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Iipm chapter 1

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• 1. Chapter 1 Formulas and Functions What is a formula? ormula is an equation that performs operations on worksheet data. Formulas can F perform mathematical operations, such as addition and multiplication, or they can compare worksheet values or join text. Fo rmulas can refer to other cells on the same worksheet, cells on other sheets in the same workbook, or cells on sheets in other workbooks. Constructing a Formula (Syntax) Formulas calculate values in a specific order. A formula in Microsoft Excel always be gins with an equal sign (=). The equal sign tells Excel that the succeeding characters constitute a formula. Following the equal sign are the elements to be calculated (the operands), which are separated by calculation operators. Excel calculates the formu la from left to right, according to a specific order for each operator in the formula. You can change the order of operations by using parentheses. Cell and Range References A formula can refer to constant values and to other cells. The cell that contains the formula is known as a dependent cell when its value depends on the values in other cells. For example, cell B2 is a dependent cell if it contains the formula =C2. Whenever a cell that the formula refers to changes, the dependent cell also changes, by default. For example, if a value in any of the following cells changes, the result of the formula =B2+C2+D2 also changes. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 1 of 20
• 2. A reference identifies a cell or a range of cells on a worksheet and tells Microsoft Excel where to look for the values or data you want to use in a formula. With references, you can use data contained in different parts of a worksheet in one formula or use the value from one cell in several formulas. You can also refer to cells on other sheets in the same workbook, to other workbooks, and to data in other programs. References to cells in other workbooks are called external references. Cell/Range to refer to Use The cell in column A and row 10 A10 The range of cells in column A and rows 10 A10:A20 through 20 The range of cells in row 15 and columns B B15:E15 through E All cells in row 5 5:5 All cells in rows 5 through 10 5:10 All cells in column H H:H All cells in columns H through J H:J The range of cells in columns A through E and A10:E20 rows 10 through 20 What is a function? F unctions are predefined formulas that perform calculations by using specific values, called arguments, in a particular order, or structure. Arguments Arguments can be numbers, text, logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, arrays, error values such as #N/A, or cell references. The argument you designate must produce a valid value for that argument. Arguments can also be constants, formulas, or other functions. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 2 of 20
• 3. Logical Functions These comprise of AND, OR, IF, NOT functions. AND Function: Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE; returns FALSE if one or more arguments is FALSE. Syntax AND(logical1,logical2, ...) Logical1, logical2, ... are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE. • The arguments m ust evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, or the arguments must be arrays or references that contain logical values. • If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells, those values are ignored. • If the specified range contains no lo gical values, AND returns the #VALUE! error value. AND(TRUE, TRUE) equals TRUE AND(TRUE, FALSE) equals FALSE ♠Worksheet Example Comment [J1]: Instructor Actio n: Explain Several other To analyze if a person is working in D shift and is handling less than 5 contacts. combinations of AND ALSO. No. of Contacts Shift Agent Name Handled (N/D) Result Formula Used Ramesh 2 D TRUE AND(C2="d",B2<5) Rakesh 16 D FALSE Gaurav 12 N FALSE Arjun 6 D FALSE Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 3 of 20
• 4. OR Function: Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE; returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE. Syntax OR(logical1,logical2,...) Logical1,logical2,... are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE. • The arguments must evaluate to logical values such as TRUE or FALSE, or in arrays or references that contain logical values. • If an array or reference argument contains text or empty cells, those values are ignored. • If the specified range contains no logical values, OR returns the #VALUE! error value. Examples OR(TRUE) equals TRUE If A1:A3 contains the values TRUE, FALSE, and TRUE, then: OR(A1:A3) equals TRUE ♠Worksheet Example Comment [J2]: Explain difference between AND, OR To analyse if person is working in N shift or is handling more than 5 contacts. No. of Contacts Shift Agent Name Handled (N/D) Result Formula Used Ramesh 2 D FALSE OR(C2="N",B2>5) Rakesh 16 D TRUE Gaurav 12 N TRUE Arjun 6 D TRUE Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 4 of 20
• 5. IF Function: Returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to FALSE. Use IF to conduct conditional tests on values and formulas. Syntax IF(logical_test,value_if_true ,value_if_false) Logical_test is any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE. For example, A10=100 is a logical expression; if the value in cell A10 is equal to 100, the expression evaluates to TRUE. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to FALSE. This argument can use any compar ison calculation operator. IF cell E5 contains the value 10, then the formula =IF(E5=10,”YES”,”NO”) would give the output as YES if the value in cell E5 is changed to be not equal to 10 then the formula output would be NO. Value_if_true is the value that is returned if logical_test is TRUE. For example, if this argument is the text string "Within budget" and the logical_test argument evaluates to TRUE, then the IF function displays the text "Within budget". If logical_test is TRUE and value_if_true is blank, this argument returns 0 (zero). To display the word TRUE, use the logical value TRUE for this argument. Value_if_true can be another formula. Value_if_false is the value that is returned if logical_test is FALSE. For example, if this argument is the text string "Over budget" and the logical_test argument evaluates to FALSE, then the IF function displays the text "Over budget". If logical_test is FALSE and value_if_false is omitted, (that is, after value_if_true, there is no comma), then the logical value FALSE is returned. If logical_test is FALSE and value_if_false is blank (that is, after value_if_true, there is a comma followed by the closing parenthesis), then the value 0 (zero) is returned. Value_if_false can be another formula. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 5 of 20
• 6. ♠Worksheet Example To calculate the Wages @Rs. 100 per hour for employees who work in N shift and have worked greater than 5 hours. No. of Shift Hours Agent Name (N/D) Worked Result Formula Used Ramesh N 6 600 IF(AND(C2="N",D2>5),D2*100,0) Rakesh D 4 0 Gaurav N 7 700 Arjun D 7 0 Chetna N 5 0 Comment [J3]: Explain the concept of NESTED IF • Up to seven IF functions can be nested as value_if_true and value_if_false arguments to construct more elaborate tests. ♠Worksheet Example To calculate the Wages @Rs.100 per hour for employees who work in D shift and @Rs.150 for those employees who work in the night shift but have worked for greater than 5 hours. No. of Shift Hours Agent Name (N/D) Worked Result Formula Used Ramesh N 6 900 IF(B2="D",C2*100,IF(C2>5,C2*150,"NO OT")) Rakesh D 4 400 Gaurav N 7 1050 Arjun D 7 700 Chetna N 5 NO OT • Microsoft Excel provides additional functions that can be used to analyze your data based on a condition. For example, to count the number of occurrences of a string of text or a number within a range of cells, use the COUNTIF worksheet function. To calculate a sum based on a string of text or a number within a range, use the SUMIF worksheet function. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 6 of 20
• 7. Conditional Counting and Summing Using a Single Condition In many cases, you don't want to count or sum all of the records. Rather, you want to focus on records that meet a certain condition, for example, only the sales made by a sales representative. Use the COUNTIF and SUMIF functions to return these types of results . ev a neserpeR se aS a yb edaM se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC ev a neserpeR se aS a yb edaM se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC ev a neserpeR se aS a yb edaM se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC eviiiittttattttneserpeR sellllaS a yb edaM sellllaS ffffo rebmuN ehtttt ttttnuoC The following formula is a straightforward use of the COUNTIF function. It counts the sales made by Jones: =COUNTIF(A2:A13,"Jones") sev a neserpeR se aS reh O yb edaM se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC seviiitttatttneserpeR selllaS rehtttO yb edaM selllaS fffo rebmuN ehttt tttnuoC sev a neserpeR se aS reh O yb edaM se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC This formula counts all the sales not made by Jones : =COUNTIF(A2:A13,"<>Jones") eu aV egraT a nah re aerG se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC eu aV egraT a nah re aerG se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC eu aV egraT a nah re aerG se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC eullllaV ttttegraT a nahtttt rettttaerG sellllaS ffffo rebmuN ehtttt ttttnuoC This formula counts the number of sales in C2:C13 that are greater than a target value. In this example, the target value would have to be entered into D1. This COUNTIF function accepts a cell reference in the second argument. Also, notice that this formula uses the concatenation operator (&) to join the greater than symbol (>) with the cell reference. =COUNTIF(C2:C13,">"&D1) egarevA selaS eht naht retaerG selaS fo rebmuN eht tnuoC This formula returns the number of sales that exceed the average sales amount. This formula also shows that you can use a function as the second argument for COUNTIF: =COUNTIF(C2:C13,">"&AVERAGE(C2:C13)) Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 7 of 20
• 8. Conditional Summing The SUMIF function is similar to COUNTIF, but it uses an additional argument. The first argument refers to the range that is being evaluated, the second argument represents the criteria, and the third argument is the range to be summed. h noM nev G a n se aS pU ddA h noM nev G a n se aS pU ddA h noM nev G a n se aS pU ddA httttnoM neviiiiG a niiii sellllaS pU ddA This formula adds up all the sales in January: =SUMIF(B2:B13,"=Jan",C2:C13) As with the COUNTIF function, an "equal to" condition is assumed if the comparison operator is omitted. The preceding formula could have been written as: =SUMIF(B2:B13,"=Jan",C2:C13). seviittattneserpeR sellaS rehttO yb edaM sellaS pU ddA sev a neserpeR se aS reh O y edaM se aS p d This formula adds up the sales made by sales representatives other than Rogers. It uses a "not equal to" comparison : =SUMIF(A2:A13,"<>Rogers",C2:C13) eu aV n a reC a nah re aerG se aS eh pU ddA eu aV n a reC a nah re aerG se aS eh pU ddA eu aV n a reC a nah re aerG se aS eh pU ddA eullllaV niiiiattttreC a nahtttt rettttaerG sellllaS ehtttt pU ddA This formula adds up all the values that are greater than 500. In this formula, the condition being evaluated is based on the same range that is being summed: =SUMIF(C2:C13,">500",C2:C13) Note: The COUNTIF and SUMIF functions can also use wildcard comparison characters. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 8 of 20
• 9. Conditional Counting and Summing Using Multiple Conditions The formulas in the section return counts or sums based on two or more conditions . e aS a edaM ev a neserpeR se aS a sh noM o rebmuN eh nuoC e aS a edaM ev a neserpeR se aS a sh noM o rebmuN eh nuoC e aS a edaM ev a neserpeR se aS a sh noM o rebmuN eh nuoC ellllaS a edaM eviiiittttattttneserpeR sellllaS a shttttnoM ffffo rebmuN ehtttt ttttnuoC This formula counts the number of times Jones made sales in February. It is a conditional counting formula that uses two conditions. =SUMPRODUCT((A2:A13="Jones")*(B2:B13="Feb")) nuomA c cepS a nah re aerG erA se aS nehW sh noM nuoC nuomA c cepS a nah re aerG erA se aS nehW sh noM nuoC nuomA c cepS a nah re aerG erA se aS nehW sh noM nuoC ttttnuomA ciiiiffffiiiicepS a nahtttt rettttaerG erA sellllaS nehW shttttnoM ttttnuoC You can use a formula similar to the one above to work with numeric data. This formula returns the number of rows in which the month is January and the amount is greater than 200. =SUMPRODUCT((B2:B13="Jan")*(C2:C13>200)) seulaV cificepS neewteB erA taht selaS fo rebmuN eht tnuoC This formula counts the number of times the sales amount falls between two 200 and 500. The formula uses two conditions: the amount greater than or equal to 200, and the amount less than or equal to 500. =SUMPRODUCT((C2:C13>=200)*(C2:C13<=500)) sno dnoC eerhT no desaB se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC sno dnoC eerhT no desaB se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC sno dnoC eerhT no desaB se aS o rebmuN eh nuoC snoiiiittttiiiidnoC eerhT no desaB sellllaS ffffo rebmuN ehtttt ttttnuoC This formula returns the amount when the sales representative is Jones, the month is February, and the amount is greater than 500. This function uses a single argument, which consists of three logical expressions multiplied together. The resul t is the sum of these products. =SUMPRODUCT((A2:A13="Jones")*(B2:B13="Feb")*(C2:C13>500)) Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 9 of 20
• 10. httnoM enO ni sellaS s ’’eviittattneserpeR a pU ddA h noM enO se aS s ev a neserpeR a ddA The formula below adds up sales amount based on two conditions: when the sales representative is Jones and the month is February. = SUMPRODUCT((A2:A13="Jones")*(B2:B13="Feb")*(C2:C13)) sev a neserpeR se aS owT ro se aS den bmoC eh ddA sev a neserpeR se aS owT ro se aS den bmoC eh ddA seviiiittttattttneserpeR sellllaS owT roffff sellllaS deniiiibmoC ehtttt ddA sev a neserpeR se aS owT ro se aS den bmoC eh ddA The formula below returns the sum of the sales amount for both Jones and Rogers. This formula uses a single argument and consists of three expressions. Notice, however, that the first two arguments are not multiplied as in the previous examples. Because we are doing a logical OR comparison, they are summed. Summing two logical values results in a value of 1 when either of the expressions is TRUE. =SUMPRODUCT(((A2:A13="Jones")+(A2:A13="Rogers"))*(C2:C13)) NOT Function: Reverses the value of its argument. Use NOT when you want to make sure a value is not equal to one particular value. Syntax NOT(logical ) Logical is a value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE. If logical is FALSE, NOT returns TRUE; if logical is TRUE, NOT returns FALSE. Examples NOT(FALSE) equals TRUE NOT(1+1=2) equals FALSE Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 10 of 20
• 11. Lookup Functions Returns a value either from a one-row or one -column range or from an array. The LOOKUP function has two syntax forms: vector and array. The vector form of LOOKUP looks in a one- row or one-column range (known as a vector) for a value and returns a value from the same position in a second one-row or one -column range. The array form of LOOKUP looks in the first row or column of an array for the specified value and returns a value from the same position in the last row or column of the array. First Confirm if you have Look Up Wizard installed on your machine, Tools Addins Check Lookup Wizard OK. Now we will see how a Lookup Function works. Go to the Tools Menu Wizard Lookup. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 11 of 20
• 12. Step 1 Choose the source data range here. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 12 of 20
• 13. Step 2 Enter the column you want to find the value from and the row label for the row that you want to find the value for. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 13 of 20
• 14. Step 3: Choose The Options for pasting the formula results. Choose Destination cells for other data also. Final Step: Click Finish Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 14 of 20
• 15. Final Output (Resul ts of Lookup): No. of Contacts Handled Shelly Chatterjee 27 HLOOKUP Searches for a value in the top row of a table or an array of values, and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify in the table or array. Use HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a row across the top of a table of data, and you want to look down a specified number of rows. Use VLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data you want to find. Syntax HLOOKUP (lookup_value ,table_array,row_index_num,range_lookup) Lookup_value is the value to be found in the first row of the table. Lookup_value can be a value, a reference, or a text string. Table_array is a table of information in which data is looked up. Use a reference to a range or a range name. • The values in the first row of table_array can be text, numbers, or logical values. • If range_lookup is TRUE, the values in the first row of table_array must be placed in ascending order: ...-2, -1, 0, 1, 2,... , A-Z, FALSE, TRUE; otherwise, HLOOKUP may not give the correct value. If range_lookup is FALSE, table_array does not need to be sorted. • Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent. • You can put values in ascending order, left to right, by selecting the values and then clicking Sort on the Data menu. Click Options , click Sort left to right , and then click OK. Under Sort by, click the row in the list, and then click Ascending . Row_index_num is the row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned. A row_index_num of 1 returns the first row value in table_array, a row_index_num of 2 returns the second row value in table_array, and so on. If row_index_num is less than 1, HLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value; if row_index_num is greater than the number of rows on table_array, HLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 15 of 20
• 16. Range_lookup is a logical value that specifies whether you want HLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. In other words, if an exact match is not found, the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned. If FALSE, HLOOKUP will find an exact match. If one is not found, the error value #N/A is returned. Remarks • If HLOOKUP can't find lookup_value, and range_lookup is TRUE, it uses the largest value that is less than lookup_value. • If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in the first row of table_array, HLOOKUP returns the #N/A error value. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 16 of 20
• 17. VLOOKUP Searches for a value in the leftmost column of a table, and then returns a value in the same row from a column you specify in the table. Use VLOOKUP instead of HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data you want to find. Syntax VLOOKUP (lookup_value ,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup) Lookup_value is the value to be found in the first column of the array. Lookup_value can be a value, a reference, or a text string. Table_array is the table of information in which data is looked up. Use a reference to a range or a range name, such as Database or List. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 17 of 20
• 18. • If range_lookup is TRUE, the values in the first column of table_array must be placed in ascending order: ..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ..., A-Z, FALSE, TRUE; otherwise VLOOKUP may not give the correct value. If range_lookup is FALSE, table_array does not need to be sorted. • You can put the values in ascending order by choosing the Sort command from the Data menu and selecting Ascending. • The values in the first column of table_array can be text, numbers, or logical values. • Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent. Col_index_num is the column number in table_array from which the matching value must be returned. A col_index_num of 1 returns the value in the first column in table_array; a col_index_num of 2 returns the value in the second column in table_array, and so on. If col_index_num is less than 1, VLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value; if col_index_num is greater than the number of columns in table_array, VLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. Range_lookup is a logical value that specifies whether you want VLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. In other words, if an exact match is not found, the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned. If FALSE, VLOOKUP will find an exact match. If one is not found, the error value #N/A is returned. Remarks • If VLOOKUP can't find lookup_value, and range_lookup is TRUE, it uses the largest value that is less than or equal to lookup_ value. • If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in the first column of table_array, VLOOKUP returns the #N/A error value. • If VLOOKUP can't find lookup_value, and range_lookup is FALSE, VLOOKUP returns the #N/A value. Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 18 of 20
• 19. Access the VLOOKUP function from the Functions Menu. This is the VLOOKUP function run on the Agent Daily data function. Paste Special Advanced Excel – Version 1.2 Updated Jan 10, 2010 - IIPM All rights reserved. Material Designed by Rahul Kumar Kandoi. Page 19 of 20