HTML5 and CSS3 refresher
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Anatomy of a web app ...

Anatomy of a web app
HTML5
CSS3

This presentation has been developed in the context of the Mobile Applications Development course, DISIM, University of L'Aquila (Italy), Spring 2014.

http://www.ivanomalavolta.com

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HTML5 and CSS3 refresher Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Gran Sasso Science Institute Ivano Malavolta HTML5 & CSS3 refresher
  • 2. Roadmap Anatomy of a web app HTML5 CSS3
  • 3. What is a Web App? A software built with web technologies that is accessible via a mobile browser The browser may be either the standard device browser or an embedded browser (Hybrid app)
  • 4. Anatomy of a Web App
  • 5. Data Usually mobile apps do not talk directly with the database à do not even think about JDBC, drivers, etc! à They pass through an application server and communicate via: •  standard HTTP requests for HTML content (eg PHP) •  REST-full services (XML, JSON, etc.) •  SOAP
  • 6. Data •  Data can be stored in any classical way: – Relational – Graph – Key-value – Document-based Latest trend à backend-as-a-service
  • 7. BaaS 1.  Developers build a visual model of their DB 2.  The service generates APIs and client-side libraries(compatible with Android, Windows Phone, etc.) 3.  The data produced/consumed in the app can be pushed/pulled to their DB –  Communication is handled via REST-based APIs
  • 8. Example of Baas software: BaasBox Main features: •  User management –  ACL –  Friendships –  Authentication via Facebook and Google+ •  Document-based data manegement (via OrientDB) •  Assets management (fotos, documents, or files) •  Push notifications The “Box” in BaasBox means that all the features are in a standalone server, just like a box. No Application Server, no Database Server, just a JVM and nothing more Rest API Web dashboard http://www.baasbox.com/
  • 9. Roadmap Anatomy of a web app HTML5 CSS3
  • 10. HTML 5 •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  • 11. HTML 5 HTML5 will be the new standard for HTML HTML5 is still a work in progress W3C final recomendation: 2020 Top browsers support many (not all) of the new HTML5 elements http://mobilehtml5.org http://caniuse.com
  • 12. What is HTML5? HTML5 Markup JavaScript CSS3 Multimedia
  • 13. The minimal HTML5 page <!DOCTYPE  html>   <html>    <head>    <title>Title</title>   </head>    <body>   …   </body>   </html>  
  • 14. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  • 15. New Structural Tags Main Goal: separate presentation from content •  Poor accessibility •  Unnecessary complexity •  Larger document size Most of the presentational features from earlier versions of HTML are no longer supported
  • 16. New Structural Tags <header> header region of a page or section <footer> footer region of a page or section <nav> navigation region of a page or section <section> logical region of a page <article> a complete piece of content <aside> secondary or related content
  • 17. New Structural Tags http://bit.ly/JCnuQJ
  • 18. Other Structural Tags <command> a command button that a user can invoke <details> additional details that the user can view or hide <summary> a visible heading for a <details> element <meter> an amount within a range <progress> shows real-time progress towards a goal <figure> self-contained content, like illustrations, diagrams, photos, code listings, etc. <figcaption> caption of a figure <mark> marked/highlighted text <time> a date/time <wbr>Defines a possible line-break
  • 19. Custom Data Attributes Can be used to add metadata about any element within an HTML5 page They are ignored by the validator for HTML5 documents They all start with the data- pattern They can be read by any browser using Javascript via the getAttribute() method
  • 20. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  • 21. Forms Main Goal: reduce the Javascript for validation and format management Example:
  • 22. Form Input Types Form input types degrade gracefully à Unknown input types are treated as text-type http://bit.ly/I65jai
  • 23. Form Input Types <input type="search"> for search boxes <input type="number"> for spinboxes <input type="range"> for sliders <input type="color"> for color pickers <input type="tel"> for telephone numbers <input type="url"> for web addresses <input type="email"> for email addresses <input type="date"> for calendar date pickers <input type="month"> for months <input type="week"> for weeks <input type="time"> for timestamps <input type="datetime"> for precise timestamps <input type="datetime-local"> for local dates and times
  • 24. Form Field Attributes Autofocus –  Support for placing the focus on a specific form element <input type="text“ autofocus> Placeholder –  Support for placing placeholder text inside a form field <input type="text“ placeholder=“your name”>
  • 25. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Server-Sent Events •  Canvas & SVG
  • 26. Audio <audio> : a standard way to embed an audio file on a web page <audio controls> <source src="song.ogg" type="audio/ogg" /> <source src="song.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" /> Not Supported </audio> Multiple sources à the browser will use the first recognized format
  • 27. Audio Attributes
  • 28. Audio Javascript API HTML5 provides a set of Javascript APIs for interacting with an audio element For example: play() pause() load() currentTime ended volume… à http://www.w3.org/wiki/HTML/Elements/audio
  • 29. Video <video> : a standard way to embed a video file on a web page <video width="320" height="240" controls> <source src="movie.mp4" type="video/mp4" /> <source src="movie.ogg" type="video/ogg" /> Not Supported </video> Multiple sources à the browser will use the first recognized format
  • 30. Video attributes
  • 31. Video Javascript API HTML5 provides a set of Javascript APIs for interacting with a video element For example: play() pause() load() currentTime ended volume… à http://www.w3.org/wiki/HTML/Elements/video
  • 32. A note on YouTube videos <video> works only if you have a direct link to the MP4 file of the YouTube video If you have just a link to the YouTube page of your video, simply embed it in your page <iframe width="560" height="315" src="http:// www.youtube.com/embed/Wp20Sc8qPeo" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
  • 33. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  • 34. Offline Data LocalStorage stores data in key/value pairs it is tied to a specific domain/app persists across browser sessions SessionStorage stores data in key/value pairs it is tied to a specific domain/app data is erased when a browser session ends
  • 35. Offline Data WebSQL Database relational DB support for tables creation, insert, update, … transactional tied to a specific domain/app persists across browser sessions Its evolution is called IndexedDB, but it is actually not supported by most mobile browsers
  • 36. Offline data Mobile browsers compatibility matrix We will have a dedicated lecture to offline data storage on mobile devices
  • 37. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  • 38. Geolocalization Gets Latitude and Longitude from the user’s browser There is also a watchPosition method wich calls a JS function every time the user moves We will have a dedicated lecture to geolocalization on mobile devices
  • 39. Example function getLocation() { if(navigator.geolocation) { navigator.geolocation.getCurrentPosition(showPosition); } else { console.log(‘no geolocalization’); } } function showPosition(position) { console.log(position.coords.latitude); console.log(position.coords.longitude); }
  • 40. getCurrentPosition()
  • 41. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  • 42. WebSockets Bidirectional, full-duplex communication between devices and server Specifically suited for chat, videogames, drawings sharing, real-time info Requires a Web Socket Server to handle the protocol
  • 43. WebSockets - Overview 1.  Client notifies websocket server (EventMachine) of an event, giving ids of recipients 2.  The server notifies all the active clients (subscribed to that type of event) 3.  Clients process event when given recipient Id matches the client’s one http://bit.ly/Ixcupi
  • 44. Alternative - Polling via AJAX + Near real-time updates (not purely real-time) + easy to implement + no new technologies needed -  they are requested from the client and cause increased network traffic -  AJAX requests generally have a small payload and relatively high amount of http headers (wasted bandwith)
  • 45. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  • 46. Canvas & SVG Canvas & SVG allow you to create graphics inside the browser We will have a dedicated lecture to canvas & SVG on mobile devices http://bit.ly/Ie4HKu
  • 47. Canvas & SVG Canvas draws 2D graphics, on the fly you use Javascript to draw on the canvas   rendered pixel by pixel SVG describes 2D graphics in XML every element is available within the SVG DOM JavaScript event handlers for an element
  • 48. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Server-Sent Events •  Canvas & SVG
  • 49. Roadmap Anatomy of a web app HTML5 CSS3
  • 50. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  • 51. Intro Let’s imagine Flipboard without CSS3
  • 52. CSS3 Main Drivers Simplicity –  less images –  less markup –  less Javascript –  less Flash Better performance –  fewer HTTP requests Better Search Engine Placement –  text as real text, not images or Flash –  speed
  • 53. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  • 54. Basics Generic Syntax: selector { property: value; property2: value2, value3; ... }
  • 55. Inheritance If an HTML element B is nested into another element A à B inherits the style of A unless B has an explicit style definition body { background-color: red; } div { background-color: green; }
  • 56. Combining Selectors Selectors can be combined h1, h2, h3 { background-color: red; }
  • 57. Lists div { list-style-image: url(image.png); list-style-position: inside; list-style-style: circle; } Position inside | outside Style disc | circle square | decimal lower-roman | upper-roman | lower-alpha | upper-alpha | none
  • 58. Backgrounds You can style a background of any element div { background:url(img.png), url(img2.png); background-size:80px 60px; background-repeat:no-repeat; background-origin:content-box; } repeat no-repeat | repeat repeat-x | repeat-y origin top left | top center | top right | center left | border-box | content-box etc.
  • 59. Background & Colors div { background-color: blue; background-color: rgba(0, 0, 255, 0.2); background-color: hsla(240, 100%, 50%, 0.2); } RGBA = RGB + opacity HSLA = HSL + opacity HSL hue saturation lightness
  • 60. Gradients They can be used in every place you can use an image div { background: -webkit-gradient(linear, right top, left bottom, from(red), green)); } linear à the type of gradient (also radial, or repeating-linear) right-top à start of the gradient left-bottom à end of the gradient from à starting color to à final color
  • 61. Text p { color: grey; letter-spacing: 5px; text-align: center; text-decoration: underline; text-indent: 10px; text-transform: capitalize; word-spacing: 10px; } text-align left | right center | justify Text-decoration none underline overline line through text-transform none | capitalize | lowercase | uppercase
  • 62. Text Effects p { text-shadow: 2px 10px 5px #FF0000; text-overflow: ellipsis; word-wrap:break-word; } 2px à horizontal shadow 10px à vertical shadow 5px à blur distance #FF0000 à color
  • 63. Other Text Properties
  • 64. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  • 65. Selectors Classical ways to select elements in CSS2: •  by type a { color: red; } •  by id #redLink { color: red; } •  by class .redLink { color: red; }
  • 66. Other Selectors from CSS1 & CSS2 •  div p à all <p> elements inside a <div> •  div>p à all <p> elements where the parent is a <div> •  div+p à all <p> elements that are placed immediately after <div> •  [target] à all elements with a target attribute •  [target=_blank] à all elements with target= "_blank“ •  p:first-child à every <p> element that is the first child of its parent
  • 67. Some selectors introduced in CSS3 •  a[src^="https"] à every <a> element whose src attribute value begins with "https” •  a[src$=".pdf"] à every <a> element whose src attribute value ends with ".pdf” •  a[src*=“mobile"] à every <a> element whose src attribute value contains the substring “mobile“ •  p:nth-child(2) à every <p> element that is the second child of its parent •  p:nth-last-child(2) à every <p> element that is the second child of its parent, counting from the last child •  :not(p) à every element that is not a <p> element
  • 68. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  • 69. The Box Model http://www.adamkaplan.me/grid/
  • 70. http://www.adamkaplan.me/grid/ Tip Tells the browser not to include borders and padding in the width of your content à  you have more control on the layout of your app
  • 71. http://www.adamkaplan.me/grid/ Tip
  • 72. Borders & dimensions div { width: 100px; height: 40px; padding: 10px; border: 5px solid gray; margin: 10px; border-radius: 10px; box-shadow: 10px 10px 5px red; }
  • 73. Images as borders div { border-image:url(border.png) 30 30 round; }
  • 74. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  • 75. The Display Property It specifies if and how an element is displayed div { display: none; } The element will be hidden, and the page will be displayed as if the element is not there
  • 76. The Display Property Other usual values: block •  a block element is an element that takes up the full width available, and has a line break before and after it inline •  an inline element only takes up as much width as necessary •  it can contain only other inline elements inline-block •  the element is placed as an inline element (on the same line as adjacent content), but it behaves as a block element –  you can set width and height, top and bottom margins and paddings
  • 77. The visibility Property It specifies if an element should be visible or hidden div.hidden { visibility: hidden; } The element will be hidden, but still affect the layout It can also be set to visible, collapse, inherit
  • 78. Flex Box It helps in styling elements to be arranged horizontally or vertically box: •  a new value for the display property •  a new property box-orient #div { display: box; box-orient: horizontal; }
  • 79. Flex Box main elements display: box opts an element and its immediate children into the flexible box model box-orient Values: horizontal | vertical | inherit How should the box's children be aligned? box-direction Values: normal | reverse | inherit sets the order in which the elements will be displayed
  • 80. Flex Box main elements box-pack Values: start | end | center | justify Sets the alignment of the box along the box-orient axis box-orient: horizontal; box-pack: end;
  • 81. Flex Box main elements box-align Values: start | end | center | baseline | stretch Sets how the box's children are aligned in the box box-orient: horizontal; box-align: center;
  • 82. Flex Box Children by default child elements are not flexible à their dimension is set according to their width box-flex can be set to any integer It sets how a child element occupy the box’s space #box1 { width: 100px; } #box2 { box-flex: 1; } #box3 { box-flex: 2; }
  • 83. Positioning •  Static •  Relative •  Absolute •  Fixed •  Inherit
  • 84. Static Positioning Elements will stack one on top of the next http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  • 85. Relative Positioning Elements behave exactly the same way as statically positioned elements we can adjust a relatively positioned element with offset properties:  top, right, bottom, and left http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  • 86. Relative Positioning It is possible to create a coordinate system for child elements http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  • 87. Absolute Positioning an absolutely positioned element is removed from the normal flow it won’t affect or be affected by any other element in the flow http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  • 88. Fixed Positioning shares all the rules of an absolutely positioned element a fixed element does not scroll with the document http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  • 89. Float A floated element will move as far to the left or right as it can Elements are floated only horizontally The float CSS property can accept one of 4 values:  left, right, none, and inherit
  • 90. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  • 91. Fonts Before CSS3, web designers had to use fonts that were already installed on the user's device With CSS3, web designers can use whatever font they like @font-face { font-family: NAME; src: url(Dimbo.ttf); font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; } font-style normal italic oblique font-weight normal bold 100 200 …
  • 92. Fonts Usage To use the font for an HTML element, refer to the name of the font (NAME) through the font-family property div { font-family: NAME; }
  • 93. Some Fonts Sources... www.dafont.com www.urbanfonts.com www.losttype.com
  • 94. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  • 95. Visual Effects Three main mechanisms: 1.  Transforms (both 2D and 3D) 2.  Transitions 3.  Animations
  • 96. Transforms A transform is an effect that lets an element change shape, size, position, … You can transform your elements using 2D or 3D transformations http://bit.ly/IroJ7S
  • 97. Transforms http://bit.ly/IrpUnX
  • 98. Transforms http://bit.ly/IrpUnX
  • 99. Transitions They are used to add an effect when changing from one style to another The effect can be gradual The effect will start when the specified CSS property changes value
  • 100. Transition syntax A transition contains 4 properties: •  property –  the name of the CSS property the transition effect is for (can be all) •  duration –  how many seconds (or milliseconds) the transition effect takes to complete •  timing-function –  linear, ease, ease-in, ease-out, ease-in-out •  delay –  when the transition effect will start
  • 101. Example .imageThumbnail { width; 200px; transition: all ease-in 3s; } .zoomed { position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; width: 480px; } $(‘.imageThumbnail’).addClass(‘zoomed’);
  • 102. Animations An animation is an effect that lets an element gradually change from one style to another You can change style in loop, repeating, etc. To bind an animation to an element, you have to specify at least: 1.  Name of the animation 2.  Duration of the animation div { animation: test 5s ease-in; }
  • 103. Animation Definition An animation is defined in a keyframe It splits the animation into parts, and assign a specific style to each part The various steps within an animation are given as percentuals 0% à beginning of the animation (from) 100% à end of the animation (to)
  • 104. Example @keyframes test{ 0% {background: red; left:0px; top:0px;} 25% {background: yellow; left:200px; top:0px;} 50% {background: blue; left:200px; top:200px;} 75% {background: green; left:0px; top:200px;} 100% {background: red; left:0px; top:0px;} } results in http://goo.gl/kFZrLs
  • 105. Animation Properties http://bit.ly/IrpUnX
  • 106. Transitions VS Animations •  Trigger –  Transitions must be bound to a CSS property change –  Animations start autonomously •  States –  Transitions have start and end states –  Animations can have multiple states •  Repeats –  Transitions can be perfomed once for each activation –  Animations can be looped
  • 107. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  • 108. Media Types Media Queries are based on Media Types A media type is a specification of the actual media that is being used to access the page Examples of media types include •  screen: computer screens •  print: printed document •  braille: for Braille-based devices •  tv: for television devices
  • 109. Media Types There are two main ways to specify a media type: •  <link> in the HTML page <link rel=“stylesheet” href=“style.css” media=“screen” /> •  @media within the CSS file @media screen { div { color: red; } }
  • 110. Media Queries They allow you to to change style based on specific conditions For example, they can be about •  device’s display size •  orientation of the device •  Resolution of the display •  ...
  • 111. Example http://bit.ly/I5mR1u
  • 112. Media Queries A media query is a boolean expression The CSS associated with the media query expression is applied only if it evaluates to true A media query consists of 1.  a media type 2.  a set of media features @media screen and orientation: portrait
  • 113. The Full Media Feature List http://slidesha.re/I5oFHZ
  • 114. The AND operator You can combine multiple expressions by using the and operator @media screen and (max-device-width: 480px){ /* your style */ }
  • 115. The COMMA operator The comma keyword acts as an or operator @media screen and (color), handheld and (color) { /* your style */ }
  • 116. The NOT operator You can explicitly ignore a specific type of device by using the not operator @media not (width:480px) { /* your style */ }
  • 117. Examples Retina Displays @media only screen and -webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2 iPad in landscape orientation @media only screen and (device-width: 768px) and (orientation: landscape) iPhone and Android devices @media only screen and (min-device-width: 320px) and (max-device-width: 480px)
  • 118. References http://www.w3schools.com https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS
  • 119. + 39 380 70 21 600 Contact Ivano Malavolta | Gran Sasso Science Institute iivanoo ivano.malavolta@univaq.it www.ivanomalavolta.com