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CELL THEORY 1. The basic unit of life is the cell.• In 1665, an English scientist named Robert Hooke made an improved microscope and viewed thin slices of cork viewing plant cell walls• Hooke named what he saw "cells"
2. All living things are made of 1 or more cells.• 1838 - Matthias Schleiden (botanist studying plants) was the first to take note that all plants are made up of cells• 1839 - Theodore Schwann (zoologist studying animals) concluded that all living things are made up of cells Schleiden Schwann
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells. 1855- Rudolph Virchow
THE CELLULAR ORGANIZATION Cell The basic unit of life Tissue Group of cells working together Organ Group of tissues working together Organ System Group of organs working together Organism Any living thing made of 1 or more cells
• A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
TYPES OF CELLS
CELL TRI VImA that run• The longest cell (about 1 long), along your legs to your brain.• The largest cell (about .2 mm) that can be seen with the naked eye.• The smallest cell in the body (about 0.01mm)• The smallest cell (about .001 micrometer)
CELL WALL• protects the cell• gives shape and support individual cells and the entire organism• is made of cellulose• A cell wall is found in plants (cellulose), algae, fungi(chitin), & most bacteria(peptidoglycan).
CELL MEMBRANE• Outer covering, protective layer around ALL cells• For cells with cell walls,the cell membrane is inside the cell wall• Allows food, oxygen, & water into the cell & waste products out of the cell.• SEMI-PERMEABLE
The cell membrane is made of two phospholipidlayers embedded withother molecules, such as proteins, carbohydrates,and cholesterol.The cell membrane is a barrier that separates acell from the external environment. It is madeof a double layer of phospholipids and a varietyof embedded molecules. Some of thesemoleculesact as signals; others act as receptors. Themembrane is selectively permeable, allowingsome but not all materials to cross
CYTOSKELETON• scaffolding-like structure in cytoplasm• helps the cell maintain or change its shape• made of protein• It includes MICROTUBULES(green) and MICROFILAMENTS (red)
NUCLEUS • Directs all cell activities • Contains instructions for everything the cell does • These instructions are found on a hereditary material called DNA • Stores and protect the DNA • Usually the largest organelle
NUCLEAR MEMBRANE• separates nucleus from cytoplasm• controls movement of materials in & out of nucleus
NUCLEOLUS• A.k.a “little nucleus”• Found in the nucleus
CHROMATIN• contains genetic code that controls cell• made of DNA & proteins
CHLOROPLAST• Green organelles that make food• found only in plant cells• Convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis
CHLOROPHYLL• A green pigment that gives leaves & stems their color• Captures sunlight energy that is used to produce food called glucose• Glucose is a type of sugar
MITOCHONDRIA• Organelles that release energy from food• This energy is released by breaking down food into carbon dioxide• A.K.A . the powerhouse because they release energy for the cell• Some muscle cells have 20,000 mitochondria
RIBOSOMES • Make proteins • Float freely or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) • Ribosomes are made in the nucleolus
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUMA series of folded membranes that move materials (proteins) around in a cell• like a conveyor belt
• Smooth ER – ribosomes not attached to ER for production of lipids• Rough ER – ribosomes attached to ER for production of proteins
GOLGI BODIES (GAWL jee) The structure was named by Camillo Golgi• Stacked flattened membranes• The Golgi apparatus modifies, packages, and transports proteins.
LYSOSOMES (LI suh sohmz)• The word "lysosome" is Latin for "kill body."• The SUICIDAL BAG of the cell• The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies.• Break down food molecules, cell wastes & worn out cell parts
VESICLES• Vesicles isolate and transport specific molecules
CENTRIOLE• Centrioles divide DNA during cell division.
The Plant Cell STruCTurES found onLy in pLanTS • chloroplast • central vacuole • cell wall
The Animal Cell Structures found only in animals • centriole • lysosome
Structures found in both Plants and Animals• cytoskeleton• vesicle• nucleus• nucleolus• endoplasmic reticulum (rough)• ribosome• centrosome• endoplasmic reticulum (smooth)• cell membrane• Golgi apparatus• mitochondrion• vacuole
NAME THE ORGANELLE
FE G H
Give the function of the following structures 1 2
Identify what’s wrong with these cells
Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic1.2.
Match the numbered parts of the CELL FACTORY with the corresponding organelles of the cell that closely resembles their function. 3 4 1 5 6 21- Nucleus 8 2- Chromosomes 7 7- ER3- Mitochondria 5- Chloroplasts 8- Cell 4- Ribosomes 6- Vacuoles Membrane