Narasi: Each city needs identity in order to be seen as a distinct, separate entity from other city and to be called as a ‘place’. Identity also an important attribute of a good environment and a valuable component for sustainability.Street as the element of the city is the most influencing elements of the urban identity. A city’s streetscape, is a reflection or manifestation of the city’s identity.. Why? Because we experiencing a city while we move through its streets… We see, feel, and absorb the information presented along the street as we pass through it, and we create a perception about the city. Street is a city's showcase where visitors put on first sight impression and decide whether he or she will like or dislike a city or even fall in love with it.Just as Jane Jacobs mentioned in her book “…..quote”…Another Jacobs said about “great streets”, some street in a city which has unique quality so it become an icon of the city
Urban identity can changes as the consequences of technology and ongoing urbanism. Many of those changes are bring positive economic growth for the citizen but also have consequences on the alteration or vanishing of the local character and identity, and produce a standard, uniform, urban character.
Here’s the theoritical definitions of streetscape and it characterStreetscape is define as the visual representation of three dimensional urban space, from the building façade of one side to the other side of the street, which is seen & perceived by street user. It is consist of three layers:1. the private frontage (the privately owned land between the building facade and the plot boundary that may include the arcades, porches, stoops, fences, and yards)2. the public frontage (the publicly owned space between the private plot boundaries and the edge of the vehicular lanes that may include sidewalks or pathways, street planters, trees and other vegetated landscaping, and other street furniture)3. the vehicular lanes (as mentioned by Aurbach)It is composed of elements that categorized as static system and dynamic system. The static system comprises the permanent and semi-permanent physical elements of street, including the buildings envelope, the open space, the road, the street furniture, and the green infrastructure. Whereas the dynamic system is the activities that occupy the street spaces, including the movement of people on vehicles (Mechanical system) or as pedestrians and their activities around the building which are connected or oriented to the street (Human system).
And some theoritical notions about urban identity:In this paper, urban identity is defined as the same notions with place identity (or more preisely is identity of a place) in the urban environment, As Kevin lynch defines defines the identity of a place as attributes which provides place’s individuality or distinction from other places and serves as the basis for its recognition as a separable entity .Place identity depends on people’s perception of the environment which composed from the observable information, as Relph said that it is the experience of eye, mind, and intention of the observer on the physical appearance of the place. But human being are more likely to recognize distinctiveness or uniqueness of the environment, so unique attributes and distinct environments are tend to be more imageableUrban identity isa complex interaction of 3 components : 1. Physical setting or appearance, that is the real physical structure of a place including buildings, landscape, climate, and aesthetical quality 2. Function or observable activity,that concern with how people and place communicate 3. Meaning/symbols, which are the result of human experience & intention on a place as reaction to the physical setting and function of placeWhere the distinctiveness or uniqueness of those 3 components will create a ‘sense of place’5. People perceivethe sense of place of an urban environment are based on their cultural backgrounds (Relph, 2007) and their familiarity with the place (Garnham, 1985), so the urban identity has to be seen from the insider (residents – collective identity, and outsider (visitors – distinctive identity)
Streetscape Connectivityand the Making ofUrban Identity• Nurhikmah Budi HARTANTI• Widjaja MARTOKUSUMO4th Arte-Polis International ConferenceCREATIVE CONNECTIVITY AND THE MAKING OF PLACELiving Smart by DesignBandung, 5-7 July 2012
IntroductionStreet as the element of urban identity Each city needs identity to be seen as a distinct entity Street is the most influencing element of the urban identity Streetscape is a manifestation of city’s identity, a city’s showcasewhich create the first impression of a city“Streets and their sidewalks, the main public places ofa city, are its most vital organs.Think of a city andwhat comes to mind? Its streets. If a city’s streets lookinteresting, the city looks interesting; if they look dull,the city looks dull.Jane Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961)Allan Jacobs: Great streets are usually iconic streetstempatberlibur.wordpress.comTeachmefinance.compps.org
Urban identity changes due to development & urbanism Streets are products, witnesses & victims of the urban growth Economic growth vs loss of local charactersProblems of Bogor CityFrom a botanical & resort city built by Dutch Collonial in 18thcentury, named “Buitenzorg” (means “no worry”)Now : Multi-function, tourism & shopping city, with “new”urbanized streetscapes characterProblem Statement:How is the influence of development along the streets in Bogoron streetscape connectivity and the making of urban identity?
Streetscapes: definition, character & attribute• Streetscape is the visual representation of three dimensional urbanspace that span from the building façade of one side to the otherside of the street. It includes of three layers, : the private frontage,the public frontage, and the vehicular lanes (Aurbach, 2005)• The streetscape character generally deals with the appearanceand relationship of the exterior features of a town or element ofthe streets that determine its character (Wibisono, 2001).• Streetscape elements consist of:a. Static system, the physical attributes of street that comprises thebuilding envelope, the open space, the road lane, the streetfurniture, and the green infrastructure.b. Dynamic system, the activities in the street spaces, includingthe movement of people on vehicles or as pedestrians and theiractivities around the building which are connected or oriented tothe street)Building PrivateFrontagePublicFrontageVehicle lane BuildingPrivateFrontagePublicFrontage13232
Urban IdentityDefinition:• Urban identity = Place identity (identity of place) in the urbanenvironment• Attributes which provides place’s individuality or distinction fromother places and serves as the basis for its recognition as aseparable entity (Lynch, 1960)Attributes• Urban identity is a complex interaction of 3 components :1. Physical setting or appearance2. Function or observable activity3. Meaning and symbols• Identity of place is the experience of eye, mind, and intention ofthe observer to the physical appearance of the place (Relph, 1976).• Human being are more likely to recognize distinctiveness oruniqueness of the environment as the attribute of imageability andidentity.• Urban identity is seen from the insider (residents – collective identity,and outsider (visitors – distinctive identity)
DiscussionHistorical Perspective On Bogor Street PatternBefore 1973Botanical garden & de Grootepostweg as orientation of the citygrowth (linear)After Toll Road (1973)The main access & citydevelopment shifted to Jl.Pajajaran - Tajur
The Street ConnectivityEconomicdevelopmentcreates in-connectivity ofstreetscapecharacters :• Jl. Pajajaran (3segment),• Jl. Suryakencana(2 segment)Some old street stillhave maintainedstreetscapeconnectivity :Jl.Jalak Harupat,Jl.Juanda, Jl.
The Making Of Bogor Urban IdentityThe most imageable street:Residents:1. Jl. Pajajaran2. Jl. Suryakencana3. Jl JuandaVisitors:1. Jl. Pajajaran2. Jl. Juanda3. Jl. SuryakencanaThe most identifiable elements:1. Physical elements: Big trees &Colonial buildings2. Activities : FOs, SpecialityRestaurants, culinary activitiesImageable street & connectivity:• Resident : Strong visual &physical character• Visitor : Traffic & circulationconnectivityResidentsVisitors
CONCLUSION• Streetscape character will define the urban identity, where adistinct character or perceivable differences of the streetenvironment visual arrangement creates a strong imageabilityof the streets.• Streetscape development driven by new economic activitiescreates new characters that resulting in lack of visualconnectivity of the streetscape and will affect the urbanidentity.• The most important physical attribute of Bogor streetscapes arethe big trees and the old colonial building, especially the BogorPalace• The combinations of distinct natural attribute, historicalsignificance, and tourism have strong contribution to the streetimageability to define Bogor urban identity• Streetscape connectivity formed by physical attributes of thestreetscape, functional connectivity created by on going publicactivities, and traffic connectivity determined by accessibilityand legibility, is likely to have a significant contribution increating urban identity.