Effective Teaching

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Effective Teaching

  1. 2. This presentation has also got few slides of other authors who shared through slide share… I thank all those kind minds and dedicate this presentation to those minds who had mind to share
  2. 3. GOOD Morning
  3. 4. <ul><li>I can understand that it will be the most boring part of the teachers life to listen to some one else… </li></ul><ul><li>But…. When listening is going to appreciate us for what we are doing or make us more powerful / effective then what we are….. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening will be interesting…. !!!! </li></ul>
  4. 6. and today’s topic is …..
  5. 7. <ul><li>CHANGE </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Steps to Effective teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the teen brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handling student behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching Styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good teaching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various ways of teaching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known methodologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other methods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secrets of great teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Self hypnosis for your self development </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>Rapport </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the teen brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handling student behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 12. Adolescence is a time of growth and maturation in the brain.
  10. 13. Adolescence is also a time when many new behaviors begin to emerge, most of which irritate and frustrate parents & teachers!
  11. 14. Changes in RISK-TAKING behaviour Changes in ATTENTION Changes in MOTIVATION You might be surprised to learn that many adolescent behaviours are a direct result of brain changes, and are completely normal ! Typical teenage behavioural changes include:
  12. 15. BUT… the prefrontal cortex undergoes massive structural changes during adolescence, and it is one of the last brain areas to mature completely! Many cognitive abilities (including the control of attention) rely on the proper functioning of a part of the brain called the prefrontal cortex . ATTENTION: Are you listening?
  13. 16. In one study, researchers used two tasks to measure attention in adolescents, and performance increased with age. girls boys This might mean that older adolescents have a better attentional capacity than younger adolescents, and that attentional capacity improves as the brain matures. Thank goodness! Anderson et al. (2001) ATTENTION: Improves with age
  14. 17. “ She won’t write her homework! She lives like a animal! I don’t know what to do!” “ I don’t care…” “ I don’t want to…” “ Why won’t he just do what I ask him to do?” “ Leave me alone…” “ He won’t study! Doesn’t he realize that he won’t pass if he doesn’t study?” MOTIVATION: “I don’t care…”
  15. 18. One study looked at the differences in motivation between adults and teenagers. The researchers compared the brain activation of adults and teenagers while they were performing the same task for a reward. Compared to adults , teenagers under-use the brain circuits that are involved in motivation! Bjork et al. (2004) MOTIVATION: Adults vs. Teens
  16. 19. This under-use of the motivational system might be the reason why teenagers need extreme rewards to achieve the same level of brain activity as adults. AND… the difference in brain activity between teenagers and adults can be even LARGER when the reward is not instant. MOTIVATION: “Get Movin’ Kid!”
  17. 20. Most teenagers are more likely to do their homework for a Rs. 50 reward TONIGHT than for a Rs. 500 reward next week! What does this mean for me??
  18. 21. MOTIVATION: It takes time The primary motivation circuit helps promote decision making and helps in the selection of motivational drives for behaviour. The motivational drives that are represented in the primary motivation circuit change during puberty (for example, surges in sex hormones tend to increase sexual motivation). Chambers et al. (2003)
  19. 22. MOTIVATION: It takes time During these developmental changes in motivation circuitry, novelty-seeking and risk-taking behaviours might be promoted. However, as adolescence progresses, teens become increasingly motivated by the things that motivate adults (boring, responsible things like long-term rewards!) Chambers et al. (2003)
  20. 23. Teenagers are known for risk-taking, novelty seeking, reckless behaviour and impulsivity. Believe it or not, some degree of risk-taking in adolescence is normative (and adaptive)! <ul><ul><ul><li>(Spear, 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul>RISK-TAKING
  21. 24. <ul><ul><ul><li>(Spear, 2000) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk-taking might allow teens to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explore adult behaviour and privileges </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplish normal developmental tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from their mistakes </li></ul>BUT, risk-taking carries potential for negative outcome!! RISK-TAKING
  22. 25. Adolescence is generally a period of increased impulsivity and risk-taking behaviour, but some teens might be especially prone to engage in such behaviours. RISK-TAKING: What do we do? Galvan et al. (2007) So what do teens NEED?
  23. 26. Teenagers need the influence, patience, understanding and guidance of teachers & parents…
  24. 27. They need reminders of potential consequences and direction toward lesser risks…
  25. 28. And they need appropriate amounts of independence, freedom and responsibility.
  26. 29. <ul><li>Direct and Indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Some are in between Direct and Indirect </li></ul>
  27. 30. Direct people Indirect people Task Relationship Director Dominant Driver Task-oriented Socializer Outgoing Extrovert Expressive Influencing Thinker Reserved Analytical Detail Correct Relater Amiable Easy-going Patient Steady
  28. 31. Intellectual Detailed, precise, lengthy. Gathers information. Defines, clarifies, tests. Neat, meticulous, organized. Comprehensive steady worker. Passive Conservative, low key. Dependable, loyal patient. Team worker, agreeable. Practical, blends in well. Reconciling, good listener. Controller Blunt, direct, impatient. Task accomplisher. Bottom line results. Control oriented, self & others. Self-motivated, hard worker. Expressive Friendly, gregarious, talkative. Stands out, colorful. Creative, imaginative. Generates excitement. Initiates activity, motivates.
  29. 32. <ul><li>Rambling -- wandering around and off the subject. Using far-fetched examples or analogies. </li></ul><ul><li>Shyness or Silence -- lack of participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Talkativeness -- knowing everything, manipulation, chronic whining. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharp shooting -- trying to shoot you down or trip you up. </li></ul><ul><li>Heckling/Arguing -- disagreeing with everything you say; making personal attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Grandstanding -- getting caught up in one's own agenda or thoughts to the detriment of other learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Griping -- maybe legitimate complaining. </li></ul><ul><li>Side Conversations -- may be related to subject or personal. Distracts group members and you. </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>POSSIBLE RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Refocus attention by restating relevant point. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct questions to group that is back on the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Ask how topic relates to current topic being discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual aids, begin to write on board, turn on overhead projector. </li></ul><ul><li>Say: &quot;Would you summarize your main point please?&quot; or &quot;Are you asking...?&quot; </li></ul>Rambling -- wandering around and off the subject. Using far-fetched examples or analogies.
  31. 34. <ul><li>POSSIBLE RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Change attention from group to individual </li></ul><ul><li>Give strong positive reinforcement for any contribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve by directly asking him/her a question. </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Appoint to be small group leader. </li></ul>Shyness or Silence -- lack of participation.
  32. 35. <ul><li>POSSIBLE RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge comments made. </li></ul><ul><li>Give limited time to express viewpoint or feelings, and then move on. </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact with another participant and move toward that person. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the person individual attention during breaks. </li></ul><ul><li>Say: &quot;That's an interesting point. Now let's see what other people think.&quot; </li></ul>Talkativeness -- knowing everything, manipulation, chronic whining.
  33. 36. <ul><li>POSSIBLE RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Admit that you do not know the answer and redirect the question the group or the individual who asked it. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge that this is a joint learning experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore the behavior. </li></ul>Sharp shooting -- trying to shoot you down or trip you up.
  34. 37. <ul><li>POSSIBLE RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Redirect question to group or supportive individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize participant's feelings and move one. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge positive points. </li></ul><ul><li>Say: &quot;I appreciate your comments, but I'd like to hear from others,&quot; or &quot;It looks like we disagree.&quot; </li></ul>Heckling/Arguing -- disagreeing with everything you say; making personal attacks.
  35. 38. <ul><li>POSSIBLE RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Say: &quot;You are entitled to your opinion, belief or feelings, but now it's time we moved on to the next subject,&quot; or &quot;Can you restate that as a question?&quot; or &quot;We'd like to hear more about that if there is time after the class.&quot; </li></ul>Grandstanding -- getting caught up in one's own agenda or thoughts to the detriment of other learners.
  36. 39. <ul><li>POSSIBLE RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Hostility can be a mask for fear. Reframe hostility as fear to depersonalize it. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to fear, not hostility. </li></ul><ul><li>Remain calm and polite. Keep your temper in check. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't disagree, but build on or around what has been said. </li></ul><ul><li>Move closer to the hostile person, maintain eye contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Always allow him or her a way to gracefully retreat from the confrontation. </li></ul><ul><li>Say: &quot;You seem really angry. Does anyone else feel this way?&quot; Solicit peer pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow individual to solve the problem being addressed. He or she may not be able to offer solutions and will sometimes undermine his or her own position. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to him or her privately during a break. </li></ul><ul><li>As a last resort, privately ask the individual to leave class for the good of the group. </li></ul>Overt Hostility/Resistance -- angry, belligerent, combative behavior.
  37. 40. <ul><li>POSSIBLE RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Point out that we can't change policy here. </li></ul><ul><li>Validate his/her point. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate you'll discuss the problem with the participant privately. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate time pressure. </li></ul>Griping -- maybe legitimate complaining.
  38. 41. <ul><li>POSSIBLE RESPONSES: </li></ul><ul><li>Don't embarrass talkers. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask their opinion on topic being discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask talkers if they would like to share their ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Casually move toward those talking. </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Comment on the group (but don't look at them &quot;one-at-a-time&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>Standing near the talkers, ask a near-by participant a question so that the new discussion is near the talkers. </li></ul><ul><li>As a last resort, stop and wait. </li></ul>Side Conversations -- may be related to subject or personal. Distracts group members and you.
  39. 42. <ul><li>Emphasize the most critical concepts continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Provide students with a &quot;visual aid&quot; when possible to explain abstract concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Use in-class activities to reinforce newly presented material. </li></ul><ul><li>Help students create a &quot;link&quot; when teaching something new </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the importance of vocabulary in a course </li></ul><ul><li>Treat students with respect & hold students to a high standard </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>Instead of holding your students with an iron grip, allow them to be themselves until (and unless) their behavior distracts you or others in the class. </li></ul><ul><li>When you notice unproductive behavior, nip it in the bud. Otherwise, you send a clear message to the students that it's OK for them to talk while you are talking, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Use classroom management techniques before you become irritated, impatient or upset. We are much more powerful when we are centered, when we like out students, and when we view our students with fondness rather than impatience. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow students to save face. When we put students down in front of others, the entire class of students will turn against us. </li></ul><ul><li>Do all you can to feel good about yourself and others on a daily basis. Your attitude will come across to your students, so it is important to be in good mental and physical shape. </li></ul><ul><li>If, by chance, you feel that you have spoken sharply in an attempt to manager your students, own up to it. &quot;Wow, that sounded harsh. Forgive me!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Remind yourself: &quot;If teaching were easy, everyone would be doing it.&quot; Teaching in front of a classroom full of students can be challenging, but on the other hand, very rewarding! </li></ul>
  41. 46. Good teaching Teaching Styles New techniques
  42. 47. <ul><li>Good teaching is as much about passion as it is about reason </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching is about substance and treating students as consumers of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching is about listening, questioning, being responsive, and remembering that each student and class is different </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching is about not always having a fixed agenda and being rigid, but being flexible, fluid, experimenting, and having the confidence to react and adjust to changing circumstances </li></ul>
  43. 48. <ul><li>Good teaching is also about style </li></ul><ul><li>good teaching is about humor </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching is about caring, nurturing, and developing minds and talents </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching is supported by strong and visionary leadership, and very tangible institutional support -- resources, and personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Good teaching is about mentoring between senior and junior faculty, teamwork, and being recognized and promoted by one's peers </li></ul>
  44. 49. <ul><li>Good teaching is about having fun, experiencing pleasure and intrinsic rewards ... like locking eyes with a student in the back row and seeing the synapses and neurons connecting, thoughts being formed, the person becoming better, and a smile cracking across a face as learning all of a sudden happens. Good teachers practice their craft not for the money or because they have to, but because they truly enjoy it and because they want to. Good teachers couldn't imagine doing anything else. </li></ul>
  45. 50. <ul><li>Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture With Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>AV Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Small Group Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Report-Back Sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Worksheets/Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Guest Speaker </li></ul>
  46. 61. <ul><li>Visualization </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Self Talk </li></ul><ul><li>Triggering Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Going through notes </li></ul>
  47. 92. PMR Visualization
  48. 93. It’s the last time we are meeting for this year… and I just want to
  49. 94. imtiyaaz. dr Any time, if u wish to get in touch with me, with pleasure – [email_address] [email_address]
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