Cellular Respiration


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Cellular Respiration

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration pp. 174-178BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  2. 2. Cellular Respiration  Cellular respiration is the process by which glucose (C6H12O6) is broken down to release energy for making ATP, another form of chemical energy.BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  3. 3. Cellular Respiration – Equation C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + 36 ATP food oxygen water carbon (glucose, a carbohydrate) dioxideBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  4. 4. BioTheme: Interdependence! Photosynthesis: 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energy (sun) → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energy (ATP)BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  5. 5. The BIG Question is… Do only animals respire? Or do plants respire too?  Only plants perform photosynthesis  Plants AND animals perform cellular respiration! (Can you explain why??)BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  6. 6. Cellular Respiration Overview Three Stages: 1. Glycolysis (o ccurs in bo th ae ro bic and anae ro bic) 2. Krebs Cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain  The Main form of Energy produced = ATPBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  7. 7. Significant ATP Production  Aerobic cellular respiration releases energy SLOWLY, using oxygen to convert ONE molecule of glucose to 36 ATP!BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  8. 8. Cellular Respiration: An Overview Mitochondrion Electrons carried in NADH Electrons Pyruvic carried in acid NADH and Glucose FADH2 Electron Krebs Transport Glycolysis Cycle Chain Mitochondrion CytoplasmBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  9. 9. Glycolysis  Glyco = Glucose lysis = Breakdown  Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell  Molecules of GLUCOSE are broken down into 2 molecules of Pyruvic Acid.  Cell must use (invest) 2 ATP  Products: – 2 pyruvic acid – 2 ATP – 2 NADHBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  10. 10. Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvi Pyruvi c Acid c Acid To the Electron Transport ChainBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  11. 11. Site of Cell Respiration  The mitochondria is the organelle where the final stages of cellular respiration occurs. – Krebs Cycle – Electron Transport ChainBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  12. 12. Krebs Cycle  Aerobic Process = Only if oxygen is present  Occurs in the M RIX of the mitochondria AT  Pyruvic Acid from Glycolysis enters to form – 2 AT P – 6 NADH –2F ADH 2 – CO2 (which is re le ase d whe n we e xhale !!)  AKA Citric Acid CycleBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  13. 13. Krebs CycleBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  14. 14. Electron Transport Chain  Energy carrier molecules produced during Glycolysis and the Kreb’ s Cycle enter the ETC – NADH – FADH2  Occurs in the folds of the Inner Membrane of the Mitochondria (Cristae)  The electrons are passed down a chain of proteins until they reach the final electron acceptor…..oxygen! – So this step is aerobic (requires oxygen)  The ETC produces 32 AT and HO P 2BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  15. 15. Cellular Respiration Flowchart Glucose Carbon (C6H1206) Dioxide Electron Krebs (CO2) + Glycolysis Transport + Cycle Oxygen Chain Water (02) (H2O)BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  16. 16. Cellular Respiration (anaerobic)  What happens when cells don’t have enough oxygen?  Some organisms live in an oxygen-free environment. The Kreb’s Cycle and Electron Transport How do they get their energy? Chain can’t function!! These are anaerobic conditions!!BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  17. 17. Minimal ATP Production  In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic respiration only releases 2 AT for each P molecule of glucose broken down.BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  18. 18. Cellular Respiration (anaerobic)  Anaerobic respiration is also called fermentation, or the process by which energy is released from glucose when oxygen is NOT available.  This process allows organisms to continue to produce energy until oxygen is available.  However, this process only releases 2 ATP per molecule of glucose.BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  19. 19. Fermentation  Releases less energy than aerobic respiration  Occurs in the Cytoplasm – just like glycolysis  Fermentation – A series of reactions that convert NADH (from glycolysis) back into NAD allowing glycolysis to keep producing a small amount of ATPBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  20. 20. Alcoholic Fermentation  Anaerobic way of converting energy for yeast and other microorganisms  Glucose broken down to produce alcohol, CO2 and energy (ATP)  C6H12O6 + pyruvic acid  ethanol + CO2 + 2 ATP  EX: baking bread with yeast (dough rises) fermenting wine & beerBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  21. 21. Lactic Acid Fermentation  Anaerobic way of converting energy in animal cells and some microorganisms  Glucose broken down to produce lactic acid, CO2 and energy (ATP)  C6H12O6 + pyruvic acid  lactic acid + 2 ATP  EX: muscle cells during strenuous exercise fermenting cheese, yogurt, sour creamBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  22. 22. Lactic Acid Fermentation – Occurs in bacteria (unicellular organisms) – This is how cheese, yogurt, and pickles are made. – Occurs in muscles during rapid exercise – When your body runs out of oxygen your muscle cells must produce some ATP using fermentation and glycolysis – Lactic Acid build-up causes muscle soreness or burning after intense activity. Pyruvic Acid + NADH → lactic acid + NAD+BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  23. 23. Strenuous Exercise  Lactic acid is produced by your muscle cells during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough O2 to tissues.  Without enough O2, the body is NOT able to produce all of the ATP that is required.  The buildup of lactic acid can cause painful burning in your musclesBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  24. 24. Fermentation Summary Glycolysis: Glucose → 2 Pyruvic Acid Fermentation: 2 Pyruvic Acid → ? or ?BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  25. 25. Chemical Pathways Glucose Glycolysis Krebs Electron cycle transport Fermentation Alcohol or (without oxygen) Lactic AcidBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  26. 26. Comparing ATP Production  First, your body breaks down glucose through aerobic respiration to produce 36 AT per glucose molecule; P however, this is a slow process.  When muscle cells cannot get enough O2 they break down glucose through lactic acid fermentation to produce 2 AT per glucose… P  Therefore, AEROBIC RESPIRATION is much more efficient in terms of ATP production – 36 ATP compared to 2 ATP!BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  27. 27. Aerobic Training  Ex: long runs, biking, swimming  Can increase the size and number of mitochondria in muscle cells  Can increase the delivery of O2 to muscles by improving the heart and lungsBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  28. 28. Anaerobic Training  Ex: sprints, strides, quick bursts of energy  Increase the glycogen levels in the muscles  Increase body’ s tolerance to lactic acidBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School