BDD style Unit Testing


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BDD style Unit Testing

  1. 1. How BDD style Unit Testing helps you write better test code (and some caveat) @ihower at RubyKaigi 2011 Ruby Taiwan & OptimisDev
  2. 2. About Me• Chang, Wen-Tien • a.k.a. ihower • • I’m ihower and here is my blog and t witter I have program ruby from 2006 for ruby on rails And I’m Yet another rubyist since rails.
  3. 3. From Taiwan 3.5hrsI come from Taiwan which is far away about 4hours flightI’m sorry that I can’t speak Japanese, and English is not my native languageIf I speak Chinese, I guess you will escape now.So please forgive my english. I hope it’s simple to understand.
  4. 4. I work at Optimis International, which is an america company in Taipei
  5. 5. Ruby Taiwan http://ruby.twBeside daily job, I’m the founder and organizer of Ruby Taiwan community, I foundthe community since 2008.
  6. 6. RubyConf Taiwan 2011/8/26-27 We are organizing rubyconf taiwan now. The date is augest 26 and 27 and it open registration now. Welcome to Taiwan.
  7. 7. Last year photo. Nice small meeting room. pretty sweet.
  8. 8. Agenda• Why Unit Testing?• How to do unit test in BDD style?• Some BDD caveatToday’s agenda. There will be three part:First, I will talk about why, then how to do, finally talk about some caveat.
  9. 9. How many people do unit test?Before get into BDD, how many people here do unit test all the way?Could you raise your hand?
  10. 10. How many people use BDD framework (RSpec)?And how many people use rspec?
  11. 11. Two kinds of test: Verification Unit Test Are we writing the code right? Customer Test Validation (Acceptance Test) Are we writing the right software?There are roughly t wo kinds of test:Unit test and Customer test(or called Acceptance test)Unit test is about verification, the question is are we writing the code right?Customer test is about validation, the question is are we writing the right soft ware?
  12. 12. Two kinds of test: Test individual class and Unit Test method Customer Test Test functionality of the (Acceptance Test) over-all systemUnit test test individual class and methodAnd Customer Test test functionality of the over-all system
  13. 13. Today is all about Unit TestingToday is all about unit testing
  14. 14. 1. Why Unit Testing?Let get started part one
  15. 15. 1.Verification Do we write the code right?First, it does verification
  16. 16. How to verify this?There are three execution path def correct_year_month(year, month) if month > 12 if month % 12 == 0 year += (month - 12) / 12 month = 12 else year += month / 12 month = month % 12 end end return [year, month] endFor example, how to verify this simple if else code.There are three execution path which means if you manually testyou need play it 3 times in different way
  17. 17. via UI?
  18. 18. via irb console?
  19. 19. Manually test is inefficient
  20. 20. Unit testing give usinstant coding feedback it "should return correct year and month" do correct_year_month(2011, 3).should == [2011, 3] correct_year_month(2011, 14).should == [2012,2] correct_year_month(2011, 24).should == [2012,12] endautomatic unit testing can give us instant feedbackyou can test many times you want.
  21. 21. 2.Check regressionSafety Net: when you add new feature and refactoringtest also check the regressionit’s a safety net when you add new feature or refactoringIt can give you confidence that you won’t break up any existed behavior
  22. 22. 3.API design guide you write better API, especially test first.third, Since test code is the client for your production code,so if the test code is hard to write, it may means your API is not good.Writing unit testing can guide you write better API, especially when you writetest first.
  23. 23. 4.Documentation What the result should be?Communication is the key for software development.finally, uniting test can be your code documentation.It can answer you what’s the class and method result should be?Communication the key for successful soft ware development.
  24. 24. Brief Summary• Your code is not trivial: Automatic test can save your verify/debug time• Your code is not throwing way: Regression test• Test first: Guide you write better API• Tests as Documentation
  25. 25. 2. How to do unit test in BDD style?
  26. 26. xUnit Framework• Each test has four-phase: • Setup • Exercise • Verify (assertion) • TeardownFirst, We use xUnit framework to test code.Each test should be isolation and has four phase:1. Setup Data2. Exercise production code3. Verify the result 4. Cleanup the data
  27. 27. Ruby Test::Unit class OrderTest < Test::Unit::TestCase def setup 1 @order = end def test_order_amount assert_equal 0, @order.amount end 3 2 endThe is the classical ruby test::unit codeRed 1 is setupRed 2 is exerciseRed 3 is verify. We assert the result equal to zero
  28. 28. Minitest::Spec describe Order do before do 1 @order = end it "should have default amount is 0" do @order.amount.must_equal 0 end 2 3 endHere is the BDD style using minitest::specred 1 is setupred 2 is exercisered 3 is verify. the result must equal to zero
  29. 29. First impression about BDD• Syntax is different • Like specification • More readableSo, what’s the first impression about bdd style?Ok, the syntax is different, it looks like spec and may more readableOther wise the structure is not much different
  30. 30. What’s BDD? • An improved xUnit Framework • Focus on clearly describe the expected behavior • The emphasis is Tests as Documentation rather than merely using tests for verification.Let’s back to see what’s BDD means.It’s not totally new test framework, it just an improved xUnit frameworkIt focus on describe the expected behaviorIt emphasize tests as documentation, not just for verification.
  31. 31. Terminology changed New paradigm: Executable Specification• “Test” becomes “Spec”• “Assertion” becomes “Expectation”• “test method” becomes “example” (RSpec)• “test case” becomes “example group” (RSpec)For correspond to the new paradigm: the test is the executable specificationThe “test” becomes “spec”“Assertion” becomes “Expectation”
  32. 32. Ruby BDD tools • RSpec • Minitest/SpecIn Ruby, there are some choices:RSpec is the most powerful, has many features and many awesome syntax.Minitest/spec is the Ruby 1.9 build-in xunit library. It’s simple, fast, and justworks!
  33. 33. Learn BDD style • It’s about syntax • syntax • syntax • syntaxLet’s learn how to write BDD style test code.Basically, it’s just learn about syntax.
  34. 34. BDD style element (1) Context
  35. 35. one test case describe Order do # ... end a class or string # or describe "A Order" do # ... endInstead of test case class, BDD style use “describe” block for one test caseIt accept parameter which means the stuff you want to describe, usually a classname or just description text.
  36. 36. Can be nested describe Order do describe "#amount" do # ... #method means end instance method describe ".size" do # ... end .method means class method end“describe” block can be nested.And inner “describe” usually describe method.Pound means instance methoddot means class method
  37. 37. In RSpec, alias_method :context, :describe 1 describe Order do 2 context "when initialized" do 3 describe "#amount" do # ... end 3 describe ".size" do # ... end endIs RSpec, it alsoend describe to context. aliasit used to organize test code into different context.
  38. 38. BDD style element (2) Declarative test
  39. 39. one test method: it you can write test description in plain text describe Order do describe "#amount" do describe "when user is vip" do it "should discount five percent if total > 1000" do # ... end it "should discount ten percent if total > 10000" do # ... end end endEach test method is “it” blockAnd it accept one parameter which is description text
  40. 40. Setup method: before describe Order do before do @user = :is_vip => true ) @order = :user => @user ) end endthe setup method is “before” block
  41. 41. nested before btw, the outer data will be shared, make the test faster describe Order do 1 before do @user = :is_vip => true ) @order = :user => @user ) end describe "#amount" do 2 before do @order2 = :user => @user ) end end“before” block also support nested endMore important, the outer setup data will be shard for all inside test methods.Make the test faster since we need not create again every time.
  42. 42. class SomeTest < Test::Unit::TestCase setup do @value = 1 end test "sample test" do assert_equal 1, @value end context "a context" do setup do @value += 1 end test "more tests" do assert_equal 2, @value end endThere are library which make end test/unit support context and declarative test ,like contest
  43. 43. class UserTest < Test::Unit::TestCase context "A new User" do before do @user = User.first end test "should have the right full_name" do assert_equal "Dude Man", @user.full_name end endOr context
  44. 44. Rails support declarative test (but no nested context) class PostsControllerTest < ActionController::TestCase setup @post = posts(:one) end test "should show post" do get :show, :id => assert_response :success end endEven rails, It supports declarative test syntax. It use “test” blockBut no nested context.
  45. 45. BDD style element (3) Expectation
  46. 46. Expectation(Assertion) Minitest/Spec @order.amount.must_equal 1900 @order.amount.wont_equal 2000 lambda{ order.ship! }.must_raise NotPaidErrorBDD style assertion is called expectation.In menitest/spec, the methods are must_equal, wont_equal, must_raiseIn unit/test, some people may confuse assert method that first parameter andsecond parameter, which one is actual and which one is expect. But BDD style, it’simpossible to confuse it.
  47. 47. Expectation(Assertion) RSpec @order.amount.should == 1900 @order.amount.should_not == 2000 lambda{ order.ship! }.should_raise NotPaidError # or expect { order.ship! }.to raise_error(NotPaidError)Here is rspec version. should equal and should_not equal
  48. 48. Matchy x.should == 42 y.length.should_not be(4) lambda { raise "FAIL" }.should raise_errorThere is also library can make test/unit support bdd style expectation only.
  49. 49. BDD cares about the output
  50. 50. RSpec output :) Output (rspec) Really nice code documentationRSpec does the output very well, you can see really nice code documentation
  51. 51. HTML format
  52. 52. Minitest Output :(But I can’t not find how to generate code documentation in minitest/spec
  53. 53. require minitest/pride # Show your testing pride!I found there is a minitest/pride you can required! It may help format the output,so I try it!
  54. 54. Very funny @_@And here is the output....... very funny. Good job!
  55. 55. Use turn gemgem minitest # use gem version instead of stdlibrequire minitest/specrequire turnMiniTest::Unit.use_natural_language_case_names = trueMiniTest::Unit.autorunAnyway, There is a gem called trun which used in Rails 3.1It can generate nice test output for unit/testSo here I require it.Bt w, I suggest you use the latest minitest gem version, not standard library. Sincethe gem version is much new.I totally agree tenderlove suggestion yesterday that we should move somestandard library into gem.
  56. 56. Minitest::Spec output :)Here is the output, very nice.
  57. 57. Brief Summary• Three BDD style elements: • context • declarative test • expectation• test output can be code documentation
  58. 58. So...Why Syntax Matters?
  59. 59. Your language shape how you think! Language will not limit you, but it does influence how you think.
  60. 60. For example:
  61. 61. test_datetime_format# ruby/test/logger/test_logger.rbclass TestLogger < Test::Unit::TestCase def test_datetime_format dummy = STDERR logger = log = log_add(logger, INFO, "foo") assert_match(/^dddd-dd-ddTdd:dd:dd.s*d+ $/, log.datetime) logger.datetime_format = "%d%b%Y@%H:%M:%S" log = log_add(logger, INFO, "foo") assert_match(/^ddwwwdddd@dd:dd:dd$/, log.datetime) logger.datetime_format = "" log = log_add(logger, INFO, "foo") assert_match(/^$/, log.datetime) endendThis is a test code from ruby core for Loggerit test datetime_format method
  62. 62. the same test in rubyspec # rubyspec/logger/logger/datetime_format_spec.rb describe "Logger#datetime_format" do # ... it "returns the date format used for the logs" it "returns nil logger is using the default date format" end describe "Logger#datetime_format=" do # ... it "sets the date format for the logs" do format = "%Y" @logger.datetime_format = "%Y" @logger.datetime_format.should == "%Y" @logger.add(Logger::WARN, "Test message") @log_file.rewind regex = /2[0-9]{3}.*Test message/ @log_file.readlines.first.should =~ regex end it "follows the Time#strftime format" end This is the same test in rubyspec you can see it divide into many describe and it block.
  63. 63. In this case:• Test::Unit version just do verify• Spec version not only verify but also describe its behavior: • It help us understand what’s the method should do • It increases the test coverage
  64. 64. The BDD syntax guides you focus on the expected behavior
  65. 65. Emphasis onTests as Documentation
  66. 66. Rather than merely using tests for verification
  67. 67. 3. BDD style caveat
  68. 68. 1. Too magic?
  69. 69. Metaprogramming?• The BDD framework using metaprograming should not be the problem.• The problem is some (RSpec) advanced awesome syntax may make the test code hard to understand or not intuitive.Metaprogramming implementation should be the problem.If it is, then many ruby library is bad including rails.The problem is some advanced awesome syntax may hard to understand.
  70. 70. implicit subject (RSpec) describe Order do its(:status) { should == "New" } endFor example. RSpec has a feature callsd implict subject.You can omit the receiver of expectation method.It also has a syntax call its, its...... its....well, hard to explain... let see another equal version
  71. 71. Equal to this version: describe Order do before do @order = end it "should have default status is New" do @order.status.should == "New" end endoh.... I see...its will covert Order instance and call its methodwell, seems magic!
  72. 72. would like DRY? describe PostsController do describe "PUT #update" do before do 1 @post = Factory(:post) end it "allows an author to edit a post" do sign_in 2 put :update, :id =>, :body => "new content" 3 response.should be_successful end it "does not allow a non-author to edit a post" do sign_in Factory(:user) 2 put :update, :id =>, :body => "new content" 3 response.should be_forbidden end endAnother example end to test rails controller:red 1 is setup partred 2 is exercisered 3 is verifyThe red 2 exercise are almost the same, so some people may want to DRY.
  73. 73. But readable? describe PostsController do describe "PUT #update" do 1 let(:post) { Factory(:post) } before do sign_in user 2 put :update, :id =>, :body => "new content" end context "when logged in as posts author" do let(:user) { } it "allows the post to be updated" do 3 response.should be_success end end context "when logged in as another user" do let(:user) { Factory(:user) } it "does not allow the post to be updated" do 3 response.should be_forbidden end endSo they move the code into before block endand rspec has a feature called “let”, it’s a lazy and memorized method for setup enddata.Finally in the test method, Only left assertion: response.should be_success
  74. 74. Four-phase Test form is key to understand the test code• Setup Why? I think for test code:• Exercise four-phase test form is the key to understand.• Verify (assertion) When I see one test method, I must need to figure out what’s the setup, exercise and verify.• Teardown So, it should be easy to trace.
  75. 75. 2.English-like DSL? the-language-in.htmlSecond caveat is english-like DSL.Dave Thomas has a nice article explain this problem.
  76. 76. “The language in a DSL should be the language of the domain, not the naturallanguage of the developer. “ by DaveThomasHe To be english-like is not DSL’s purpose.The easy to use and readable DSL API is the purpose
  77. 77. # Bacon it should have an object identity do end the be is just “self”Let’s see one obvious example. This is a bacon test code.There is a be method inside method chain, but it does nothing and just return self.It existed only because we want to make it like english. Is it right?
  78. 78. RSpec matcher (1)target.should be_true # targer.should == truetarget.should be_false # targer.should == falsetarget.should be_nil # targer.should == niltarget.should be_a_kind_of(Array) # target.class.should == Arraytarget.should be_an_instance_of(Array) # target.class.should == Array On the other hand, RSpec has core feature called matcher for expectation. It also make the test code readable. In some way, It’s also very easy to use. like * be_true, * be_false * be_a_kind_of
  79. 79. RSpec matcher (2) target.should respond_to(:foo) # target.repond_to?(:foo).should == true target.should have_key(:foo) # target[:foo].should_not == nil target.should include(4) # target.include?(4).should == true target.should have(3).items # target.items.length == 3There are more example like* have_key* include
  80. 80. RSpec matcher (3) target.should be_empty # target.empty?.should == true target.should be_blank # target.blank?.should == true target.should be_admin # target.admin?.should == trueany prefix be_ matcher will covert it to that method with question mark.
  81. 81. RSpec matcher is very powerful # Custom Matcher describe 9 do it "should be a multiple of 3" do 9.should be_a_multiple_of(3) # (9 % 3).should == 0 end end # RSpec supports custom matchers DSL RSpec::Matchers.define :be_a_multiple_of do | expected| match do |actual| actual % expected == 0 end endRSpec matcher is very powerful since it even provide DSL to define your custommatcher which make the your test readable.
  82. 82. Some matchers I like, but some I dislike.It becomes personal taste :|
  83. 83. 3. Deep nested context? describe Order do before do 1 @order = end describe "#amount" do before do 1 @order2 = :total => 2000) end describe "when user is vip" do before do 1 @user = => true) end it "should discount five percent if total >= 1000" do # ... end end endThere are three end nested context here. For the most inner test method, it hasthree before block outside.
  84. 84. Deep nested is hateful It’s hard to understand what’s setup going on in sub-sub-sub-sub contextDeep nested context is hateful, It hard to trace the setup part when there is sub-sub-sub-sub context
  85. 85. Four-phase Test form is key to understand the test code• Setup Again. Four-phase Test form:• Exercise Deep context make setup part hard to trace.• Verify (assertion) That’s why Rails does not support nested context.• Teardown Rails team like flat test structure.
  86. 86. 4. Too mockist?• rspec-rails gem divides tests into model,controller,view,helper and encourages you use mocks.• should_receive easily make people test implementation rather than result by default. Make your test fragile. RSpec ship with very nice mock feature, And RSpec-rails divides tests into four layer which encourage you use mocks. But mocks has many caveats too, It make the test fragile easily.
  87. 87. 5.Performance penalty?• minitest/spec performance is almost equal to test/unit. It’s really fast.• RSpec performance is slower comparing to test/unit.minitest/spec performance is pretty well, you need not to worry about it.RSpec is slower, But when running test, I think the bottleneck is yourproduction code and the testing framework factor is not big problem.
  88. 88. Conclusion
  89. 89. yes, it’s not required...• BDD testing framework is unlike ActiveRecord for SQL, Rails for web development. It does not “simplify” test. It’s not an abstract tool for testing.• So, yes, It’s not required and some people think it’s unnecessary.
  90. 90. But it’s very valuable for your team!
  91. 91. • The BDD syntax guides you focus on the expected behavior, and increasing the test coverage.• Emphasis on Tests as Documentation rather than merely using tests for verification.It focus on describe the expected behavior and increase the test coverageIt emphasize tests as documentation, not just for verification.
  92. 92. Thanks for listening! Please tweet me if you have questions: @ihower
  93. 93. Reference• RSpec slides, ihower OSDC.TW 2011• xUnit Test Patterns• the-literate/• thoughts-on-testing-part-1.html