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  • 1. Introduction toRoboticsSookram Sobhan, Polytechnic
  • 2. Outline• What is it?• What can it do?• History• Key components• Applications• Future• Robotics @ MPCRL
  • 3. What is a Robot: IManipulator
  • 4. What is a Robot: IIWheeled RobotLegged Robot
  • 5. What is a Robot: IIIUnmanned Aerial VehicleAutonomous Underwater Vehicle
  • 6. What Can Robots Do: IDecontaminating RobotCleaning the main circulating pumphousing in the nuclear power plantJobs that are dangerousfor humans
  • 7. What Can Robots Do: IIRepetitive jobs that areboring, stressful, or labor-intensive for humansWelding Robot
  • 8. What Can Robots Do: IIIThe SCRUBMATE RobotMenial tasks that humandon’t want to do
  • 9. Robot Defined• Word robot was coined by aCzech novelist Karel Capek in a1920 play titled Rossum’sUniversal Robots (RUR)• Robota in Czech is a word forworker or servantDefinition of robot:–Any machine made by by one our members: Robot Instituteof America –A robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulatordesigned to move material, parts, tools or specialized devicesthrough variable programmed motions for the performance ofa variety of tasks: Robot Institute of America, 1979Karel Capek
  • 10. Laws of Robotics• Asimov proposed three “Lawsof Robotics”• Law 1: A robot may not injurea human being or throughinaction, allow a human beingto come to harm• Law 2: A robot must obeyorders given to it by humanbeings, except where suchorders would conflict with ahigher order law• Law 3: A robot must protect itsown existence as long as suchprotection does not conflictwith a higher order law
  • 11. • The first industrialrobot: UNIMATE• 1954: The first programmablerobot is designed by GeorgeDevol, who coins the termUniversal Automation. He latershortens this to Unimation, whichbecomes the name of the firstrobot company (1962).UNIMATE originally automated themanufacture of TV picture tubesHistory of Robotics: I
  • 12. PUMA 560 ManipulatorHistory of Robotics: II1978: The Puma (ProgrammableUniversal Machine forAssembly) robot is developedby Unimation with a GeneralMotors design support
  • 13. 1980s: The robot industry enters a phase of rapid growth. Manyinstitutions introduce programs and courses in robotics. Roboticscourses are spread across mechanical engineering, electricalengineering, and computer science departments.Adepts SCARA robots Barrett Technology ManipulatorCognex In-Sight RobotHistory of Robotics: III
  • 14. 2003: NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers will launch towardMars in search of answers about the history of water on Mars1995-present: Emergingapplications in smallrobotics and mobilerobots drive a secondgrowth of start-upcompanies and researchHistory of Robotics: IV
  • 15. •Typical knowledgebase for the design and operation of roboticssystems–Dynamic system modeling and analysis–Feedback control–Sensors and signal conditioning–Actuators and power electronics–Hardware/computer interfacing–Computer programmingKnowledgebase for RoboticsDisciplines: mathematics, physics, biology,mechanical engineering, electrical engineering,computer engineering, and computer science
  • 16. Key ComponentsBaseManipulatorlinkageControllerSensors ActuatorsUser interfacePower conversionunit
  • 17. Robot Base: Fixed v/s MobileMobile bases are typicallyplatforms with wheels or tracksattached. Instead of wheels ortracks, some robots employlegs in order to move about.Robotic manipulators used inmanufacturing are examples offixed robots. They can notmove their base away from thework being done.
  • 18. Robot Mechanism: Mechanical ElementsInclined plane wedgeSlider-CrankCam and FollowerGear, rack, pinion, etc.Chain and sprocketLeverLinkage
  • 19. Sensors: I•Human senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smellprovide us vital information to function and survive•Robot sensors: measure robot configuration/conditionand its environment and send such information to robotcontroller as electronic signals (e.g., arm position,presence of toxic gas)•Robots often need information that is beyond 5 humansenses (e.g., ability to: see in the dark, detect tinyamounts of invisible radiation, measure movement that istoo small or fast for the human eye to see)AccelerometerUsing Piezoelectric EffectFlexiforce
  • 20. In-Sight Vision SensorsPart-Picking: Robot can handlework pieces that are randomly piledby using 3-D vision sensor. Sincealignment operation, a special partsfeeder, and an alignment palleteare not required, an automaticsystem can be constructed at lowcost.Vision Sensor: e.g., to pick bins,perform inspection, etc.Sensors: II
  • 21. Parts fitting and insertion:Robots can do precise fitting andinsertion of machine parts by usingforce sensor. A robot can insert partsthat have the phases after matchingtheir phases in addition to simplyinserting them. It can automate high-skill jobs.Force Sensor: e.g., partsfitting and insertion,force feedback in roboticsurgerySensors: III
  • 22. Infrared Ranging SensorKOALA ROBOT•6 ultrasonic sonar transducers to explore wide, open areas•Obstacle detection over a wide range from 15cm to 3m•16 built-in infrared proximity sensors (range 5-20cm)•Infrared sensors act as a “virtual bumper” and allow fornegotiating tight spacesSensors: IVExample
  • 23. Tilt SensorPlanar Bipedal RobotTilt sensors: e.g., to balance a robotSensors: VExample
  • 24. Actuators: I• Common robotic actuators utilize combinations ofdifferent electro-mechanical devices– Synchronous motor– Stepper motor– AC servo motor– Brushless DC servo motor– Brushed DC servo motor
  • 25. Hydraulic Motor Stepper MotorPneumatic Motor Servo MotorActuators: IIPneumatic CylinderDC Motor
  • 26. Controller Provide necessary intelligence to control themanipulator/mobile robot Process the sensory information and compute thecontrol commands for the actuators to carry outspecified tasks
  • 27. Controller Hardware: IStorage devices: e.g., memory to store thecontrol program and the state of the robot systemobtained from the sensors
  • 28. Computational engine that computes the controlcommandsBASIC Stamp 2 ModuleRoboBoard Robotics ControllerController Hardware: II
  • 29. Analog to Digital Converter Operational AmplifiersInterface units: Hardware to interface digitalcontroller with the external world (sensors and actuators)Controller Hardware: IIILM358 LM358LM1458 dual operational amplifier
  • 30. •Agriculture•Automobile•Construction•Entertainment•Health care: hospitals, patient-care, surgery , research, etc.•Laboratories: science, engineering , etc.•Law enforcement: surveillance, patrol, etc.•Manufacturing•Military: demining, surveillance, attack, etc.•Mining, excavation, and exploration•Transportation: air, ground, rail, space, etc.•Utilities: gas, water, and electric•WarehousesIndustries Using Robots
  • 31. What Can Robots Do?Industrial RobotsMaterial Handling ManipulatorAssembly ManipulatorSpot Welding Manipulator•Material handling•Material transfer•Machine loading and/orunloading•Spot welding•Continuous arc welding•Spray coating•Assembly•Inspection
  • 32. Robots in SpaceNASA Space Station
  • 33. Robots in Hazardous EnvironmentsTROV in Antarcticaoperating under waterHAZBOT operating inatmospheres containingcombustible gases
  • 34. Medical RobotsRobotic assistant formicro surgery
  • 35. Robots at HomeSony AidoSony SDR-3X Entertainment Robot
  • 36. Future of Robots: ICog KismetArtificial Intelligence
  • 37. Future of Robots: IIGarbage Collection CartRobot Work CrewsAutonomy
  • 38. Future of Robots: IIIHONDA Humanoid RobotHumanoids
  • 39. Robotics @ MPCRL—ISmart Irrigation SystemRemote Robot Arm ManipulationRemote EmergencyNotification SystemSmart Cane
  • 40. Local Navigation System Safe N Sound DriverRoboDryType-XRobotics @ MPCRL—II
  • 41. Audio Enabled HexapodFour Legged HexapodMetal Mine SurveyorRoboVacRobotics @ MPCRL—III
  • 42. To Explore FurtherVisit: