The mobile ecosystem & technological strategies

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The mobile ecosystem & technological strategies

Slides of the talk I gave at Intecs the 7th of July 2013.

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The mobile ecosystem & technological strategies

  1. 1. The mobile ecosystem&technologicalstrategiesIVANO MALAVOLTA,PhD.ivano.malavolta@univaq.itInformation Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics (DISIM)University ofL„Aquila, Italy
  2. 2. ABOUT ME...{ I V A N O M A L A V O L T A }S o f t w a r e A r c h i t e c t u r e & D e v e l o p m e n ta p p l i e d t oW i r e l e s s S e n s o r N e t w o r k sM o b i l e A p p l i c a t i o n sA u t o n o m o u s Q u a d r o t o r sIfyouthinkgoodarchitecture is expensive,try badarchitecture....BrianFoote andJosephYoder
  3. 3. Focus onHYBRIDDevelopmentDevelopmentstrategiesThe MobileecosystemROADMAP{ R O A D M A P }
  4. 4. THE MOBILEECOSYSTEM01
  5. 5. Mobileis the LARGEST,most availablemass mediumTHE MOBILEECOSYSTEM{ }TO MANKINDLARGEST
  6. 6. datasource:http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyondONE SYMBOL = 20MILLION PEOPLEHOW BIGIS THE MOBILEMARKET?{ M A S S M E D I A ? ? ? }
  7. 7. datasource:http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyondin 2009HOW BIGIS THE MOBILEMARKET?{ M A S S M E D I A ? ? ? }
  8. 8. in 2009datasource:http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyondHOW BIGIS THE MOBILEMARKET?{ M A S S M E D I A ? ? ? }
  9. 9. datasource:http://www.slideshare.net/fling/mobile-20-design-develop-for-the-iphone-and-beyondin 2009HOW BIGIS THE MOBILEMARKET?{ M A S S M E D I A ? ? ? }
  10. 10. Printing PressRecordingsCinemaRadioTelevision12345Internet6MOBILE IS THE 7TH MASSMEDIA{ M A S S M E D I A ? ? ? }
  11. 11. Mobile7MOBILE IS THE 7TH MASSMEDIA{ M A S S M E D I A ? ? ? }it started at the same time as the WebitcandoEVERYTHINGalltheothermediacan doUNIQUE TRAIT• Reading (and publishing)• Play recordings• Watch movies• Listen to radio• Watch TV (and streaming)• Surf the Internet
  12. 12. Mobile7UNIQUE BENEFITSOFMOBILE{ M A S S M E D I A ? ? ? }Apart from covering all the other media, mobile has five unique benefitsWedon„t shareour phones with our friendsInformationis always available 24/7,even when idle7 out of 10people sleep with their phones within reachUniversalclick-to-buy+ credit cardsAbility to create or consumecontent whenever themoodstrikes
  13. 13. CONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXTCONTEXT{ M O B I L E U N I Q U E N E S S }Mobile appshavethe amazingcapabilitytoaddCONTEXTtoinformation,addingimmediate relevancetowhatwearedoing righthere, rightnow
  14. 14. THE MOBILEGOLDENRULE{ M O B I L E U N I Q U E N E S S }KILLERIf you canunlockthestateof mind of your usersand start thinkingintheir context, understandinghow amobile experience will add value totheir lives,you willhavetheever-elusive…APP
  15. 15. Think of your app in its context• Whois youruser? Businessman,teenager,mum…• Whatishappening? Are theyhanging outwithfriends?• Whenwill heinteract? @home?@work?waiting forthe bus?• Where ishe? Public/privatespace,inside/outside,day/night• Whywill heuse yourapp?How doyougive Context?• How is heusing his mobiledevice? Is thedevice held in thehand?Portraitorlandscape?HOW CAN WEAPPLY THE MOBILEGOLDEN RULE?{ T H E M O B I L E G O L D E N R U L E }
  16. 16. http://www.endomondo.comEXAMPLE{ T H E M O B I L E G O L D E N R U L E }
  17. 17. DEVELOPMENTSTRATEGIES02
  18. 18. Mobile Strategy =howmuch it will costyoutodevelop yourapp?Howmuch money?How much effort?How much time?DEVELOPINGA MOBILESTRATEGY{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }
  19. 19. Mobile design anddevelopment ISNOT CHEAP!http://www.slideshare.net/fling/native-v-hybrid-v-webBUSTING THE FIRSTMYTH{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }
  20. 20. Mobile design anddevelopment ISNOT CHEAP!http://www.slideshare.net/fling/native-v-hybrid-v-webBUSTING THE FIRSTMYTH{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }
  21. 21. Remember, mobile is a newmediumDon„t trytofollow “traditionalrules”sincemobile hasits ownpeculiarities:• context,• location, usermood• device fragmentation• uniqueUI rules• ...THE NEWRULES FORA MOBILESTRATEGY{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }DIFFERENTRULES
  22. 22. Mobile isanever-evolving area todayyouarealreadyoutdated• Forget whatyouthinkyouknowaboutmobile– It is mostlikely incorrect• Don’ttry toemulateotherprojects– Focus onwhatis rightforyouruser,notwhatis right forsomeone else„s userRULE#1{ T H E N E W R U L E S F O R A M O B I L E S T R A T E G Y }Forget what you thinkyou know
  23. 23. • Don„ttrustanyreport,fact,or figurethat1-2yearsold– It ismostlikely wrong• Goto yourusers andaskthem questionsin person– Don„ttrytosimply validateyourideas• Record everything– Yourownusers„worldswillhelpyouin focussingon theirneed• Don„tforget toinnovate– Trynewthings, bebold,anddon„tbeafraidtofailRULE#2{ T H E N E W R U L E S F O R A M O B I L E S T R A T E G Y }Believe what you see, notwhat you read
  24. 24. • Avoidtalkingaboutconstraints atanearly-stagebrainstormingsession– Refer back to Rule#1 and forget what youthink youknow• Therewill alwaysbeconstraintsin mobile,acceptit!• Focus onstrategy first, whattheuserneeds,andlaydownthefeatures– Then,if theconstraints become an issue, fall back to the user goals• ThereisalwaysanalternativeRULE#3{ T H E N E W R U L E S F O R A M O B I L E S T R A T E G Y }Constraints never come first
  25. 25. RULE#4{ T H E N E W R U L E S F O R A M O B I L E S T R A T E G Y }Focus on context, goals and needs• Defining theusers„context is thefirst thing todo– without it, youdon„t have a mobile strategy, youhaveonly a plan of action• Uncovertheusers’ goals– and then tryand understand how the users„ context alters their goals• Withgoalsunderstood,figureoutthe tasksthe userswanttoperform• Lookforwaysto filter content bycontext– for example: location, media, and model
  26. 26. RULE#5{ T H E N E W R U L E S F O R A M O B I L E S T R A T E G Y }You can„t support everything• Don„t try to support everything– Start with the devices that best represent your core customer• The most popular might not always be the best device for your project• Check your server logs for the devices accessing your site– These are the first devices to target• Go to a mobile phones store and do a little market research to find out therecommended devices for your target customer
  27. 27. RULE#6{ T H E N E W R U L E S F O R A M O B I L E S T R A T E G Y }Don„t convert, createGreat mobile products are created,neverported!• Understand your userand his context– Having an idea of howand when users will access your content will aid inunderstanding howto bestcreatea tailored mobile experience• Mobile is a uniquemedium
  28. 28. RULE#7{ T H E N E W R U L E S F O R A M O B I L E S T R A T E G Y }Keepit simplePeople wantto use mobile devices in asimple way• Simplicity  fewer problems• Easier to iterate and evolve yourapp• Don„t tryto createa desktop softwareon a mobile!– Adding feature after feature is aneasy trap to fall in• Buildtheexperience aroundyour users„main need andnothingelse
  29. 29. NATIVE VSWEBVSHYBRIDAPPS{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }There are no golden rules here…It depends on a lot of factors, suchas• Which type of app are you creating?• When do you need it?• What are your skills?http://bit.ly/GWOaP1
  30. 30. A FIRST LOOT AT NATIVE VS WEB{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }http://bit.ly/GWPgdm
  31. 31. NATIVE{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }PROLets you create apps with rich user interfaces and/or heavy graphicsCONS• Development Time• Development Cost• Ongoing Maintenance• No portability (apps cannot be used on other platforms)http://bit.ly/GWOaP1PROCONS
  32. 32. EXAMPLESOF NATIVE APP{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }http://www.whatsapp.com/http://www.ea.com/it/ipad/nfs‎
  33. 33. WEB{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }PRO• Offers fast development, simple maintenance, and full application portability• Onemobile web app works onany platformCONS• Can„t handle heavy graphics• Can„t access cameraormicrophonehttp://bit.ly/GWOaP1PROCONS
  34. 34. EXAMPLE OFMOBILEWEBAPP{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }http://asidemag.com/http://amazon.com/
  35. 35. HYBRID{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }PRO• Development speed of mobile webapps• Deviceaccessand app store distribution of native appsCONS• Can„t handle heavy graphics• Requires familiarity with a mobile frameworkPROCONS
  36. 36. EXAMPLESOF HYBRIDAPP{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }http://flipboard.comhttp://linkedin.comhttp://gmail.com
  37. 37. SUMMARY{ N A T I V E V S W E B V S H Y B R I D }DISTRIBUTIONApp Store/MarketApp Store/MarketInternet#APPSTOREACHMAJORPLATFORMS411APPMAINTENANCEDifficultModerateLowDEVICEACCESSFull(Camera, microphone,GPS,gyroscope,fileupload,accelerometer,etc.)Full(Camera, microphone,GPS,gyroscope,fileupload,accelerometer,etc.)Partial(GPS, gyroscope,accelerometer,fileupload)SKILLS/TOOLSObjective-C,Java, C, C++,C#, VB.netHTML,CSS,Javascript+ mobileapp developmentframeworkHTML,CSS,JavascriptNativeHybridWeb
  38. 38. MY VISION{ D E V E L O P M E N T S T R A T E G I E S }Mobile web seems to be the only long-termcommerciallyviable content platform for mobile devices
  39. 39. FRAGMENTATION{ M Y V I S I O N }If you go native…there are too many platforms to be supported
  40. 40. THE WEB{ M Y V I S I O N }The only medium for information and services that lasts fromover 15 yearsThe web is an advanced technology• webGL• Local storage management• Positioning & mapping• Real-time data• Push• …
  41. 41. DISTRIBUTION CONTROL{ M Y V I S I O N }Before..OperatorsNowDevice and Platform makersFutureDevelopers$$$STOREASTOREBSTORECSTORED
  42. 42. CONSUMER EXPECTATIONS{ M Y V I S I O N }Users expect things to justwork they don„t care about what platform they have they simply expect that your app will be available for theirdeviceso… YOU HAVE TO BE CROSS-PLATFORM
  43. 43. WEBUBIQUITY{ M Y V I S I O N }The web is the only platform that• works across devices• apps share the same set of standards• the same app can work also ona desktop
  44. 44. HYBRIDDEVELOPMENT03
  45. 45. PhoneGapVSCordova{ C o r d o v a }Adobe/Nitobi donated thePhoneGap codebase to theApachefoundation– wideraudienceandcontributors– Transparentgovernance• Betterdocumentation– Easiercontributionsforcompanies• ApacheLicensing Therewasonlyone problem:trademark ambiguity CORDOVAPhoneGapis a distributionof Apache Cordovahttp://www.phonegap.com
  46. 46. PHONEGAP{ H Y B R I D D E V E L O P M E N T }The UI layeris aweb browser view– 100% width– 100% heightHeadless webbrowser– NoURL bar– Nochrome– Nowindowdecorations– Nozooming– Notext selectionThis isawebbrowserinstance
  47. 47. HOW DOES PHONEGAP WORK?{ H Y B R I D D E V E L O P M E N T }PhoneGapJavascriptAPIproviderforAndroidAPIproviderforiOSAPIproviderforWindows PhoneAPIproviderforBlacberryPhonegapMobileapp
  48. 48. FEATURESCOVERAGE{ H Y B R I D D E V E L O P M E N T }http://projects.apache.org/projects/cordova.html
  49. 49. RECURRENTAPP ARCHITECTURE{ H Y B R I D D E V E L O P M E N T }The app acts as a client for user interactionThe app communicates with an applicationserver to receive dataThe application server handles business logic and communicates with a back-end datarepository
  50. 50. THE APP{ H Y B R I D D E V E L O P M E N T }It generally uses the single-pageapplication model• the application logic is inside a single HTML page• This page is never unloaded from memory• Data will be displayed by updatingthe HTML DOM• data is retrieved from the application server using Ajax
  51. 51. THE SERVER{ H Y B R I D D E V E L O P M E N T }It is a classical web server– server-side scriptinglanguage such as Java, .NET, PHP, etc…– communication can be based on:• RESTful services (XML, JSON, etc.)• SOAP– It performs business logic, and generally gets or pushes data from a separate repository
  52. 52. THE DATA REPOSITORY{ H Y B R I D D E V E L O P M E N T }It may be:– a standard DB (usually deployed in the same machine of the application server)– an externalAPIBoth application server and back-end repository can be provided as a service  BaaS
  53. 53. WHENPHONEGAP IS NOT ENOUGH...{ H Y B R I D D E V E L O P M E N T }Sometimes PhoneGap is not enough as is for our purposes• unsupported feature• heavyweight data processing is faster in native code– ex. images manipulation• background processing is better handled natively– ex. Files sync• complex business logic you candevelop a PhoneGap plugin
  54. 54. Nowadays the mobile ecosystem is• complicated• fragmented• a political nightmareRUNAWAY!!!CONCLUSIONhowever...
  55. 55. UNIVERSITYOFL’AQUILA- DISIMDEPARTMENTWWW.IVANOMALAVOLTA.COMIVANO.MALAVOLTA@UNIVAQ.IT@IMALAVOLTACONTACT INFORMATION{ I V A N O M A L A V O L T A }IVANOMALAVOLTA

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