Endocrine system

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Endocrine system

  1. 1. The Pituitary Pituitary secretes 8 hormones Two divisions: 1. TSH 2. ACTH 3. FSH • Anterior pituitary 4. LH ________ 5. GH 6. PRL _________________________________________________________________ • Posterior pituitary 8. ADH (antidiuretic hormone), or vasopressin 9. Oxytocin
  2. 2. What the letters stand for…• TSH: thyroid-stimulating hormone• ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone• FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone• LH: luteinizing hormone• GH: growth hormone• PRL: prolactin• MSH: melanocyte-stimulating hormone• ADH: antidiuretic hormone• Oxytocin
  3. 3. Pathology• Pituitary – Gigantism –too much GH in childhood – Acromegaly – too much GH in adulthood – Pituitary dwarfs – too little GH in childhood – Diabetes insipidus - too much ADH• Pancreas – Diabetes mellitus – one type of insulin (not enough)• Thyroid – Hyperthyroidism, commonest is Grave’s disease (autoimmune) – Hypothyroidism • In childhood leads to cretinism • Endemic goiter from insufficient iodine in diet • Adult hypothyroidism (myxedema): autoimmune 42
  4. 4. Pathology, continued• Adrenal gland – Cushing’s syndrome (see next pic) • Usually caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor • Rarely by tumor of adrenal cortex • Iatrogenic – Addison’s disease • Hyposecretion (under secretion) of adrenal cortex • Usually involves cortisol and aldosterone: low blood glucose and sodium, severe dehydration, fatigue, loss of appetetie, abdominal pain (Jane Austin) 43
  5. 5. Thyroid Problems• What would happen if the thyroid could no longer produce T3 and T4?• No negative feedback to hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
  6. 6. Goiter
  7. 7. Hypersecretion of TSH or TH
  8. 8. Hyposecretion of TH
  9. 9. ↑GH as Juvenile
  10. 10. ↑GH as an Adult
  11. 11. How Does Hypersecretion of GH Happen?
  12. 12. ↓GH = pituitary dwarfism
  13. 13. Too many steroids
  14. 14. Hypersecretion of Adrenal Cortex
  15. 15. What Would the Feedback Loop Look Like for Cushing’s Syndrome?
  16. 16. STIMULUS Hypothalamus Releasing Hormone(Release-Inhibiting Hormone) Pituitary Stimulating Hormone Gland Target Hormone
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