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Ubiquitous Services and Ethics: MIMOSA, MINAmI, and UBI-SERV

Ubiquitous Services and Ethics: MIMOSA, MINAmI, and UBI-SERV






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    Ubiquitous Services and Ethics: MIMOSA, MINAmI, and UBI-SERV Ubiquitous Services and Ethics: MIMOSA, MINAmI, and UBI-SERV Presentation Transcript

    • Ubiquitous Services and Ethics: MIMOSA, MINAmI, and UBI-SERV Iiro Jantunen Comnet / Aalto University
    • Lecture outline
      • Ubiquitous Services
      • MIMOSA Project
      • MINAmI Project
      • User-centric Design in MIMOSA & MINAmI
      • Ethics in MINAmI
      • Ubiquitous Health Service Ethics in China
    • Ambient Intelligence Services a.k.a. AmI Services a.k.a. Ubiquitous Computing/Services a.k.a. Pervasive Computing/Services
    • Hype cycle of technologies
    • Ambient Intelligence as disruptive technology
      • Disruptive technologies do not just introduce incremental changes to current technologies ..
      • .. but cause revolutionary changes in peoples lives
      • Adoption of disruptive technologies in the society is a long process
        • creating the necessary infrastructures – both technical, commercial and social
        • identifying the early adopters and their motivation for adoption
        • ensuring that the innovation also reaches the early majority
    • Foreseen negative hype with Ambient Intelligence
      • Where is the intelligence? Embedding information technology everywhere does not make the environment intelligent
      • Proactive technology takes control away from the user ..
      • .. but fails in anticipating user needs
      • Identifying reliably contexts of use with all the physical, social and technical parameters turns out too difficult
      • Lacking consistence with different intelligent environments hinders widespread use
    • User acceptance of new technology
      • Product characteristics
      • Functions
      • Appearance
      • User interface
      • Brand
      • Price
      • ..
      • User characteristics
      • Skills
      • Abilities
      • Temper
      • Previous experiences
      • Attitude
      • ..
      User acceptance Usage situation
    • MIMOSA Project MIcrosystems platform for MObile Services and Applications http://www.mimosa-fp6.com/ 1.1.2004 – 30.9.2006
    • MIMOSA project
      • Global aim of MIMOSA was to make Ambient Intelligence a reality by developing a mobile-phone centric open technology platform.
      • Design approach of MIMOSA was strongly human-centered.
      • End users and application developers participated in designing and evaluating how ambient intelligence and short-range communication with environment and objects could be best utilized in the everyday life.
      • User feedback guided the design of the core components of ambient intelligence.
      • To demonstrate the generic characteristics of the proposed platform, MIMOSA developed specific applications with particular emphasis on physical browsing, health monitoring, intelligent housing, fitness/sports, context awareness for ambient intelligence and intuitive user interfaces.
    • MIMOSA partners
    • MIMOSA architecture
    • MIMOSA architecture implementation
    • MIMOSA sensors Heart rate and pulse analysis (health) ECG Cardiplus
      • Fitness & health
      • Fatigue (lactate)
      • Diabetic (glucose)
      Lactate & glucose sensor Fraunhofer-ISIT & Åmic
      • Body water content
      • Body Fat-% (long-term health)
      • Dehydration (sports & elderly)
      • GSR (stress, health)
      Fat percentage and galvanic skin response (GSR) Nokia Description Sensor
    • Application scenarios in MIMOSA Fitness Housing Sports Health care
    • MIMOSA vision
      • Personal mobile devices act as the principal gateway to ambient intelligence
      • Mobile devices provide trusted intelligent user interface and a wireless gateway to sensors, networks of sensors, local networks and the Internet
      • The user feels and really is in control of Ambient Intelligence.
      • Ambient intelligence applications help people in their everyday life: the applications are useful, usable, reliable, and ethical issues have been taken into account in the design.
    • MINAmI Project Micro-nano Integrated Platform for Transverse Ambient Intelligence Applications http://www.fp6-minami.org/ 1.10.2006 – 30.9.2009
    • MINAmI goal
      • Make ambient intelligence a reality by developing a mobile-phone-centric open technology platform
      • To develop concrete demonstrators for ambient intelligence based on the development of an innovative state-of-the-art micro & nanotechnology technological platform
    • MINAmI consortium
    • MINAmI architecture
    • Health care scenarios in MINAmI
    • MINAmI scenarios
      • With smart pillbox , dosage can be monitored by recognizing when the pillbox is opened. Suspected dosage hazards are reported to health care personnel (HCP) via mobile phone.
      • At smart home , ambient cameras monitor moving objects at home and alarm the inhabitant or HCP when possible intruder or a health hazard is recognized.
      • The sleep plaster monitors EEG overnight. In the morning, the user transfers the measurements to his mobile phone and sends them to health care personnel.
    • MINAmI scenarios
      • The virtual keyboard is projected on any flat surface, facilitating the use of full size keyboard almost anywhere.
      • Memory tag embedded on a newspaper ad contains mass memory from where the user can upload media content: a movie trailer onto her mobile phone.
      • Hearing device embedded on a mobile phone utilizes directional microphones with which the user can select the sound sources to be amplified and to be faded out.
    • User-centric design in MIMOSA and MINAmI MIMOSA WP1 Applications & Services MINAmI WP1 Usage and ethical assessment WP = Work Package
    • MIMOSA WP1
      • MIMOSA WP1 studied how ambient intelligence and short-range communication with environment and objects could be best utilized in the everyday life of different consumer user groups.
    • MINAmI WP1
      • MINAmI WP1 focused in balancing user needs with the possibilities of the MINAmI technologies to produce ambient intelligence solutions both acceptable by end users and applicable in different fields.
      • The work package maintained a continuous dialogue between technology developers, end users, application developers as well as usability and ethics experts.
      • The common understanding was illustrated as a project vision, and further as usage scenarios in different application fields.
    • Usage research with proof-of-concept devices
      • Evaluating a Fitness proof-of-concept with different potential user groups and health care professionals.
      • Interviews
        • Individuals and focus group
        • Different users and health care professionals
      • Hands-on evaluation
    • Usage research with proof-of-concept devices
      • The main discussion themes were
      • Participants’ personal goals and motivation related to health and fitness
      • Usage of heart rate monitors and other fitness devices
      • What physical resources they would like to monitor?
      • Importance and usefulness of the measurements done by the POC
      • Long-term recording of data
      • Format of results and feedback
      • Privacy issues
      • Needs for additional measurements
    • Usage research with proof-of-concept devices
      • Hands-on evaluation
      • To get real usage feedback on Fitness POC, three additional voluntary users individually participated to a hands-on evaluation of the device in a usability laboratory.
      • In the evaluation, the user was told the function of the device, after which s/he tested the device by her/himself, with little help from the evaluators.
      • Questions about the usability and usefulness of the device and measurements were presented during the evaluation.
    • Ethical Assesment in MINAmI Ethical Guidelines for Mobile-phone-centric Ambient Intelligence
    • Ethical assessment in MINAmI
      • Ethical aspects were included in all user evaluations
      • Project had a ethical handbook for research practices
        • E.g. recruiting test users, research consent forms
      • Ethical Guidelines for Mobile-phone-centric Ambient intelligence
        • Published by the project
        • A guide for platform, application and service designers
      • The project had an ethical advisory board
        • External experts, different aspects of ethics
        • Expert evaluation of MINAmI scenarios
        • Contributions and review of ethical guidelines
    • Extending the view of users for ethical assessment
    • Ethical issues of Ambient Intelligence solutions
      • Privacy
      • Autonomy
      • Integrity and Dignity
      • Reliability
      • E-inclusion
      • Role of technology in the society
    • Privacy
      • An individual shall be able to control access to his/her personal information and to protect his/her own space
    • Privacy
      • Application design
      • Apply local privacy legislation
      • Check the application for privacy threats:
      • Platform design
      • Data storage is secured on the phone and on the mass memory tags.
      • Disposable sensors with mass memory do not reveal personal data
      • Data transfer is secured between tags and sensors and the mobile phone
      • Data transfer is secured between the phone and external servers
      • Natural user interaction tools should not make personal information visible to outsiders
    • Autonomy
      • An individual has the right to decide how and to what purposes he/she is using technology.
    • Autonomy
      • Application design
      • The control of using the system stays with the user, even if the system is invisible or continuously on
      • The user has tools to start, stop and configure applications
      • The user gets clear feedback on applications and functions that are on
      • The user gets sufficient feedback on what is happening in the application
      • Platform design
      • Tag and sensor reading with the phone can be equipped with user confirmation
    • Autonomy
      • To be discussed
      • How much does the user need to know about what is happening in the application?
      • Does the user need reminding of applications that are continuously on?
      • Does the user need feedback on each individual data transmission?
      • How would this affect usability?
    • Integrity and Dignity
      • Individuals shall be respected and technical solutions shall not violate their dignity as human beings.
    • Integrity and Dignity
      • Application design
      • Evaluate that the application is acceptable from user point of view as well as from the point of view of other people involved.
      • Service design
      • Users are actors, not objects in the system.
      • Actual users should be involved in the design process, and their opinions should be listened.
      • Note
      • The person whose dignity can be insulted may be an outsider, not the actual user.
    • Reliability
      • Technical solutions shall be sufficiently reliable for the purposes that they are being used for. Technology shall not threat user’s physical or mental health.
    • Reliability
      • Application design
      • Measurement accuracy is sufficient for the purpose that it is used
      • Algorithms with which measurements are combined and analyzed are sufficient
      • Platform design
      • Platform is promoted as an application platform only for applications were the reliability requirements can be fulfilled, regarding both measurement accuracy and measurement frequency
      • Possible technical problems such as losing radio connection, memory getting full or need to recharge batteries are anticipated and indicated in time
      • Users should have ways to ensure the trustworthiness of tags for viruses and other hostile elements
      • Service design
      • User conception of the reliability is in line with the actual reliability
    • E-inclusion
      • Services should be accessible to all user groups despite of their physical or mental deficiencies .
    • E-inclusion
      • Application design
      • No user group is ignored without strong reasoning
      • Consider if the application has potential in providing specific value to disabled users
      • Platform design
      • Alternative modalities are supported in user interaction.
        • Enlarged fonts, speech recognition, Braille, voice-to-text, text-to-voice, ...
    • Role of technology in the society
      • The society shall make use of the technology so that it increases the quality of life and does not cause harm to anyone.
    • Role of technology in the society
      • Platform design
      • Purposes that the technology can be utilized for are analyzed thoroughly
      • Dark scenarios are included in the analysis: misuse, harmful applications, and hazards.
      • Ethical assessment is carried out to study whether those purposes are ethically acceptable
      • The usage possibilities to be promoted in marketing are assessed for ethical acceptability
    • Role of technology in the society
      • To be discussed
      • Should embedding of tags and sensors in the environment be regulated?
      • How informed people should be about AmI systems in their environment?
      • How should they get that information?
      • Do increasing possibilities to monitor health parameters increase the quality of life?
      • In general users should be able to find their own ways to utilize technology. To what extent should the designer anticipate possible (mis)uses?
    • Ubiquitous Health Service Ethics in China
    • China-specific UCD issues in ubiquitous health services TCM = Traditional Chinese Medicine
    • Elderly in the society: West and East Li Yang: Ost trifft West
    • Ethical guidelines for the East
      • Group orientation vs. individualism
      • Privacy
      • Benefit to the society
      • Medical paternalism
      • Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
    • Group orientation vs. individualism
      • Ubiquitous health care and welfare services for the Chinese should include the patient’s family in discussing the patient’s needs.
      • In general, the family's role as the main authority for medical decision-making in China is strikingly different to the Western approach where the patient's family is involved in the decision-making only with the consent of the patient.
    • Privacy
      • Concern about privacy is a direct product of individualism.
      • Protection of privacy is usually not of top priority for Chinese patients. The information, on the contrary, can be circulated within the close people or relevant health care professionals.
      • In some extreme cases (terminal illness), the information should typically be known first by people close to the patient, who bear the responsibility of deciding whether to conceal potentially upsetting information from the patient.
      • Information disclosure without authorization from the care-givers to the patient could even result in a court judgment
    • Benefit to the society
      • Ubiquitous health care and welfare services should not be only for the rich. Thus services should also be carefully and extensively classified according to different income groups.
      • Cost of the services should be strictly regulated. In China, of the most reported ethical issues are uncontrolled levels of medical fees and refusal to treat patients who could not show evidence of their ability to pay.
      • In a health care system based on private health care insurances there is also a risk that ambient intelligence applications restrict the life of the patient, e.g., to the area covered by mobile phone network.
    • Medical paternalism
      • An example of medical paternalism is a physician withholding relevant information about a terminal illness of a patient to protect him/her from psychological stress.
      • According to Eastern values, the Chinese elders prefer the passive role, and tend to enjoy the care and support from their relatives as well as physicians.
      • Chinese elders have little knowledge of modern medicine, compared to their Western counterparts.
      • Due to tremendous gap between supply and demand, some claim that doctor’s time is better spent on deciding and applying treatments than explaining complicated processes and consequences.
    • Traditional Chinese Medicine
      • Four methods to diagnose a patient:
        • looking,
        • smelling,
        • asking questions, and
        • checking the pulse of the patient.
      • Black-box testing of human body for thousands of years.
      18.2.2010 Xirui Wang
    • TCM vs. Western Medicine
      • Traditional Chinese Medicine
      • uses the inductive and synthetic method
      • individualized
      • experience-based
      • summary of clinical observations
      • emphasizes the role of the body in healing
      • herbs and natural agents
      • behavior of the system as a whole
      • works to maintain health
      • Western Medicine
      • uses the reductive and analytical method
      • standardized
      • evidence-based
      • result of laboratory experimentations
      • mainly relies on medication and procedures
      • pure chemical compounds
      • structure and function of the parts
      • manages disease
      18.2.2010 Xirui Wang
    • And now, your turn
      • Ethical guidelines for Ubiquitous Health Services
        • Can you apply the guidelines in practice?
          • Do the guidelines cover necessary issues?
          • Are the guidelines applicable?
          • Something to add, remove, refine?
        • To whom should one should promote the guidelines?
    • Acknowledgements
      • Eija Kaasinen, VTT
        • Head of MIMOSA & MINAmI WP1
      • MIMOSA & MINAmI project partners
      • Wang Xirui / Comnet
      • Li Yang for Ost trifft West
      • Pertti Jarla for cartoons
    • References
      • A. Ahtinen, A. Lehtiniemi, and J. Hakkila. User Perceptions on Interacting with Mobile Fitness Devices. In 3rd International Workshop on Pervasive Mobile Interaction, pp. 89–111, 2007.
      • I. Jantunen. H. Laine, P. Huuskonen, D. Trossen, V. Ermolov, Smart Sensor Architecture for Mobile-terminal-centric Ambient Intelligence, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 142 (2008), pp. 352–360.
      • I. Jantunen. A New Ubiquitous Media for Distributing Content to Mobile Customers. MINAmI Workshop on Ambient Intelligence and Ethics, in conjunction with ETHICOMP 2008, (Mantova, Italy).
      • I. Jantunen, X. Wang, M. Pekkola, T. Korhonen, ” Applying Ethical Guidelines to Ubiquitous Health Care in China”, 1st Etica Conference, (Tarragona, Spain), 13.4.2010.
      • E. Kaasinen. MIMOSA Scenarios and Roadmap. MIMOSA/e-CUBES Workshop at ESSDERC/ESSCIRC 2006, (Grenoble, France).
      • E. Kaasinen. Usages of Mobile AmI: MINAmI Scenarios and Demonstrators. User Acceptance and Ethical Issues of Ambient Intelligence. Usages and Acceptance of Mobile AmI MINAmI Workshop at AmID 2007 (Sophia-Antipolis, France).
      • E. Kaasinen, Ethical Guidelines in MINAmI Project, MINAmI Workshop on Ambient Intelligence and Ethics, in conjunction with ETHICOMP 2008, (Mantova, Italy).
      • Y. Li, Ost trifft West, Schmidt (Mainz, Germany), 2007.
      • J.M. Quero, C.L. Tarrida, J.J. Santana, V. Ermolov, I. Jantunen, H. Laine, J. Eichholz, Health Care Applications Based on Mobile Phone Centric Smart Sensor Network, in IEEE EMBS 2007, (Lyon, France), pp. 6298–6301, 2007.
      • M. Santiago, J. Sierra, I. Jantunen, M. Müllenborn, N. Tille, J. Virtanen, E. Kaasinen. Mobile Phone as a Platform for Health Applications. Pervasive and Smart Technologies for Health care: Ubiquitous Methodologies and Tools, A. Coronato, G. de Pietro, eds., accepted.