the system The network formed consists of three nodes wherecost. each sensor node consists of small size sensor & general purpose computing elements. The sensor The remainder of this paper is organized is as nodes can be deployed at various locations in afollows: Section II presents the system architecture of greenhouse to monitor environmental changes. TheWSN describing the functionality of individual main components in sensor node are outlined below:components & how they operate together. Section IIIrepresents the sensor nodes design. Section IV is for A. ZigBee moduleCoordinator node design. Section V provides result &discussion. Section VI provides the concluding ZigBee is intended for wireless application thatremarks & outlines the future work. requires low data rate, low power consumption, low cost, and secure networking. ZigBee layered on top of II. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IEEE 802.15.4 standard which defines the physical (PHY) layer and Medium Access Control (MAC) Fig. 1 shows hybrid wireless sensor network layer. ZigBee Alliance itself defines the applicationtopology implemented in greenhouse. There are total and security layer specifications. The stack can bethree sensor nodes, each sensing temperature & drawn in fig 2. The IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee standardhumidity in addition to general purpose computing & defines dual PHY layer, which are 2.4 GHz andnetworking. The computation module on each sensor 868/915 MHz.node is a programmable unit that performscomputation & bidirectional communication with ZigBee-Pro (RF) transceiver module designed byother sensor node. It interfaces with the digital sensors Digi provides a complete wireless networking solutionon the sensor module & dispatches the data according serving the 2.4GHz unlicensed industrial, scientific,to the application needs. Since the wireless and medical short-range wireless frequency band forcommunication range provided by the radio frequency the IEEE 802.15.4™ specification, for ZigBee®, or(RF) module is more than 1000m, the sensor node canbe widely separated. Sensor node 1 & sensor node 2 proprietary wireless-protocol systems & provide atransmit their data through the wireless wireless communication range of 1000 meters in opencommunication link to sensor node 3 which acts as a space. The surface mount module is designed for usecoordinator node. The coordinator node aggregates the with a variety of 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bitdata in time multiplexed manner, which helps in microcontrollers (MCUs). The modules areavoiding collision of data transmission. Coordinator programmed using dedicated programming kit tonode also acts as a gateway node between two make them compatible for wireless communication.different wireless technologies. The advantage ofmaking node 3 as a coordinator as well as gatewaynode is to increase area covered by system. Ittransmits its collected data along with its own data tothe cell phone using short message service (SMS).The cell phone is used instead of computer terminal toincrease the distance, to create simplicity in thenetwork as well as to minimize the powerconsumption. Figure 2. ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 stack B. Sensor Sensor used for this system is for temperature & humidity measurement. Sensor description is as follows: Figure 1. Hybrid Wireless Sensor Network a. SHT15: Small size, low power consumption, easy integration & replacement makes sensirion SHT15 [5] a perfect solution for greenhouse. It is the temperature & 32 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 3. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012humidity sensor which provides digital output to nodes 1 & 2. It also processes & combines the data ofmicrocontroller. Temperature & humidity accuracy of its own along with the data gather from node 1 & 2the sensor is ± 0.4 0C & 0.2 % respectively. while transmitting. The data is transmitted with the SMS service provided in GSM module. The main This sensor does not require any external components in sensor node are outlined below:components for signal conditioning which savesvaluable PCB area. Also, due to the digital nature,output is more immune to noise & externaldisturbances. The start-up time in sensor is very low.Therefore current is not needed for a long time duringinitialization thereby reducing the power consumed.The power saved can be used to perform othercomputing task. Another advantage is that sensor canbe deployed quickly in greenhouse since nocalibration is requireB. Sensor node Figure 4. Coordinator Model A. AVR microcontroller: ATmega16L microcontrollers are 8-bit microcontrollers. AVR microcontroller has Harvard architecture. In Harvard architecture, we have separate buses for data & code which increases the processing speed of CPU. Also, AVR microcontroller has adopted RISC architecture. RISC architecture has Figure 3. Basic Model of Sensor Node many features like fixed instruction set, large numbers of registers, small instruction set & many more. The basic model of the sensor node 1 & node 2 isshown in fig. 3. Each sensor consists of SHT15 B. GSM moduletemperature humidity multi-sensor module whichmonitors the environmental variables in the GSM stands for Global System for Mobilegreenhouse. Sensor is soldered to the PCB along with communication. In 1982, Group Special Mobile wasnecessary passive components such as resistors & formed among Europe countries. This groupcapacitors. The sensor node operates as a basic standardized cellular communication protocol whichmeasuring node with RF transceiver & AVR we know as the Global System for MobileATmega16L controller operating at 1MHz. The communication nowadays. Most GSM networks in themicrocontroller acts as a CPU & performs all the world operate in 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands.computations & input-output operations required for However, some countries are using differentthe working of sensor mode. Sensor is integrated with frequency since the allocated frequency had alreadythe microcontroller through two general-purpose been used. GSM use Time Division Multiple Accessinput-output pins. One is bidirectional for exchanging (TDMA) and Frequency Division Multiple Accessdata between microcontroller & sensor & other is for (FDMA) for multiple access method and use Gaussianproviding clock to the sensor. Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) for its modulation method. IV. COORDINATOR NODE DESIGN C. Short message service Coordinator node acts as a sensor node as well asgateway node. It receives the data from other sensor Short message service (sms) provided by GSM isnodes using RF communication link. It also contains used here for sending the data to the observer forSHT15 which is used to measure temperature & analysis. Short message service is a mechanism ofhumidity. It acts as a gateway node because it delivery of short messages over the mobile networks.connects two different wireless technologies as shown The short message service is realized by the use of thein fig. 4. It transmits its own data along with other Mobile Application Part (MAP) of SS7 protocol.sensor node‟s data through GSM module to cell Messages are sent to a short message service centrephone. (SMSC) which provides a „stored & forward‟ mechanism. It attempts to send messages to SMSC‟s A sensor node data is transferred to microcontroller recipients. If a recipient is not reachable, the SMSCthrough UART interface. Microcontroller performs all queues the message for latter retry. SMS is send bythe processing of data which is collected from sensor GSM module each after 1 hour. This frequency of 33 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE
  • 4. ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012sending messages can be changed according to The 3 sensor nodes are deployed in greenhouse atrequirement. three different points. The temperature and humidity values measured by the 3 sensor nodes are shown inD. Power supply Fig. 6. The outdoor wireless communication range of a ZigBee-Pro module is 1000 m. Monitoring of the environmental behavior should bedone for duration of complete season. Power supply tosensor node is provided with 3.3 V DC & 220 mA.Step down transformer is used to convert AC mainssupply to DC. The power supply unit is integratedwith the sensor node board. To withstand the variableweather conditions, the entire sensor node board ismounted in an acrylic enclosure that does not affectthe sensing functionality. Since an acrylic covering istransparent to infrared & radio frequency, it does notobstruct the wireless communication.E. Reliability Figure 6. Temperature & humidity measurements The short message service provided by the GSM isthe most reliable system. Even if the cellular device isout of range all the messages are delivered along with VI. CONLUSIONtime information when it comes in range. Combination of two different wireless technologiesF. User friendly system increases the communication distance. Wireless Nowadays every individual is familiar with cell monitoring of environmental parameters make thisphones. Hence, it is better to use cell phones instead of system effective in greenhouse. It also overcomes theany other device as displaying purpose. It also saves limitations of traditional monitoring systems. Systemthe energy consumed by bulky system because energy designed using different sensors having capability toconsumed by overall system including cell phone is measure different types of environmental parametersvery less. are beneficial in greenhouse. It helps farmers to V. RESULT & DISCUSSION increase the crop production with better quality. The proposed WSN system consisting of 3 sensor REFERENCESnodes has been tested. Fig. 5 shows a one sensor nodeout of three sensor nodes. Each sensor node measures [1] T. Ahonen, R. Virrankoski and M. Elmusrati,temperature & humidity. Node 1 & node 2 transmits "Greenhouse Monitoring with Wireless Sensortheir data to sensor node 3 which combines its data Network," IEEEI ASME International Conference:with received data & transmits all data to cell phone Mechtronic and Embedded Systems and Applicationsfor observation purpose. LCD display is mounted on (MESA2008), pp. 403-408.each sensor node to measure corresponding node data [2] A. Pawlowski, 1. L. Guzman, F. Rodriguez, M.as well as verification purpose. Berenguel, 1. Sanchez and S. Dormido, "Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control," Sensors, 2009, 9, pp. 232-252. [3] Aryo H. Primicanta, Mohd Yunus NAyan, and Moohammand Awan, “ZigBee-GSM based Automatic Meter Reading System”, IEEE International conference on Digital Object Identifier, pp. 1-5, 2010 [4] Sonal Verma, Nikhil Chung, Dhananjay V. Gadre, “Wireless Sensor Network for Crop Field Monitoring”, International Conference on Recent Treads in Information, Telecommunication & computing, pp. ,2010 [5] Sensirion (2007). SHT1x / SHT7x Humidity & Temperature Sensor v.3.0.1. [Online]. Available: http://www.sensirion.com/en/pdf/product_information/ Figure 5. Sensor Node Data_Sheet_humidity_sensor_SHT1x_SHT7x_E.pdf. 34 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE