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    Jet air ways-marketing services Jet air ways-marketing services Document Transcript

    • Introduction Background of the study: - Why Service Marketing? Services include all economic activities whose output are not a physical product, are generally consumed at the time it is produced, and provide added value in forms that are intangible concerns of its purchaser. Philip Kotler has defined Service Marketing as: “Any act or performance that one party can offer to another, that is essentially intangible and does not result to the ownership of anything. Its production may or may not be tied to a physical product.” Service Marketing Triangle Company Internal Marketing External – Enabling Promises Marketing – Making Promises
    • CustomersProducer Producer Keeping Promises – Interactive Marketing Customer The services marketing triangle shows the 3 interlinked groups that work together to develop, promote and deliver services. Between the three points of triangle there are three types of marketing that must be successfully carried out for a service to succeed – external and interactive marketing. All these activities resolve around making and keeping promises to customers. For services all three types of marketing activities are essential for building and maintaining relationships with customers. External Marketing – Making Promises Through its external marketing efforts a company makes promises to its customers regarding what they can expect and how it will be delivered. Interactive Marketing – Keeping Promises This is the most critical type of marketing activity from the customers’ point of view. Interactive marketing occurs in the moment of truth when the customers interact with the organization and the service is produced and consumed. Promises are kept or broken and the reliability of service is related every time the customer interacts with the organization. International Marketing – Enabling Promises Service providers must have the skills, abilities, tools and motivation to deliver. They must be enabled. Promises are easy to make but unless provided with tools and rewards for good service, the promises may not be kept. This is important as the employee satisfaction is linked with the customer satisfaction.
    • Synopsis Statement of the Problem: - Nowadays, the passengers have more options to travel by preferable airlines. So success to meet needs and expectations is assumed to be the result in satisfaction with the service. Jet Airways, today, recognize that it can compete more effectively by distinguishing itself with respect to service quality and improved customer satisfaction. Jet Airways would like to know passengers whether they have been satisfied by the quality and service of Jet Airways. So the study of customer satisfaction has been conducted. Objectives of the Study: - The objectives of the study are as follows: - 1. To find out customer satisfaction and expectation towards Jet Airways. 2. To find out agencies' opinion about the customer satisfaction towards Jet Airways. 3. To determine the satisfaction level of Jet Airways passengers. 4. To know about the operation of the Jet Airways. 5. To know the customers' reaction to the company's service.
    • 6. To know how to make successful service towards the customer satisfaction and expectation. 7. To find out how to improve the service quality and get rid of sources of dissatisfaction to make the customers satisfy. 8. To maintain the customer satisfaction to be the delighted customer. The ultimate goal of the study is to find out the actual customers satisfaction level and in turn to convert non – satisfied customers and satisfied customers into satisfied customers and delighted customers, respectively. Need for the Study: - Whether the buyer is satisfied after purchase depends on the offer performance in relation to the buyers’ expectations. If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied. If the performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted. Now companies are aiming to delight the customers because customers who are just satisfied still find it easy to switch when a better offer comes along. Those who are highly satisfied are much less ready to switch to other companies. Delight creates an emotional bondage with the brand. The need for this study is to know whether their using the airline’s services satisfies the customers, whereas customer satisfaction or delight depends on the service quality. Scope of the Study: - The scope of the study is to judge the satisfactory level of Jet Airways' service quality whether the passengers are satisfied. Moreover, to find out the factors that
    • make the customers dissatisfy. Therefore, to convert unsatisfied customers to satisfied customers and maintain satisfied customers up to be delighted customers is the goal of the study. Expected Contributions: - 1. To maintain the good service quality and improve the unsatisfactory service which is toward the customer satisfaction and expectations. 2. To create a good image to the customers. 3. To create customer retention. Limitation of the Study: - 1. The survey is conducted in Bangalore city only. 2. Due to time constraint, sample size for passengers and agencies was restricted to 50 and 10 respectively.
    • Company Profile Historical Background of Airline Industry Seven decades have passed since the late JRD Tata, better known as the father of civil aviation in India operated the first ever flight of a scheduled air service. Tata Airlines was founded in 1938 and operated under this name until nationalization in 1953, when it was renamed Air India International and later; Air India. The Air Corporation Act of 1953, led to the formation of two airlines – Air India and Indian Airlines, the former designated as the country’s international airline while Indian Airlines operated on domestic routes. The liberalization of the economy in the 1990’s allowing private airlines to operate as Air Taxi Operators saw five major airlines come into existence. By 1997, only two airlines remained operational, Jet Airways being of one of them. Jet Airways has become a success story in the Indian Aviation Industry and is one of the fastest growing airlines in the world. Jet Airways was set up with the objective of becoming the most preferred domestic airline in the country, by providing superior quality and reliable air travel in India. A high percentage of the domestic air traffic comprises business travelers. Therefore, Jet Airways’ focus from the very beginning was to emerge as the “Businessman’s Preferred Airline.”
    • Today, it is a matter of pride that Jet Airways is widely recognized as “India’s Best, World – Class Domestic Airline.” This has led to a product and service that aimed at world – class norms, beginning with the choice of aircraft itself. “Jet Airways” History of Jet Airways Jet Airways began its operations on May 5, 1993, with the first flight, Ahmedabad – Bombay (AHM – BOM 737 – 9W 322). The fleet started with 4 Modern Generation Boeing 737 – 300 aircraft with an objective of being the most preferred airline in India that would upgrade the concept of domestic airline to world – class standards. Since May 1993, Jet Airways has systematically and continually inducted modern generation aircraft, and was the first to operate the B737 – 400, B737 – 500, in India, after their launch across the United States. Jet Airways was also the first to fly the ATR 72 – 500 aircraft in 1997 in India. This has enabled Jet Airways to offer better connectivity and reliable air links to interior cities and towns. Seven months later Jet Airways became the first airline to fly the 737 – 900 and also the first to fly the 737 – 700. Today, Jet Airways has one of the youngest aircraft fleets in the world with an average age of around 3 years. The facilities of Ansett (Australia) were used for the training and conversion of Jet Airways pilots and engineers. To help Jet Airways achieve world – class norms in service, Speedwing (a British Airways Subsidiary) assisted Jet Airways in conducting a program on Customer Service Excellence for staff across functions at all levels.
    • To ensure accurate and efficient reservation systems, Jet Airways tied up with and is co – hosted with SABRE – one of the world’s best reservations systems, which was initiated with the launch of the first flight. Within 3 months of running operations, Jet Airways also became an associate member of IATA, a party to the IATA Multilateral Interline Agreement and a member of the IATA Clearing House. Today Jet Airways operates over 250 flights daily to 41 destinations within India and provides over 22,000 seats per day. Passengers have a choice of multiple frequency flights between the metros. Same day returns flights make it possible to even conduct just half a day’s business in a distant city. Thirty – six millions passengers have flown Jet Airways in the last 10 years. This has not only contributed to international and domestic tourism within India but has also provided employment opportunities to a large segment of people. Building a highly skilled and motivated team of professionals at all levels has played a key role in delivering world – class service. Both on ground and in the air, Jet Airways’ product and service standards have been benchmarked against the best internationally. In recognition of this, several global and national awards and honors have been conferred on the airline. Jet Airways has also received the ISO 9001:2000 certification for its in-flight services, a rarity in the aviation industry. Jet Airways is also committed to the areas of corporate and social responsibility. The airline supports a variety of social causes, one of which is the Magic Box initiative. This is an in – flight collection program undertaken by Jet Airways since 1997 to facilitate the welfare activities undertaken by Save The Children India (STCI), an NGO dedicated to empowering the under – privileged, especially women and children across the country through health and education based initiatives.
    • The Jet Airways “Magic Box” collection has assisted in the setting up of SPARSH, a special care center for the mentality challenged children and hearing impaired, starting comprehensive school programs for the under – privileged children, adopting a Municipal School and contribution to the Gujarat Earthquake Rehabilitation program. 1993 – 2003, a decade that has seen Jet Airways transform civil aviation in India. An airline, that has done India proud for ten years and is firmly established as the preferred domestic carrier of the country.
    • JET AIRWAYS TIMELINE (DOMESTIC AIRLINE 1993 – 2003) Years EVENTS 1992 Jet Airways (India) Limited was founded by Mr. Naresh Goyal a Non – Resident Indian. 1993 May 5, Jet Airways started operation in India with the 737 – 300 series of aircraft. 1993 – 94 4 aircraft Boeing 737 – 300 leased from Ansett Worldwide Aviation Operations: 28 daily flights, 12 destinations with market share of 6.6%. 1994 April, two more Boeing B737 – 400s were acquired. Fleet of 6 Operations: 39 daily flights, 14 destinations. Frequent flyer Program (Jet Privilege). 1994 – 95 Jet Airways had increased its market share to an estimated 11%. 1995 14th January, Jet Airways was granted scheduled airline status and operating permit. 1998 Air Transport World, one of the world’s leading aviation magazines, stated that Jet Airways was the fastest growing airline in the world. In May, the airline introduced late night flights on the Mumbai – Delhi sector and branded it “Night Saver”. 1998 – 99 The B737 – 300s were phased out in, followed by the B737 – 500 aircraft. 1999 Jet Airways was the first airline in the country to introduce a three – tier frequent flyer program. 2001 The first private airline in India to have its own full flight simulator and flight-training device. 2002 Prestigious TTG Travel Award for the Best Domestic Airline in Asia Pacific. 2003 Over 250 flights to 41 destinations. Average age of fleet is around 3
    • years, making the fleet youngest in its size segment. 2003 May 5th, First airline in Southeast Asia to induct the Boeing 737 – 900. Mission of Jet Airways Jet Airways has firmly established its corporate mission statement, to be the most “Preferred Domestic Airline in India” and “achieve this pre – eminent position by offering a high quality of service.” It was to make the world look up to the Indian
    • skies. Jet Airways wants to set a global example for domestic travel. There are 4 missions of Jet Airways as given below: 1. Jet Airways will be the most preferred domestic airline in India. It will be the automatic first choice carrier for the traveling public and set standards, which other competing airlines will seek to match. 2. Jet Airways will achieve this pre-eminent position by offering a high quality of service and reliable, comfortable and efficient operations. 3. Jet Airways will be an airline, which is going to upgrade the concept of domestic airline travel - be a world - class domestic airline. 4. Jet Airways will achieve these objectives whilst simultaneously ensuring consistent profitability, achieving healthy, long-term returns for the investors and providing its employees with an environment for excellence and growth. Achievements Jet Airways aims at excellence in all areas of service, and has been credited with many aviation innovations to achieve complete customer satisfaction and the highest standards in everything. From the maintenance of Jet Airways fleet to customer satisfaction, from security to service – both in-flight and on the ground, the achievements have set benchmarks. Jet Airways has always set high standards for itself, take a look at some of the reasons that make itself as “India’s favorite domestic airline”. Achievements so far Since the commencement, Jet Airways has achieved the status of the largest private domestic airline in India. The figures speak for themselves: -
    •  From 4 aircraft in 1993-94 to 41 aircraft in February 2003;  From 12 destinations in 1993-94 to 41 destinations in February 2003;  From 24 daily flights in 1993-94 to over 250 flights in February 2003. In the process, Jet Airways has carved out a market share of over 46% (estimated 2002 -2003). Jet Airways emphasis on technology and on time performance is one of the key factors of airline’s spectacular success. Jet Airways flies Modern and Next Generation aircraft and maintain a young aircraft fleet (with an average age of 3 years as on March 2003), making airline as one of the youngest fleet in the world. Jet Airways operates over 250 flights daily to 41 destinations across the country. The rapid expansion of the route network has earned airline the prestigious Air Transport World Award 2001 for Market Development and the “TTG Travel Award 2002” for Best Domestic Airline. Jet Airways was the first airline in India to receive the World Travel Market Global Award, the world's premier global travel event in London. Jet Airways has also won the prestigious H&FS Domestic Airline of the Year Award four times, with the latest award in 2001. And Citibank Diners Club has chosen Jet Airways as India's best domestic airline for excellence in service besides consistently winning other; awards for excellence in service. Jet Airways also prides in having the youngest fleet of aircraft in India, consisting of the modern 737 – 400/700/800 and the ATR 72 – 500 and on having an unbeatable record of on – time flights and providing world – class frequent flyer benefits to its customers, through Jet Airways alliances with British Airways, KLM Royal Dutch Airlines and Northwest Airlines.
    • Jet Airways strives to provide service of the highest standard to customers, both on ground and in – flight. Jet Airways is proud that it is one of the few airlines in the world to receive the ISO 9001 certification for in – flight services. Apart from the various innovations launched by Jet Airways in the history of Indian Aviation, Jet Airways also continues to be a responsible corporate citizen. Fleet Facts Jet Airways' current fleet consists of B737 New and Next-Generation aircraft and the modern turbo-prop ATR72-500 aircraft. CFM 56 engines power all the Boeing aircraft while the ATR aircraft are powered by Pratt and Whitney 127 engines. The average age of the fleet is 3 years making Jet Airways the operator of the youngest aircraft fleet in Asia. Jet Airways modern fleet of aircraft.
    • Aircraft No in Service B 737 - 900 01 B 737 - 800 13 B 737 - 700 12 B 737 - 400 08 ATR 72 – 500 08 Total No. 42 Research design
    • Purpose: - “Everyone knows what satisfaction is, until asked to give a definition. Then, it seems, nobody knows.” Richard L. Oliver quotes this sentence. This is the reason and purpose why this project report has been conducted. Before going beyond to do the research, I have referred the textbooks, journals, and articles from many sources. Through textbooks I got the broad idea about what the customer satisfaction is, and how and whether the importance is influenced to the today’s business in airline industry. Methodology: - After knowing the purpose, next step was methodology. Collecting and gathering the data was the first thing, which was done. From many textbooks, articles, journals and Internet Web Site information was collected for this project report as below: -  Service Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus Across the Firm (2003) by Valarie A. Zeithaml and Mary Jo Bitner.  Service Marketing (1999) by Roland T. Rust, Zahorik J. Anthony and Tinothy L. Keiningham. “Gaining Altitude” from the Economics Times Bangalore on 5 th June 2003, pp.8 – 10.  “10 years of service and growth” from Jetwings Magazine, vol.3, May 2003, Issue 5, pp.16 – 30 Internet Web Site: -  www.jetairways.com  www.servicemanagement.com
    • After these materials were collected, they were analyzed in points to do the report project. Conclusion: - From the gathered data, it is shown the importance of customer satisfaction and how it can link to delighted customers. The benefits derived from the literature review are as follows: - 1. It can help us to understand concept of the topic, which has been done. 2. Many ideas guide us how to do and analyze the project report. Conceptual Framework
    • “Definition of Customer Satisfaction” Everyone knows what satisfaction is but when they are asked to give a definition. It seems nobody knows. From the previous sentence, Richard L. Oliver expresses the definition of satisfaction as given below. “Satisfaction is the consumer’s fulfillment response. It is a judgment that a product to service feature, or the product or service itself, provides a pleasurable level of consumption – related fulfillment.” Satisfaction is the customers’ evaluation of a product or service in terms of whether that product or service has met their needs and expectations. Failure to meet needs and expectation is brought to dissatisfy with the product or service. Factors Influence Customer Satisfaction • Product and service features • Consumer emotions • Attributions for service success or failure • Perceptions of equity or fairness Product and Service Features Customer satisfaction with a product or service is influenced significantly by the customer’s evaluation of product or service features. Research has shown that
    • customers of services will make trade – offs among different service features (price, quality and etc), depending on the type of service being evaluated and the criticality of the service. Consumer Emotions Actually, there are 2 types of emotion that are given below: -  Positive emotions   Negative emotions  The emotions can be stable, pre – existing emotions e.g. mood state or life satisfaction. For example, when you are on vacation or at a very happy stage in your life, good mood and positive frame of mind has influenced, you will respond positively to that service. Attributions for Service Success or Failure Attributions – the perceived causes of events – influence perceptions of satisfaction as well. When the customer has been surprised by an outcome (the service which is better or worse than expected), customers tend to look for the reasons and their assessments for the reasons can influence the satisfaction. Perceptions of Quality or Fairness
    • Always, customers will ask themselves whether they have been treated fairly compared with other customers. Notions of fairness are central to customers’ perceptions of satisfaction with products or services. Customer Satisfaction Product Catering Cost Delivery Product After Performance to Change Range Sales Service Figure 1: Other Factors Influence Customer Satisfaction
    • Reliability Situational Responsiveness factors Service Quality Assurance Empathy Product Quality CUSTOMER Tangibles SATISFACTION Price Personal Factors Figure 2: Components of Customer Satisfaction Components of Customer Satisfaction The factors that make the customer satisfy are given below: 1. Service Quality
    • • Reliability • Responsiveness • Assurance • Empathy • Tangibles 2. Product Quality 3. Price 4. Situational Factors 5. Personal factors Service Quality Dimensions Ultimately, customers judge the quality of services on their perceptions of the technical outcome provided and on how that outcome was delivered. The service quality dimensions consist of: - 1. Reliability that is ability to perform the promised service dependable and accurately. 2. Responsiveness that is the willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. 3. Assurance that is the employees’ knowledge and courtesy and their ability to inspire trust and confidence. 4. Empathy that is the caring, individualized attention given to customers. 5. Tangibles that are appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and written materials. In the case of airline industry, how customers judge the 5 dimensions of service quality is given below: • Reliability: Flights to promise destinations depart and arrive on schedule.
    • • Responsiveness: Prompt and speedy system for ticketing, inflighted, baggage handling • Assurance: Trusted name, good safety record, competent employees • Empathy: Understanding of special individual needs, anticipates customer needs • Tangibles: Aircraft, ticketing counters, baggage area, uniforms Satisfaction normally involves the eliminating problems. It goes beyond to the concept of delight, which is the positive surprise. It is the highest level of satisfaction and it transfers to better outcomes that can be achieved through other levels of satisfaction. “The customer is satisfied with a defect rate of 0.01%, but if we could eliminate defects altogether, then the customer would be delighted.” Delight leads to behavioral outcomes that are substantially better than mere satisfaction can provide. These include repurchase, positive word of mouth, increasingly profit and sales and so on. Why does the organization think about the important of the customer satisfaction?
    • Nowadays, many organizations look at the important of the customer satisfaction with the reasons are given below:  Repurchasing  Word of mouth  Pay less attention to competing brands and advertising  Buy other products or services of the same company  Profit increase  Sales volume increase 1. Repurchasing Satisfied Customer Delighted Customer 2. Word of Mouth 3. Increasingly Profit 4. Increasingly Sales 5. Pay less attention to competing brands and advertising 6. Buy other products or service of the same company How do the customers form their expectations? Expectations are formed on the basis of the buyers’ past buying experience, statements made by friends and associates, and marketer and competitor information and promises. If marketers raise expectations too high, the customer is likely to be
    • disappointed. On the other hand, some successful companies are raising expectations and delivering performance to match. These companies aim high because customers who are just satisfied will still find it easy to switch suppliers when a better offer comes along. These who are highly satisfied are less ready to switch. The fact is that high satisfaction or delight creates an emotional affinity with the brand, not just a rational preference and this creates high customer loyalty. Satisfaction level Satisfaction level is a function of the difference between perceived performance and expectations. A customer could experience one of the 3 broad levels of satisfaction.  If the performance comes under the expectations, the customer is dissatisfied.  If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied.  If the performance exceeds the expectations, the customer is highly satisfied, pleased or delighted. From the following equations, they explain these relationships:  Perceived delivery < Expectation  Dissatisfaction  Perceived delivery = Expectation  Satisfaction  Perceived delivery > Expectation  Delight  Perceived delivery >> Expectation  Astonishment Methodology Type of Research: -
    • For preparation of the project report, several methods were used to collect data and pertinent information. The data required fro the study were collected from primary and secondary sources. Detailed questionnaires were prepared for passengers as well as for agencies covering as many variables as possible. The secondary data were collected from the textbook, journals, Jetwings magazine, and Internet web site. Sampling Technique: - The simple random Sampling Method was considered for the study, which is based on assumption that the respondents were randomly drawn from population. It this study, the passengers have traveled by Jet Airways, Indian Airlines and Air Sahara. The sample was random from the passengers of these airlines. Target Population: - Sampling design begins by specifying the ‘target population’, which is the selection of elements or objects that posses the information sought by the researcher and that frame about which inferences are to be made. The target population selected for the research was the passengers and agencies of Jet Airways. Passengers were selected from different professions, age groups who belong to different income levels without any kind of bias. Sampling process incorporates four steps as given below: Determine the sampling frame Select sampling technique Determine the sample size Execute the sampling process
    • Sample Size and Sample Description: - The sample size of this study is the questionnaire, which is divided into 2 parts: -  50 questionnaires from passengers  10 questionnaires from agencies Instrumentation Technique: - The study is conducted by using Instrumentation Technique. Questionnaire: The sample size of questionnaire is divided into 2 parts: -  50 questionnaires from passengers  10 questionnaires from agencies Actual Collection of Data: - The collection of data is the gathering of information from various sources. For this project, the primary and secondary sources have been used. Data Collection from Primary Sources
    • The primary data is based on the objectives of the study, research approach through survey method that is questionnaire development and samplings have been designed visiting the passengers and airline agencies in Bangalore. Data Collection from Secondary Sources Secondary data were gathered from numerous sources. While preparation of this project report, the two types of secondary data have been collected.  Internal Data was generated from the company’s profile and Jetwings magazine.  External Data, on the other hand, was generated from general library research sources, textbooks, trade journals, articles from newspaper, brochures and Internet web site  www.jetairways.com.  www.servicemangement.com Tools used for testing of hypothesis: - “Chi – Square Test (ψ) ” Chi – square is non – parametric test used by marketing researchers to test hypothesis. This test is employed for testing hypothesis when distribution of population is not known and when nominal data is to be analyzed. With the help of chi – square, it can
    • be ascertained whether the given discrepancy between theory and observation is due to change or whether it is due to failure of theory to fit into the observed facts. In this project chi – square test was used to determine whether there was any association between two options. It was also used to find the effectiveness of any option or preference. Formulae used for calculating the value of chi – square is as follows: Ψ 2cal = (O – E) 2 / E The expected frequency can either be taken arbitrary assigned or determined mathematically from the observed information. The table value was taken from the chi – square table corresponding to the degree of freedom that was obtained from the frequency table. HYPOTHESIS Statistically inference is that branch of statistics, which is concerned with using probability concept to dealt with uncertainty in decision – making. The field of statistical inference has had a fruitful development since the later half of the 19 th century.
    • It refers to the process of selecting and using a sample statistical to draw inference about a population parameter based on a subset of it – the sample drawn from the population. Statistical inference treats two different classes as problems: 1. Hypothesis testing, i.e., to test some hypothesis about parent population from which the sample is drawn. 2. Estimation, i.e., to use the ‘statistics’ obtained from the sample as estimate of the unknown ‘parameter’ of the population from which the sample is drawn. In both these cases the particular problem at hand is structured in such a way that inferences about relevant population values can be made from sample data. Testing of Hypothesis Hypothesis testing: Hypothesis testing begins with an assumption called a hypothesis that we make about a population parameter. A hypothesis is a supposition made as a basis for reasoning. According to Prof. Morris Hamburg, “A hypothesis in statistics is simply a quantitative statement about a population.” Palmer O Johnson has beautiful described hypothesis as “Islands in the uncharted seas of thought to be used as bases for consolidation and recuperation as we advance into the unknown.” There can be several types of hypotheses. For example, a coin may be tossed 200 times and we may get heads 80 times and tails 120 times. We may now be interested in testing the hypothesis that the coin is unbiased. To take another example we may study the average weight of the 100 students of a particular college and may get the results as 110 lb. We may now interested in testing the hypothesis that the sample has been drawn from a population with average weight 115 lb. Similarly, we may be interested in testing the hypothesis that the variable in the population are uncorrelated.
    • Procedure of Testing Hypothesis The procedure of testing hypothesis is briefly described below: 1. Set up a hypothesis: The first thing in hypothesis testing is to set up a hypothesis about a population parameter. Then we collect sample data produce sample statistics, and use this information to decide how likely it is that our hypothesized population parameter is correct. The conventional approach to hypothesis testing is not to construct a single hypothesis about the population parameter, but rather to set up two different hypotheses. This hypothesis must be so constructed that if one hypothesis is accepted, the other is rejected and vice versa. The two hypothesis in a statistical test are normally referred to as:  Null Hypothesis  Alternative Hypothesis The null hypothesis is a very useful tool in testing the significance of difference. In its simplest form the hypothesis asserts that there is no real difference in the sample and the population in the particular matter under consideration (hence the word ‘null’ which means invalid, void, or amounting to nothing) and that the difference found is accidental and unimportant arising out of fluctuations of sampling. As against the null hypothesis, the alternative hypothesis specifies those values that the researcher believes to hold true, and, of course, he hopes that the sample data lead to acceptance of this hypothesis as true. The null and alternative hypothesis is distinguished by the use of two different symbols, ‘Ho’ and ‘Ha’ representing the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis, respectively. Ho: µ1 − µ2 = 0 (Null Hypothesis) Ha: µ1 − µ2 ≠ 0 (Alternative Hypothesis)
    • 2. Set Up a Suitable Significance Level: Having set up the hypothesis, the next step is to test the validity of Ho against that of Ha at ascertains level of significance. The confidence with which an experiment rejects – or retains – a null hypothesis depends upon the significance level adopted. The significance level is customarily expressed, as a percentage, such as 5 per cent, is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis if it is true. 3. Setting a Test Criterion: The third step is to construct a test criterion. This involves selecting as appropriate probability distribution for the particular test, that is, a probability distribution that can properly be applied. Some probability distributors that are commonly used in testing procedures are t, F and chi – square. Test criteria must employ an appropriate probability distribution; for example, if only small sample information is available, the use of the normal distribution would be inappropriate. 4. Doing Computations: Having taken the first three steps, we have completely designed a statistical test. We now precede to the fourth step – performance of various computations – from a random sample of size ‘n’, necessary for the test. These calculations include the testing statistic and the standard error of the testing statistic. 5. Making Decisions: Finally, we may draw statistical conclusions and take decisions. A statistical conclusion or statistical decision is a decision either to reject or to accept the null hypothesis. The decision will depend on whether the computed value of the test criterion falls in the region of rejection or the region of acceptance.
    • Two Types of Errors in Testing of Hypothesis When a statistical hypothesis is tested, there are four possibilities as given below: 1. The hypothesis is true but our test rejects it. (Type I error) 2. The hypothesis is false but our test accepts it. (Type II error) 3. The hypothesis is true but our test accepts it. (Correct decision) 4. The hypothesis is false but our test rejects it. (Correct decision) Accept Ho Reject Ha Correct Type I Ho is true. decision Error Type II Correct Ho is false. Error Decision Obviously, the first two possibilities lead to errors. The Test of Hypothesis: Chi – Square Test The hypothesis test of ranking airlines: Airlines Rank No. 1 Respondents % Jet Airways 33 66% Indian Airlines 11 22% Air Sahara 6 12% Total 50 100% Observed Expected (O – E) 2 (O − E ) 2 Value (O) Value (E) E 66 33.33 1067.3289 32.023 22 33.33 128.3689 3.8514
    • 12 33.33 454.9689 13.6504 Ψ 2 cal = 49.5248 Assumption: Ho: Ranking between the airlines is same. Ha: It is not same. Level of significance 5% and D.O.F. is 2.  Ψ2tab = 5.99 (O − E ) 2 Test Statistics Ψ 2 = ∑ E Test Ψ 2 cal = 49.5248 Conclusion Since Ψ2cal > Ψ2tab, Ho is rejected. ∴ Jet Airways ranking is very good. The Test of Hypothesis to find out the Preference between ‘EXECUTIVE CLASS VS ECONOMIC CLASS’ Class No of Respondents Percentage Executive/Business Class 9 18 % Economic Class 38 76 % Both 3 6% Total 50 100 % Po = 0.50, P1 = 0.76 Assumption: Ho: P1 = P2 Ha: P1 ≠ P2 Level of significance 5% => Z tab = 1.96 Test Statistics
    • P1 − P0 Z= P0 × P0 n 0.76 − 0.50 0.5 × 0.5 = 50 0.26 = 0.0707 = 3.68 Conclusion: It is showing highly significance i.e. 3.68. ∴ The passengers prefer to travel by economic class. Table No.1 Showing the distribution of respondents, According to gender Gender No of Percentage Respondents Male 40 80% Female 10 20% Total 50 100% Analysis and Interpretation Respondents are selected on random so there are both males and females. This study stated 40 out of 50 are male respondents (80%) and 10 out of 50 are female respondents (20%).
    • Chart No.1 Showing the distribution of respondents, according to gender 90% 80% 80% 70% 60% Percentage 50% Male 40% Female 30% 20% 20% 10% 0% 1 Gender SOURCE TABLE NO:1
    • Table No. 2 Showing the distribution of respondents, according to the age group Age Group No of Respondents Percentage 21-30 22 44% 31-40 10 20% 41-50 11 22% 51-60 5 10% 61-70 1 2% 71-80 1 2% Total 50 100% Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, we can see that 44% of the respondents belong to the age group of 21 – 30. While the second age group is between 41 – 50 (22%). Other age group respondents are negligible.
    • Chart No. 2 Showing the age group of the Respondents 25 22 20 no of respondents 15 11 10 10 5 5 1 1 0 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61-70 71-80 Age group SOURCE TABLE NO.2
    • Table No. 3 Showing the distribution of respondents, according to the educational background Education No of Respondents Percentage Pre – University 1 2% Degree 11 22% Post Graduate 31 62% Above PG 7 14% Total 50 100% Analysis and Interpretation From the data, we interpret that post graduates believe in traveling in style whereas the others fall in a narrow bracket.
    • Chart No. 3 Showing the distribution of respondents, according to the educational background 35 31 30 25 No of Respondents 20 15 11 10 7 5 1 0 Pre - University Education PG Degree Above PG Education SOURCE TABLE NO:3 Table No. 4 Showing the distribution of respondents,
    • according to the occupation Occupation No of Respondents Percentage Student 17 34% Working group 19 38% Others 14 28% Total 50 100% Note: Due to the limitation of sample size, the private company, businessman, government sector and public company were grouped together. Analysis and Interpretation The above table shows 38% of respondents are in working group, which belongs to the private company, businessman, government sector and public company. 34% are students while 28% belongs to other occupations. From this we can infer that more than 50% of people travelling by air are either businessmen or white-collar workers.
    • Chart No. 4 Showing the Occupation Profile 20 18 16 no of respondents 14 12 10 19 8 17 14 6 4 2 0 Student W orking Group Others occupation SOURCE TABLE NO:4
    • Table No. 5 Showing the monthly income of respondents Monthly Income No of Respondents Percentage Less than 20,000 17 34% 20,001 – 30,000 17 34% 30,001 – 50,000 7 14% Above 50,000 9 18% Total 50 100% Analysis and Interpretation It has been observed from the above data that about 34% from the total respondents comes under wage bracket below Rs.10,000, 34% comes under Rs.10,001 to 30,000 income bracket, 14% comes under Rs.30,001 to 50,000 income bracket and 18% comes under Rs.50,000 and above income bracket. It is inferred that middle class people prefer to travel by air for mental satisfaction or status.
    • Chart No.5 Showing the Monthly Income Above 50,000 Less than 18% 20,000 30,001 – 34% 50,000 14% 20,001 – 30,000 34% SOURCE TABLE NO:5 Table No. 6 Showing the travel frequency of respondents
    • Frequency No of Respondents Percentage Weekly 3 6% Monthly 14 28% Yearly 20 40% Others 13 26% Total 50 100% Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, it is understood that most of the passengers have travelled once a year (40%). 14 out of 50 travel frequently and 13 out of 50 travel occasionally. Marginal 6% travel continuously by air. Chart no.6 showing the frequency of travel by air. 25 20 20 No of respondents 15 14 13 Series1 10 5 3 0 Weekly Monthly Yearly Others Frequency SOURCE TABLE NO:6
    • Table No. 7 Showing the distribution of respondents, according to the purpose of travelling by air Purposes No of Respondents Percentage Business 12 24% Leisure 7 14% Business and Leisure 10 20% Others 21 42% Total 50 100% Analysis and Interpretation Most of the passengers travel by air for different reasons. Most passengers prefer to travel by air for business purpose ie; 24%. While 14% prefer to travel for leisure, where as 20% prefer travelling for both work and leisure. Others include those who travel to meet their relatives, subordinates who are sent by their superiors for business purpose and those who travel for educational purposes[students].others also include businessmen and doctors who travel to attend seminars and functions.ie; 42%. Others also include those who travel exclusively for shopping.
    • Chart no.7 showing the purpose of travel by air. 25 21 20 No of respondents 15 12 10 10 7 5 0 Business Leisure Business and Others Leisure Purpose SOURCE TABLE NO:7
    • Table No. 8 Showing the distribution of respondents, according to the most preferred airline. Airlines No of Respondents Percentage Jet Airways 28 56% Indian Airlines 16 32% Air Sahara 6 12% Total 50 100% Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, it shows the preferable airline of 50 passengers. Most of them have selected Jet Airways as the most preferable airline (56%). 32% and 12% have selected Indian Airlines and Air Sahara, respectively.
    • Chart No. 8 Showing the most Preferable Airline 30 28 25 20 no of respondents 16 15 10 6 5 0 Jet Airways Indian Airlines Air Sahara Airlines SOURCE TABLE NO:8 Table No.9 Ranking of Preferable Airline,
    • according to the no of respondents Airlines Rank No. 1 Rank No. 2 Rank No. 3 Respondents % Respondents % Respondents % Jet Airways 33 66% 15 30% 2 4% Indian Airlines 11 22% 18 36% 21 42% Air Sahara 6 12% 17 34% 27 54% Total 50 100% 50 100% 50 100% Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, we can see that most of the passengers ranked the Jet Airways as the first preferable airline i.e. 66%, which is followed by the Indian Airlines i.e. 22% and Air Sahara i.e. 12%. For the second preferable, the passengers prefer the Indian Airlines as the second option i.e. 36%, while the Air Sahara is the third option i.e. 54%. Overall Jet Airways is the most favourable airline followed by the Indian Airlines and Air Sahara.
    • Chart No. 9 Ranking the Airline 35 33 30 27 25 21 No of respondents 20 18 17 15 15 11 10 6 5 2 0 Jet Airways India Air Sahara Airlines Airlines Rank No. 1 Respondents Rank No. 2 Respondents Rank No. 3 Respondents SOURCE TABLE NO:9
    • Table No. 10 Showing the distribution of respondents, according to the class, which the passengers prefer to travel Class No of Respondents Percentage Executive/Business Class 9 18 % Economic Class 38 76 % Both 3 6% Total 50 100 % Analysis and Interpretation From the above data, we infer the preferable class.  76% of respondents prefer to travel by economic class.  18% of respondents prefer to travel by executive class.  6% of respondents prefer to travel both classes.
    • Chart no.10 showing the distribution of respondents according to the class in which the passenger prefer to travel 40 38 35 30 No of respondents 25 20 15 9 10 5 3 0 Business Class Economic Class Both Class prefered SOURCE TABLE NO:10
    • Table No. 11 showing the reasons to select the airline. C No of Respondents Percentage Friends 10 20% Family 11 22% Advertisement 13 26% Others 12 24% More than two reasons 4 8% Total 50 100% Analysis and Interpretation By seeing this table, we can understand that the family is the main factor to influence the passengers for selecting a specific airline (24%). Similarly others (24%), is either customer’s suggestion or the convenience of the airline’s schedule being the other reason for the passengers to select the airline. others also include those passengers who are brand conscious, those who prefer the best of the lot. While friends and advertisement are the other reasons that make the passengers select a particular airline ie; 12%, and 10% respectively. 6% of passengers show preference for a particular airline for more than 2 reasons.
    • Table no.11 showing the reason to select the airline 14 13 12 12 11 10 No of respondents 10 8 6 4 4 2 0 ds rs ily t en s he ien m on m Fa Ot Fr as se re rti ve o tw Ad an th e or M Particulars SOURCE TABLE NO:11 Table No. 12 Showing the reasons to travel by air
    • Reasons No of Respondents Percentage Airfare 16 32% Convenience 40 80% Service 26 52% Image 13 26% Accessibility 9 18% Cabin Crew 7 14% Punctuality 18 36% Responsibility 8 16% Safety 19 38% Discount 5 10% Onboard Promotion 2 4% Food 12 24% Network 12 24% Others 4 8% Note: - The difference between the total number of respondents and total percentage is because some respondents do not use a particular airline and some respondents use more than one airline service. Which means few respondants have chosen more than two or more reasons. Analysis and Interpretation There are many reasons that the passenger selects to travel by air. From the table we infer 80% of passengers have selected by air travel because of convenience, 52% for service, 38% for safety, 36% for punctuality, 32% for airfare, 26% for image, 24% for food and network, 18% for accessibility, 16% for responsibility, 14% for cabin crew, 10% for discount, 8% for others reason and 4% for onboard promotion, respectively.
    • Chart No.12 Showing the Reasons to Travel by Air Others 4 Network 12 Food 12 Onboard Promotion 2 Discount 5 Safety 19 Responsibility 8 Punctuality 18 Cabin Crew 7 Accessibility 9 Image 13 Service 26 Convenience 40 Airfare 16 0 20 40 60 No of Respondents SOURCE TABLE NO:12 Table No. 13 Showing the overall opinion of respondents,
    • according to the airlines’ services Overall Opinion Excellent Good Average Dissatisfaction Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Airfare 5 10 32 64 10 2 3 6 0 Reservation 14 28 28 56 8 1 - - 6 Help Desk 11 22 21 42 17 3 1 2 4 Check-in 16 32 23 46 10 2 1 2 Counter 0 In flight 13 26 22 44 13 2 2 4 6 Security 12 24 22 44 14 2 2 4 Checking 8 Food 15 30 20 40 11 2 4 8 2 Aircraft 9 18 27 54 11 2 3 6 2 Schedule 17 34 20 40 12 2 1 2 Convenience 4 Onboard 5 10 10 20 24 4 11 22 Promotion 8 Others 1 2 4 8 1 2 1 2 Note: In the above table, Freq refers to the number of respondents. Analysis and Interpretation The above table has been designed to show the satisfaction level of passengers regarding services, which are provided by airline. From the above data, it can be explained that: -  Overall services were rated as follows: - airfare (64%), reservation (56%), help desk (42%), check-in counter (46%), in-flight (44%), security checking (44%), food (40%), aircraft (54%), schedule convenience (40%), and others (8%) -- discount and punctuality.
    •  While most of passengers are not satisfied by the onboard promotion (i.e. 48%). Most of the passengers are quite satisfied on airline’s services. Chart No. 13. Showing the overall opinion of respondents, regarding to the airlines’ services Excellent % Good % Average % Dissatisfaction % 100% 0 2 2 2 6 4 4 6 8 16 2 90% 22 20 24 20 26 22 34 28 22 80% 2 70% 60% 56 46 40 48 Percentage 50% 40 44 44 54 64 42 8 40% 30% 20% 20 32 34 28 30 26 24 10% 22 18 2 10 10 0% od rs n re ft ng sk r e t n te gh io nc ra io he rfa Fo De ki un at rc fli ot ie Ot ec Ai rv Ai Co en lp om In Ch se He nv in Pr Re y Co k- ri t d ec ar cu e ul bo Ch Se d On he Sc Service parameters SOURCE TABLE NO:13
    • Table No. 14(a): Showing the opinion of Jet Airways’ respondents, according to the airline’s services. Jet Airways Excellent Good Average Dissatisfaction Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Airfare 2 7 21 75 4 14 1 4 Reservation 12 43 15 53 1 4 - - Help Desk 8 29 15 53 5 18 - - Check-in 12 43 13 46 3 11 - - Counter In flight 12 43 11 39 5 18 - - Security 5 18 16 57 6 21 1 4 Checking Food 9 32 15 53 3 11 1 4 Aircraft 8 29 16 57 4 14 - - Schedule 13 46 11 39 4 14 - - Convenience Onboard 3 11 7 25 11 39 7 25 Promotion Others 2 7 2 7 - - - - Note: In the above table, Freq refers to the number of respondents. Analysis and Interpretation The above table shows the data about the satisfaction level of Jet Airways’ passengers.  75% of passengers rated the airfare good while 14%, 7%, and 4% rated at average, excellent and dissatisfactory level, respectively.  Similarly reservation (53%), help desk (53%), check-in counter (46%), security checking (57%), food (53%), and aircraft (57%) have been rated.  For the in-flight service (43%) and schedule convenience (46%) has been the rating.
    •  39% of passengers are satisfied with onboard promotion at the average level while 25% are not satisfied. Chart No. 14(a): Showing the opinion of Jet Airways’ respondents, according to the airline’s services Excellent % Good % Average % Dissatisfaction % Jet Airways 100% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 11 11 14 14 90% 18 18 14 25 21 80% 7 70% 53 46 39 39 60% 53 57 53 39 Percentage 50% 57 75 40% 30% 7 46 25 43 43 43 20% 32 29 29 10% 18 11 7 0% s t d re g n er k e ht n af er oo in io es nc io fa nt ig cr th k at F D ot ie ir ou ec fl ir O v A n p om A er In h C ve el C es n H Pr on -i ty R k C rd ri ec cu le oa h du Se nb C he O Sc Service param eters SOURCE TABLE NO:14(a)
    • Table No. 14(b): Showing the opinion of Indian Airlines’ respondents, according to the airline’s services Indian Airlines Excellence Good Average Dissatisfaction Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Airfare 2 13 9 57 4 24 1 6 Reservation 1 6 9 57 6 37 - - Help Desk 1 16 5 31 9 57 1 6 Check-in 2 13 6 37 7 44 1 6 Counter In flight - - 7 44 7 44 2 12 Security 5 31 4 25 6 38 1 6 Checking Food 2 13 4 24 8 50 2 13 Aircraft - - 6 37 7 44 3 19 Schedule 2 13 8 50 5 31 1 6 Convenience Onboard - - 3 19 10 62 3 19 Promotion Others - - 1 6 2 13 1 6 Note: In the above table, freq refers to the number of respondents. Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, we can see the satisfaction level of Indian Airlines’ passengers.  There are 57% of passengers who rated the airfare at good level while 24%, 13%, and 6% of respondents have rated at average, excellent and dissatisfactory, respectively.  Similarly reservation (57%), in-flight (44%) and schedule convenience (50%) are the ratings.  While for help desk (57%), check-in counter (44%), food (50%), security checking (38%) and aircraft (44%) are the favourable rating.  62% of passengers are satisfied with onboard promotion at the average level, similarly 19% are dissatisfied.
    • Chart No. 14(b): Showing the opinion of Indian Airlines’ respondents, according to the airline’s services Indian Airlines 100% 0 6 6 6 6 6 12 13 90% 19 19 6 24 37 80% 31 38 44 70% 57 44 50 60% 44 percentage 50% 62 13 25 57 40% 50 57 30% 37 31 24 44 20% 37 31 6 10% 19 13 16 13 13 13 6 0% 0 0 0 0 s t d re g er on k e ht n af er in oo es nc io fa nt ig ti cr th k D F ie ot ir va ou ec fl ir O A n p om A er In h C ve el C es n H Pr on -i ty R k C rd ri ec cu le oa h du Se nb C he O Sc Excellence % Good % Average % Dissatisfaction % SOURCE TABLE NO:14(b) Table No. 14(c): Showing the opinion of Air Sahara’s respondents, according to the airline’s services
    • Air Sahara Excellent Good Average Dissatisfaction Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Freq. % Airfare 1 17 4 66 1 17 - - Reservation 2 34 4 66 - - - - Help Desk 2 34 3 50 1 16 - - Check-in 2 34 3 50 1 16 - - Counter In flight 2 34 4 66 - - - - Security 2 34 3 50 1 16 - - Checking Food 4 66 2 34 - - - - Aircraft 1 16 5 84 - - - - Schedule 1 16 2 34 3 50 - - Convenienc e Onboard 2 34 1 16 3 50 - - Promotion Others - - 1 16 - - - - Note: In the above table, Freq refers to the number of respondents. Analysis and Interpretation It has been observed from the above table that: -  Respondents feel airfare (66%), reservation (66%), help desk (50%), check-in counter (50%), in-flight (66%), security checking (50%), and aircraft (80%)and others service (16%) are good.  While respondents are in favour of excellence i.e.66%.  Similarly, 50% of respondents feel that they are not been satisfied with schedule convenience and onboard promotion. Chart No. 14(c): Showing the opinion of Air Sahara’ respondents, according to of the airline’s services
    • Air Sahara Excellent % Good % Average % Dissatisfaction % 100% 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 16 16 16 90% 34 80% 50 50 70% 66 66 60% 50 50 50 84 percentage 50% 66 16 16 40% 66 34 30% 20% 34 34 34 34 34 34 10% 17 16 16 0% 0 s t re d g on er k e n ht af er oo in es nc io fa nt ig ti cr th k F D ot ie ir va ou ec fl ir O A n p om A er In h C ve el C es n H Pr on -i ty R k C d ri ec ar cu e ul o h Se nb C d he O Sc service param eters SOURCE TABLE NO:14(c) Table No. 15(a): Showing the ranking of the satisfaction level, according to the airlines’ services
    • Factors 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Weighta ge Average Airfare 12 3 8 2 3 1 7 3 2 8 1 132 30 72 16 21 6 35 12 6 16 1 350 Reservatio 8 10 15 2 3 6 3 1 1 1 0 n 88 10 13 16 21 36 15 4 3 2 0 420 0 5 Help Desk 4 8 4 7 5 7 3 8 2 2 0 44 80 36 56 35 42 15 32 6 4 0 350 Check-in 6 5 4 7 9 10 3 2 3 1 0 counter 66 50 36 56 63 60 15 8 9 2 0 365 In-flight 3 3 3 9 9 4 10 4 2 3 0 33 30 27 72 63 24 15 16 6 6 0 327 Security 4 7 4 5 2 6 5 10 6 0 1 Checking 44 70 36 40 14 36 25 14 1 0 1 324 8 Food 5 10 5 6 6 4 5 5 4 0 0 55 10 45 48 42 24 25 20 1 0 0 371 0 2 Aircraft 5 5 5 5 5 6 2 6 9 2 0 55 50 45 40 35 36 10 24 2 4 0 326 7 Schedule 14 6 3 4 5 1 3 4 6 4 0 Convenien ce 154 60 27 32 35 6 15 16 1 8 0 371 8 Onboard 0 2 6 3 3 1 4 2 9 19 1 Promotion 0 20 54 24 21 6 20 8 2 38 1 219 7 Others 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 3 18
    • Note: -The factors deciding the satisfaction of services for airline, assigning one (1=11 marks) for the most satisfaction and eleven (11=1 marks) for the dissatisfaction level. Table No. 15(b): Showing the ranking of the satisfaction level, according to the airlines’ services Factors Rank No. Weightage average Reservation 1 420 Schedule Convenience 2 371 Food 2 371 Check-in Counter 3 365 Airfare 4 350 Help Desk 4 350 In-flight 5 327 Aircraft 6 326 Security Checking 7 324 Onboard Promotion 8 219 Others 9 18 Analysis and interpretation From the above tables we can see that the respondents are most satisfied with the reservation, schedule convenience and food being the next most satisfying aspect followed by check in counter, air fare, help desk, inflight service, aircraft, security check and on board promotion. In the above table, others refer to the royalty points the customers get by flying. Hence we can infer that reservation is ranked no.1. food and schedule convenience is ranked.2.
    • Chart No. 15 (a) and (b) W eightage Average of Satisfaction Level 219 18 350 371 420 326 350 371 365 324 327 Airfare Reservati on Hel p Desk Check in Counter In-fl ight Security Checking Food Aircraft Schedul e Convenience Onboard Promoti on Others SOURCE TABLE NO:15(a) and (b)
    • Table No. 16: Showing the percentage of period of having the agencies of airlines. Years No of Respondents Percentage Less than 1 year 0 0% 1 – 3 years 2 20 % 3 – 5 years 5 50 % Above 5 years 3 30% Total 10 100% Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, it is shown that 30% of respondents have the agency of airlines more than 5 years. 50% of respondents have the agency of airlines from the period of 3 – 5 years. While 20% of respondents have the agency of airlines from the period of 1 – 3 years.
    • Chart No.16 Showing the period of having the agency of airlines 6 5 5 No. of respondents 4 3 3 2 2 1 0 0 Less than 1 1 – 3 years 3 – 5 years Above 5 years year No. of years SOURCE TABLE NO:16 Table No. 17: Ranking the Airways according to agencies’ customers preference
    • Rank No. 1 Rank No. 2 Rank No. 3 Respondents % Respondents % Respondents % Airlines Jet Airways 8 80% 2 20% 0 0% Indian Airlines 3 30% 4 40% 3 30% Air Sahara 0 0% 3 30% 7 70% Analysis and Interpretation Through agencies’ point of view, most of the customers (80%) prefer to travel by Jet Airways thus it is ranked no.1. The second place goes to Indian Airlines i.e. 40%. Most of customers (70%) are dissatisfied by the Air Sahara. So it is rank third.
    • Chart No. 17: Ranking the Airways according to agencies, customers preference Jet Airways Rank no.1 Rank No.2 80% 20% Rank No.3 0% Indian Airlines Rank No.3 30% Rank No.2 Rank No.1 40% 30%
    • Air Sahara Rank Rank Rank No.1 No.2 No.3 0% 30% 70% SOURCE TABLE NO:17 Table No. 18: Showing the percentage of benefits which airlines provide for agencies Particulars No of Percentage Respondents Commission 7 77% Special Gifts 3 23% Special Offer for the Family 0 0% Others 0 0% Note: - out of the ten respondents, some of them gave more than one reason because of which the total number of respondents is shown as 13 but it is expressed in terms of percentage. Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, it is shown that most of the respondents have got the commission i.e.77% as the benefit from having the agency of airlines. The second benefit is the special gifts from airlines i.e. 23% .
    • Chart No. 18: Showing the percentage of benefits which airlines provide for agencies 23% 0% 77% Commission Special Gifts Special Offer for the Family Others SOURCE TABLE NO:18
    • Table No. 19: Showing the Percentage of Respondents, According to Satisfaction Level Particular Excellent Good Average Dissatisfaction s No of Percentag No of Percentag No of Percentag No of Percentage Respondent e Respondent e Respondent e Respondent s s s s Jet Airways 5 50% 5 50% - - - - Indian 2 20% 7 70% 1 10% - - Airlines Air Sahara 2 20% 5 50% 2 20% 1 10% Total 10 100% 10 100% 10 100% 10 100% Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, it can be understood that 50% of respondents feel Jet Airways is excellent and good, while 70% of respondents are in the favour of Indian Airlines. 50% of respondents rated Air Sahara good and only 10% are not satisfied with it.
    • Chart No.19 Showing the percentage of respondents according to satisfaction level 70% 70% 60% 50%50% 50% 50% 40% percentage 30% 20% 20% 20% 20% 10% 10% 10% 0% 0% 0% 0% Jet Airw ays Indian Ai rl i nes Air Sahara Airlines Excellence Good Average Dissatisfaction SOURCE TABLE NO:19
    • Table No. 20: Showing the percentage of respondents who will recommend the Airline to their customers Particulars No of Percentage Respondents Jet Airways 7 59% Indian Airlines 2 33% Air Sahara 1 8% Note: - out of the ten respondents, some of them gave more than one answer. Analysis and Interpretation Most of respondents (59%) feel like recommending Jet Airways to the customers. While only 33% and 8% of respondents have recommended Indian Airlines and Air Sahara to their customers, respectively. Chart No.20 Showing the percentage that the respondents will recommend [airlines] to their customers.
    • Chart no.20 showing the percentage that the respondents(agencies) will recommend to their customers. 8% Jet Airw ays Indian Airlines 33% 59% Air Sahara SOURCE TABLE NO:20 Table No. 21: Showing the reasons, why the respondents recommend specific airlines to their customers Particulars No of Percentage Respondents
    • High Commission 0 0% Special Offer 4 31% Discount 3 23% Others 3 46% Note: out of the ten respondents, some gave more than one answer. others in the above table refer to the royalty points that the agency get by recommending the airlines. Analysis and Interpretation Respondents have suggested the specific airline to their customers according to the following reasons: Special offer 31%, Discount 23% and others reason 46%.
    • Chart No. 21: Showing the reasons, why the respondents recommend specific airline to their customers 0% 31% 46% 23% High Commission Special Offer Discount Others SOURCE TABLE NO:21
    • Table No. 22: Showing the percentage of the customers’ reaction when the agencies suggested specific airline to them. Accept Reject No of respondent Percentage No of respondent Percentage Particulars Jet Airways 10 100 % 0 0% Indian Airlines 10 100 % 0 0% Air Sahara 6 60 % 4 40 % Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, it is shown that most of customers accepted the suggestion from their agencies to select the airline.  Jet Airways has been accepted 100 %.  Indian Airlines has been accepted 100 %.  Air Sahara has been accepted 60 % while its rejection level is 30 %.
    • Chart no.22 showing the condition to accept or reject the suggestion. 12 10 10 10 No of respondents 8 6 Accept 6 Reject 4 4 2 0 0 0 Jet Airw ays Indian Airlines Air Sahara Airlines SOURCE TABLE NO:22 Table No. 23: Showing the reasons why the customers book tickets through their agency, and expressed in terms of percentage.
    • Particulars No of Percentage Respondents Convenience 6 50% Discount 2 33% Trustworthy 2 17% Others 0 0% Analysis and Interpretation According to the above data, it can be explained as follow: -  60% of customers feel convenient to book the ticket through the agencies.  70% of customers have trust in the agencies.  While 40% of customers will get the discount from their agencies.  Other reasons are 10%.
    • Table No. 23: Showing the reasons why the customers book tickets through their agency, and expressed in terms of percentage. 0% 17% 50% 33% Convenience Discount Trustworthy Others SOURCE TABLE NO:23
    • Table No. 24: Showing the profile of the respondents based on who their customers will book the ticket for: Particulars No of Percentage Respondents Himself or herself 6 50% Friends 1 8% Relatives 1 8% Company 2 34% Others 0 0% Note: - Out of the ten respomdents, some of them gave more than one answer but it is expressed in terms of percentage. . Analysis and Interpretation From the above table, the data is shows that: -  50% of customers book the ticket for themselves.  8% of customers book the ticket for friends.  8% of customers book the ticket for relatives.  34% of customers book the ticket for company.  0% of customers book the ticket for other purposes.
    • Table no.24 showing the profile of the respondents based on who their customers will book the tickets for 7 6 5 No.of respondents 4 3 2 1 0 Himself or Friends Relatives Company Others herself SOURCE TABLE NO:24
    • Table No. 25: Showing the percentage of respondents whether they will continue to suggest the specific airline to their customers. Particulars No of respondents Percentage Yes 8 80 % No 2 20 % Total 10 100 % Analysis and Interpretation We can infer that 80 % of respondents will continue to suggest the specific airline to their customers while 20 % of respondents will not continue.
    • Chart No.25 Showing the percentage of respondents whether they will continue to suggest specific airline to customers No 20% Yes No Yes 80% SOURCE TABLE NO:25
    • Findings and recommendations Summary of Finding 1. Jet Airways is one of the favorite domestic airlines in India regarding its services and customers satisfaction. It is seen that approximately 50% [ refer table no.14(a)] of respondents are satisfied with services, which are provided by airline. 2. While doing the survey, it was found that maximum 56% of respondents prefer to travel by Jet Airways, according to the good services provide. About 32% and 12% of respondents prefer to travel by Indian Airlines and Air Sahara, respectively.[Refer table no.8] 3. Similarly (26%) advertising and (22%) family, and others factors have influenced the respondents select this airline.[Refer table no.11] 4. While talking about overall services, the respondents are in favor of whatever the airline provides. 5. While doing the survey, it was noticed that the most influencing factor which motivates the respondents to selecting traveling by air are as follows: -  Convenience 80%  Service 52%  Safety 38%  Punctuality 36%  Airfare 32%.
    • These top five factors influence the respondents to select traveling by air. [Refer table no.12] 6. On the other hand, maximum 48% of respondents are satisfied with the onboard promotion at the average level while 22% of respondents are dissatisfied.[Refer table no.13] 7. 76% of respondents feel comfortable to travel by the economy class. While 18% of respondents have selected to travel by executive class. Whereas 6% have selected to travel in both classes since it depends on the schedule and seat availability.[Refer table no.10] 8. While doing the survey, it is found that 66% of respondents have selected Jet Airways as the most preferable airline. While 22% and 12 % of respondents have selected Indian Airlines and Air Sahara as their preference, respectively. [Refer table no.9] 9. According to agencies, they are satisfied with having the agencies of airlines, for the following reasons given below: -  They get the high commission and special gifts from the airline.  The customers, who book the ticket through the agencies, are satisfied with many offers got from agencies i.e. discount and special offers.  Moreover, while doing the survey, it is found that convenience, trustworthy and discount are the main purposes for customers to book the ticket through agencies.[Refer table no.21 and 23] It can be concluded that the passengers as well as agencies are satisfied with the services, which are being provided by airlines.
    • Limitations of the Survey 1. Some passengers did not know English properly to fill the questionnaire. 2. Passengers were in a hurry to board the flight so they refuse to fill the questionnaire. 3. There was less time to conduct survey. 4. Passengers did not participate to answer some questions. 5. It took time for each passenger. 6. The questionnaire was set with the help of jet air ways staff, due to which there were some technical words, making it tough for the passengers to understand the question and answer. 7. While doing the survey, it is found that some agencies hesitated and could not reveal proper answer since they consider such information very confidential. Recommendations and Suggestions While doing the survey, most passengers were satisfied with the services that the airline has provided for them. Anyhow, some points are suggested as given below: -  Onboard promotion should be improved and provided for all passengers.  To make arrangements for connecting flights traveling from one sector to another by using different airlines.  Airfare should be reduced.  The airline should continuously provide a special discount to frequent fliers and students.  The airline should improve and manage the time for connecting flight.  While meals served are very good, snacks should be customized according to the place, city or region.
    • Conclusions ‘Jet Airways’ can be ranked as ‘no.1’ for its guaranteed rewards (based on survey). ‘Jet Airways’ services are excellent. They believe in innovativeness and creativity to serve their customers satisfactorily and keep them happy always. To compete with its competitors, in this day and age, they however need to improve their services marginally to excel and remain in the top bracket. After a thorough analysis and comparison with Indian air lines and air sahara, we can conclude by saying that jet air ways is the most preffered air line on the sole basis of the quality of service they provide. It is further seen that good service leads to customer satisfaction inturn leading to loyalty of the customers. CUSTOMISED SERVICE = DELIGHTED CUSTOMERS = BRAND LOYALTY
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY Rust, Ronald T., Zahorik, Anthony J. and Keiningham, Timothy L. SERVICE MARKETING. Addison Wesley, New York, 1999. Zeithaml, Valarie A. and Bitner, Mary Jo. SERVICE MARKETING: INTEGRATING CUSTOMER FOCUS ACROSS THE FIRM. 3rd ed., Tata McGraw – Hill, New Delhi, 2003. Jetwings. “10 YEARS OF SERVICE AND GROWTH”. Vol.3, May 2003, Issue 5, pp.16 – 30. The Economic Times Bangalore. “GAINING ALTITUDE”. 5 May 2003, pp.8 – 10. Internet: www.jetwings.com www.servicemanagement.com Questionnaire for passengers
    • . 1. NAME ________________________________________ 2. AGE _______ 3. SEX  Male  Female 4. ADDRESS _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 5. EDUCATION  Pre – university  Degree  Post – graduate  Above post – graduate 6. OCCUPATION  Student  Private company  Public company  Government sector  Businessman  Others……………………. 7. MONTHLY INCOME  Less than 20,000  20,001 – 30,000  30,001 – 50,000  Above 50,000 8. HOW OFTEN DO YOU TRAVEL BY AIR?  Weekly
    •  Monthly  Yearly  Others…………………… 9. FOR WHICH PURPOSE DO YOU TRAVEL BY AIR?  Business  Leisure  Others…………. 10. WHICH AIRLINE DO YOU PREFER?  Jet Airways  Indian Airlines  Air Sahara 11. RANK THE LISTED AIRLINES ACCORDING TO YOUR PREFERANCE  Jet Airways  Indian Airlines  Air Sahara 12. WHICH CLASS DO YOU TRAVEL BY?  Executive Class / Business Class  Economic Class 13. HOW DID YOU SELECT THE AIRLINE?  Friends  Family  Advertisement  Agencies  Others………………..
    • 14. WHY DO YOU PREFFER TO TRAVEL BY AIR? (You can select more than one reason)  Air fare  Convenience  Service  Image  Accessibility  Cabin Crew  Punctuality  Responsibility  Safety  Discount  Onboard Promotion  Food  Network  Others………………. 15. WHAT IS YOUR OPINION ABOUT FOLLOWING SERVICES PROVIDED BY YOUR AIRLINE? Excellent Good Average Dissatisfactory Airfare Reservation Help Desk Check-in counter Inflight Security checking Food Aircraft Schedule Convenience Onboard Promotion Others………
    • 16. RANK THE SATISFACTORY LEVEL ACCORDING TO YOUR PREFERENCE.  Airfare  Reservation  Help Desk  Check – in Counter  Inflight  Security Checking  Food  Aircraft  Schedule Convenience  Onboard Promotion  Others……………….. 17. ANY SUGGESTIONS _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ DATE ______/______/ 2005 PLACE __________________ Signature _____________
    • Questionnaire for Agencies . 1. NAME OF AGENCY _______________________________________ 2. LOCATION AND ADDRESS _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________ 3. SINCE HOW LONG DO YOU HAVE THE AIR TRAVEL AGENCY FOR?  Less than 1 year  1 – 3 years  3 – 5 years  More than 5 years 4. WHICH IS THE MOST PREFFERED AIRLINE ACCORDING TO YOUR CUSTOMERS? (PLEASE RANK)  Jet Airways  Indian Airlines  Air Sahara 5. WHAT BENEFITS WILL YOU AVAIL FROM THE AIRLINE?  Commission  Special Gifts  Special offers for your family  Others……………………….. 6. IS THE DECISSION OF CHOOSING THE AIR LINE BASED ON YOUR ADVICE OR CUSTOMERS CHOICE?  AGENCIES ADVICE  CUSTOMERS CHOICE 7. CHECK YOUR SATISFACTION LEVEL FROM LISTS OF AIRLINES. Excellent Good Average Unsatisfactory Jet Airways
    • Indian Airlines Air Sahara 8. FROM THE FOLLOWING AIRLINES WHICH ONE WOULD YOU RECOMMEND TO YOUR CUSTOMERS?  Jet Airways  Indian Airlines  Air Sahara 9. WHAT ARE THE REASONS THAT YOU SUGGESTED SPECIFIC AIRLINE TO THE CUSTOMERS? (You can select more than one reason)  High Commission  Special Offer  Discount  Others…………… 10. WHAT IS THE REACTION WHEN YOU SUGGESTED SPECIFIC AIRLINE TO YOUR CUSTOMERS? SPECIFY. . Accept Reject Jet Airways Indian Airlines Air Sahara 11. IF THEY HAVE REJECTED JET AIRWAYS, PLEASE SPECIFY THE REASON. 12. FOR WHICH PURPOSE DO THE CUSTOMERS BOOK THE TICKET THROUGH THE AGENCY?  Convenience  Discount  Trustworthy  Others………………
    • 13. THE CUSTOMERS BOOK THE TICKET FOR:  Himself or Herself  Friends  Relatives  Company  Others……………….. 14. WILL YOU CONTINUE TO SUGGEST THE SPECIFIC AIRLINE TO CUSTOMRS?  Yes  No 15. ANY SUGGESTIONS ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ Date ______/______/ 2005 Place __________________ Signature _______________ “AWARDS AND APPRECIATION” 1993 AIMO Visvesvaraya Entrepreneurship Award 1993
    • from Mr. Salman Khursheed, the then Minister of State for External Affairs, at a function organized by the All India Manufacturers’ Organization 1994 OCT Service Excellence Award from Global Managers 1995 AUG Bharat Sarathi Samman of the National Press India was given to Mr. Naresh Goyal by Mr. Shivraj Patil, the then Speaker of Lok Sabha and President of the National Press India, at a function held at the Parliament House Annexe 1996 SEP Citibank Diners Club Blue Moon Award for Service Excellence OCT The Great Management Show Award for Punctuality, Safety, Quality of Service and Customer Orientation NOV The World Travel Market Global Award by Reed Exhibition Companies in conjunction with Trav Talk magazine for contribution to travel and tourism in the respective media sponsor’s regions worldwide 1996 DEC H & FS Best Domestic Airline of the Year Award for excellence in hospitality 1997 SEP The airline was adjusted the “Best” by the Rangaswamy Tourism Foundation associated with the Karnataka Tourism Development Corporation. The award was presented at the 33rd Federation of Hotel and Restaurant association of India held at Ooty.
    • NOV Best Domestic Airline Award for Service Excellence – Key to Competitiveness NOV Best Airline of the Year 1996 – 97 Award conducted by IATA Agents Association, Kozhikode ( Kerala) 1998 NOV India’s Best Domestic Airline at the International Brand Summit, Mumbai DEC H & FS – Best Domestic Airline of the Year 1998 for excellence in hospitality 2000 JAN Vocational Excellence Award by Rotary Club of Mumbai, North End MAR H & FS – Best Domestic Airline of the Year 1999 for excellence in hospitality 2000 APR Aviation Week and Space Technology 1998, Aerospace Laurels Award conferred on the Chairman, Mr. Naresh Goyal, for being “outstanding in the field of Commercial Air Transport” SEP Priyadarshini Academy Award for “outstanding contribution to Aviation and Travel Sector” Ernst & Young “Entrepreneur of the Year” Award for Services OCT “Distinguished Alumni Award 2000” for the meritorious and distinguished performance as an entrepreneur 2001 FEB Air Transport World Award, 2001 for Market Development, presented in Washington DC
    • JUN ITFT, Chandigarh, “Award of Excellence” presented by Prof. Chamanlal Gupta, Minister of State for Civil Aviation, for “outstanding contribution to the development of aviation and airline industry” JUL At the MasterCard Annual Meeting Asia – Pacific 2001 held in the Gold Coast of Australia, Jet Airways won an award in the Co – branded/Affinity Program category 2002 MAR The Qimpro Gold Standard 2001 award for recognizing Mr. Goyal as an individual who “has led the implementation of a world – class quality management model” on the lines of the European Quality Award criteria, the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award criteria and the Deming Prize criteria SEP “Best Domestic Airline of the Year 2001” at the Ninth H & FS National Awards for Excellence inhospitality and Tourism OCT Unanimously voted “Best Domestic Airline” of Asia by the Readers of Travel Trade Gazette (TTG) Asia and China editions of 14 countries in the region “for dedication towards commitment and service excellence” 2003 JAN India’s Most Respected Company in the Travel and Hospitality Sector for 2003 by the business weekly, BusinessWorld