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Cellular Respiration

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  • 1. Cellular Respiration pp. 174-178BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 2. Cellular Respiration  Cellular respiration is the process by which glucose (C6H12O6) is broken down to release energy for making ATP, another form of chemical energy.BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 3. Cellular Respiration – Equation C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + 36 ATP food oxygen water carbon (glucose, a carbohydrate) dioxideBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 4. BioTheme: Interdependence! Photosynthesis: 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energy (sun) → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 H2O + 6 CO2 + energy (ATP)BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 5. The BIG Question is… Do only animals respire? Or do plants respire too?  Only plants perform photosynthesis  Plants AND animals perform cellular respiration! (Can you explain why??)BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 6. Cellular Respiration Overview Three Stages: 1. Glycolysis (o ccurs in bo th ae ro bic and anae ro bic) 2. Krebs Cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain  The Main form of Energy produced = ATPBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 7. Significant ATP Production  Aerobic cellular respiration releases energy SLOWLY, using oxygen to convert ONE molecule of glucose to 36 ATP!BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 8. Cellular Respiration: An Overview Mitochondrion Electrons carried in NADH Electrons Pyruvic carried in acid NADH and Glucose FADH2 Electron Krebs Transport Glycolysis Cycle Chain Mitochondrion CytoplasmBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 9. Glycolysis  Glyco = Glucose lysis = Breakdown  Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell  Molecules of GLUCOSE are broken down into 2 molecules of Pyruvic Acid.  Cell must use (invest) 2 ATP  Products: – 2 pyruvic acid – 2 ATP – 2 NADHBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 10. Glycolysis Glucose Pyruvi Pyruvi c Acid c Acid To the Electron Transport ChainBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 11. Site of Cell Respiration  The mitochondria is the organelle where the final stages of cellular respiration occurs. – Krebs Cycle – Electron Transport ChainBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 12. Krebs Cycle  Aerobic Process = Only if oxygen is present  Occurs in the M RIX of the mitochondria AT  Pyruvic Acid from Glycolysis enters to form – 2 AT P – 6 NADH –2F ADH 2 – CO2 (which is re le ase d whe n we e xhale !!)  AKA Citric Acid CycleBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 13. Krebs CycleBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 14. Electron Transport Chain  Energy carrier molecules produced during Glycolysis and the Kreb’ s Cycle enter the ETC – NADH – FADH2  Occurs in the folds of the Inner Membrane of the Mitochondria (Cristae)  The electrons are passed down a chain of proteins until they reach the final electron acceptor…..oxygen! – So this step is aerobic (requires oxygen)  The ETC produces 32 AT and HO P 2BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 15. Cellular Respiration Flowchart Glucose Carbon (C6H1206) Dioxide Electron Krebs (CO2) + Glycolysis Transport + Cycle Oxygen Chain Water (02) (H2O)BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 16. Cellular Respiration (anaerobic)  What happens when cells don’t have enough oxygen?  Some organisms live in an oxygen-free environment. The Kreb’s Cycle and Electron Transport How do they get their energy? Chain can’t function!! These are anaerobic conditions!!BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 17. Minimal ATP Production  In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic respiration only releases 2 AT for each P molecule of glucose broken down.BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 18. Cellular Respiration (anaerobic)  Anaerobic respiration is also called fermentation, or the process by which energy is released from glucose when oxygen is NOT available.  This process allows organisms to continue to produce energy until oxygen is available.  However, this process only releases 2 ATP per molecule of glucose.BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 19. Fermentation  Releases less energy than aerobic respiration  Occurs in the Cytoplasm – just like glycolysis  Fermentation – A series of reactions that convert NADH (from glycolysis) back into NAD allowing glycolysis to keep producing a small amount of ATPBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 20. Alcoholic Fermentation  Anaerobic way of converting energy for yeast and other microorganisms  Glucose broken down to produce alcohol, CO2 and energy (ATP)  C6H12O6 + pyruvic acid  ethanol + CO2 + 2 ATP  EX: baking bread with yeast (dough rises) fermenting wine & beerBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 21. Lactic Acid Fermentation  Anaerobic way of converting energy in animal cells and some microorganisms  Glucose broken down to produce lactic acid, CO2 and energy (ATP)  C6H12O6 + pyruvic acid  lactic acid + 2 ATP  EX: muscle cells during strenuous exercise fermenting cheese, yogurt, sour creamBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 22. Lactic Acid Fermentation – Occurs in bacteria (unicellular organisms) – This is how cheese, yogurt, and pickles are made. – Occurs in muscles during rapid exercise – When your body runs out of oxygen your muscle cells must produce some ATP using fermentation and glycolysis – Lactic Acid build-up causes muscle soreness or burning after intense activity. Pyruvic Acid + NADH → lactic acid + NAD+BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 23. Strenuous Exercise  Lactic acid is produced by your muscle cells during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough O2 to tissues.  Without enough O2, the body is NOT able to produce all of the ATP that is required.  The buildup of lactic acid can cause painful burning in your musclesBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 24. Fermentation Summary Glycolysis: Glucose → 2 Pyruvic Acid Fermentation: 2 Pyruvic Acid → ? or ?BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 25. Chemical Pathways Glucose Glycolysis Krebs Electron cycle transport Fermentation Alcohol or (without oxygen) Lactic AcidBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 26. Comparing ATP Production  First, your body breaks down glucose through aerobic respiration to produce 36 AT per glucose molecule; P however, this is a slow process.  When muscle cells cannot get enough O2 they break down glucose through lactic acid fermentation to produce 2 AT per glucose… P  Therefore, AEROBIC RESPIRATION is much more efficient in terms of ATP production – 36 ATP compared to 2 ATP!BiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 27. Aerobic Training  Ex: long runs, biking, swimming  Can increase the size and number of mitochondria in muscle cells  Can increase the delivery of O2 to muscles by improving the heart and lungsBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School
  • 28. Anaerobic Training  Ex: sprints, strides, quick bursts of energy  Increase the glycogen levels in the muscles  Increase body’ s tolerance to lactic acidBiologyScience Departm entDeerfield High School