Distribution of Water Reservoirs OceansIce Caps and Glaciers 97%1.725% Atmosphere 0.01% Rivers, Lakes, and Inland Seas Soil Moisture 0.141% 0.0012% Ground Water 0.4 – 1.7%
World Water Supply97.200% salt water in the oceans 02.014% ice caps and glaciers 00.600% groundwater 00.009% surface water 00.005% soil moisture 00.001% atmospheric moisture
Water Cycle • Atm. -Ocean - Land • Evap. - PPT - Runoff
Water Pollution Two major classifications • Point Source • Non-point Source• Single large source Diffuse source or many smaller• Can localize it to one spot point sources – Industrial Plants • Automobiles - Sewage pipes • Fertilizer on fields
Water Pollution: Many Forms• Disease: In developing nations, 80% of diseases are water-related.• Synthetic Organic Compounds• Inorganic Compounds & Mineral Substances such as Acids, etc.• Radioactive substances• Oxygen-demanding wastes• Plant Nutrients• Sediments• Thermal Discharges
Acid Precipitation: Acid Rain Effects – When Air Pollution Aquatic SystemsBecomes Water Pollution When the pH drops below 6.0 species start to die off. When one species dies, others that depend on it may as well
Oxygen and Water• Biochemical Oxygen Demand – What does this mean? – Anything in the water that bacteria can break down. – Bacteria will use up oxygen in the water – Other aerobic organisms will die• What else can affect the amount of O2 in the water? – Temperature – Speed of water flow – Roughness of surface over which water flows
Stories about particular pollutant forms: Oil• Both Point and Nonpoint Sources• Largest source of oil pollution is pipeline leaks and runoff – 61% ocean oil pollution river & urban runoff – 30% intentional discharges from tankers – 5% accidental spills from tankers Stories about particular pollutant forms: DetergentsThe nitrates in fertilizers promote excessive growth of algae and larger aquatic plants, causing offensive algae blooms and driving out sport fish. Phosphates are often thought to culprit, nitrogen is the “limiting factor” in most aquatic systems.
Stories about particular pollutant forms: Sediments• THE largest form of water pollution• Erosion is source – we’ve sped up rate of erosion, e.g. during urban construction can lose up to 43 tons of topsoil/acre/year• Natural rates of erosion: leads to aquatic succession Succession in Aquatic Habitats
Stories about particular pollutant forms: thermal pollution• 26% of all water in U.S. is affected by this• Up to a point of adding heated water, you can get thermal enrichment• Adding more heat, you get thermal pollution
A special case: Groundwater• What forms of pollution can affect groundwater?• All of them except thermal pollution!• Renewal time of groundwater is important – Rivers: 12-20 days – Soil Moisture: 280 days – Groundwater: 300 years Groundwater doesn’t stay in one place
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