TEST OF ENGLISH AS A
Ihsan M. Abdulqadir
salahaddin university – Kurdistan
Formally known as "Test of English as a
Foreign Language" was developed to
measure the English language proficiency of
non-native English language speakers.
In 1962, American national council and
representatives of thirty governmental and
private organizations formed (TOEFL) to
address the problem of ensuring English
language proficiency for non-native speakers
wishing to study at U.S. universities.
The TOEFL test was first administered in 1964
by the (Modern Language Association)
financed by grants from the (Ford Foundation)
and (Dan forth Foundation.)
Who administer (TOEFL) today?
from 1965 The TOEFL is Administered by
Educational Testing Service (ETS), founded in
1947, is the large nonprofit educational
testing and assessment organization. Sets the
questions, conducts the test twice or thrice
in a month and sends each examinee the
The Purpose of TOEFL test:
To evaluate the English proficiency of people
who are non-native speakers according to the
TOEFL scores, or to pinpoint someone’s level of
English in every skills (reading, writing,
listening and speaking).
Eligibility for TOEFL:
● Anyone and everyone are eligible
● No restrictions based on age.
● No restrictions based on qualifications.
Formats of TOEFL test:
1- PBT (Paper based test)
2- CBT (Computer based test)
3- IBT (Internet based test)
The TOEFL paper-based Test (PBT) is
available in limited remote areas, means
test takers use paper to answer the
questions, Needs (140 – 150 minutes)
Listening Comprehension: (30 – 40 minutes)
Measures the ability to understand English,
The Listening section consists of 3 parts. The
first one contains 30 questions about short
conversations. The second part has 8 questions
about longer conversations. The last part asks
12 questions about lectures or talks.
Structure and Written Expression: (25 minutes)
Measures recognition of selected structural and
grammatical points in standard written English,
the Structure and Written Expression section has
15 exercises of completing sentences correctly,
and 25 exercises of identifying errors.
Reading Comprehension: (55 minutes)
The Reading Comprehension section has 50
questions about reading passages.
In July 1998, (ETS) introduced the computerbased version of the TOEFL test (TOEFL CBT) in
many areas of the world. . New types of
questions were added to the listening and
Reading sections; these new question types
moved beyond multiple-choice questions. The
CBT was discontinued in September 2006 and
these scores are no longer valid.
Since its introduction in late 2005, the
TOEFL Internet-based Test (IBT) format has
progressively replaced both the (CBT) and
(PBT), although (PBT) is still used in select
areas. The TOEFL IBT test has been introduced
in phases, with US, Canada, France, Germany
and Italy in 2005 and the rest of the world in
2006. four-hour, four sections
Reading: (60 – 80 minutes)
● consists of 4–6 passages, each approximately
● Passages require understanding of rhetorical
functions such as cause-effect, compare-contrast
● Students answer (36 – 56) questions about main
ideas, details, essential information, sentence
insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and
Listening: (60 - 90 minutes)
● consists of six passages, each 3–5 minutes
● passages include two speakers’ conversations
and four academic discussions. Each conversation
is heard only once.
● The questions (34 – 51 questions) are meant to
measure the ability to understand main ideas,
important details, implications, relationships
between ideas, organization of information,
speaker purpose and speaker attitude.
Speaking: (20 minutes)
● (6) tasks: (2) independent and (4)integrated.
● In the two independent tasks, test-takers
answer opinion questions on familiar topics.
● In two of the integrated tasks, test-takers read
a passage, listen to an academic conversation
and answer a question by combining information
from the text and the talk
● In the two remaining integrated tasks, testtakers listen to an academic course lecture or a
conversation and then respond to a question
about what they heard.
Writing: (50 minutes)
● (2) tasks: (1)integrated and (1) independent
● In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage
and then listen to a speaker discuss the same
topic. The test-taker will then write a summary
about the important points in the listening passage
and explain how these relate to the key points of
the reading passage.
● In the independent task, the test-takers must
write an essay by their opinion on an issue
The TOEFL test is scored on a scale of 0 to
and Writing 30