THE CELLS
CELL THEORY           1. The basic unit of life is the cell.• In 1665, an English scientist  named Robert Hooke made an  i...
2. All living things are made of            1 or more cells.• 1838 - Matthias Schleiden (botanist studying plants) was  th...
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.        1855- Rudolph Virchow
THE CELLULAR ORGANIZATION        Cell The basic unit of life                                      Tissue                  ...
• A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of  performing life functions.
TYPES OF CELLS
CELL           TRI VImA that run• The longest cell (about 1 long),  along your legs to your brain.• The largest cell (abou...
CELL LIFE SPAN•   Skin cells         19 days•   Sperm cells        2 months•   Eyelashes          3-4 months•   Liver cell...
Prokaryotic Cells           (proh KAYR ee yah tihk)• do not have a nucleus or other membrane-  bound organelles.• lack mos...
Eukaryotic Cells (yew KAYR ee yah tihk)            • cells with membrane-              bound structures            • Have ...
CELL STRUCTURES and Functions
1- Nucleus  2- Chromosomes                                          7- ER3- Mitochondria       5- Chloroplasts            ...
CELL WALL• protects the cell• gives shape and support individual cells and the  entire organism• is made of cellulose• A c...
CELL MEMBRANE• Outer covering, protective  layer around ALL cells• For cells with cell walls,the  cell membrane is inside ...
The cell membrane is made of two phospholipidlayers embedded withother molecules, such as proteins, carbohydrates,and chol...
• gelatin-like inside cell membrane• constantly flows• A.k.a . protoplasm
CYTOSKELETON• scaffolding-like structure in  cytoplasm• helps the cell maintain or  change its shape• made of protein• It ...
NUCLEUS    • Directs all cell activities    • Contains instructions for      everything the cell does    • These instructi...
NUCLEAR MEMBRANE• separates nucleus  from cytoplasm• controls movement of  materials in & out of  nucleus
NUCLEOLUS• A.k.a “little  nucleus”• Found in the  nucleus
CHROMATIN• contains genetic code that controls  cell• made of DNA & proteins
CHLOROPLAST• Green organelles that  make food• found only in plant  cells• Convert solar energy  into chemical energy  thr...
CHLOROPHYLL• A green pigment that  gives leaves & stems  their color• Captures sunlight  energy that is used to  produce f...
MITOCHONDRIA• Organelles that release energy from  food• This energy is released by breaking  down food into carbon dioxid...
RIBOSOMES    • Make proteins    • Float freely or      attached to the      endoplasmic      reticulum (ER)    • Ribosomes...
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUMA series of folded membranes that move  materials (proteins) around in a cell• like a conveyor belt
• Smooth ER –  ribosomes not  attached to ER for  production of lipids• Rough ER –  ribosomes attached  to ER for producti...
GOLGI BODIES (GAWL jee)    The structure was named by Camillo Golgi• Stacked flattened membranes• The Golgi apparatus modi...
VACUOLES      • Temporary        storage        spaces      • Store food,        water, waste        materials
LYSOSOMES (LI suh sohmz)• The word "lysosome" is Latin for "kill body."• The SUICIDAL BAG of the cell• The purpose of the ...
VESICLES• Vesicles isolate and transport specific  molecules
CENTRIOLE• Centrioles divide DNA during cell division.
The Plant Cell       STruCTurES found         onLy in pLanTS       • chloroplast       • central vacuole       • cell wall
The Animal Cell     Structures found       only in animals     • centriole     • lysosome
Structures found in both Plants and Animals•   cytoskeleton•   vesicle•   nucleus•   nucleolus•   endoplasmic reticulum (r...
NAME THE ORGANELLE
FE    G       H
IJ
Give the function of the following            structures     1                  2
4    35
Identify what’s wrong with these              cells
Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic1.2.
Match the numbered parts of the CELL FACTORY with the corresponding        organelles of the cell that closely resembles t...
Cells
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Cells

751 views
478 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
751
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cells

  1. 1. THE CELLS
  2. 2. CELL THEORY 1. The basic unit of life is the cell.• In 1665, an English scientist named Robert Hooke made an improved microscope and viewed thin slices of cork viewing plant cell walls• Hooke named what he saw "cells"
  3. 3. 2. All living things are made of 1 or more cells.• 1838 - Matthias Schleiden (botanist studying plants) was the first to take note that all plants are made up of cells• 1839 - Theodore Schwann (zoologist studying animals) concluded that all living things are made up of cells Schleiden Schwann
  4. 4. 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells. 1855- Rudolph Virchow
  5. 5. THE CELLULAR ORGANIZATION Cell The basic unit of life Tissue Group of cells working together Organ Group of tissues working together Organ System Group of organs working together Organism Any living thing made of 1 or more cells
  6. 6. • A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
  7. 7. TYPES OF CELLS
  8. 8. CELL TRI VImA that run• The longest cell (about 1 long), along your legs to your brain.• The largest cell (about .2 mm) that can be seen with the naked eye.• The smallest cell in the body (about 0.01mm)• The smallest cell (about .001 micrometer)
  9. 9. CELL LIFE SPAN• Skin cells 19 days• Sperm cells 2 months• Eyelashes 3-4 months• Liver cells 4 months• Scalp hair 2-4 years• Bone cells 15-25 years• WBC hours- 9 days• RBC 120 Days
  10. 10. Prokaryotic Cells (proh KAYR ee yah tihk)• do not have a nucleus or other membrane- bound organelles.• lack most cytoplasmic organellesEx. bacteria Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
  11. 11. Eukaryotic Cells (yew KAYR ee yah tihk) • cells with membrane- bound structures • Have many chromosomes with DNA and protein • Larger and more complex • EX: animals, plants, fungi and protists
  12. 12. CELL STRUCTURES and Functions
  13. 13. 1- Nucleus 2- Chromosomes 7- ER3- Mitochondria 5- Chloroplasts 8- Cell 4- Ribosomes 6- Vacuoles Membrane
  14. 14. CELL WALL• protects the cell• gives shape and support individual cells and the entire organism• is made of cellulose• A cell wall is found in plants (cellulose), algae, fungi(chitin), & most bacteria(peptidoglycan).
  15. 15. CELL MEMBRANE• Outer covering, protective layer around ALL cells• For cells with cell walls,the cell membrane is inside the cell wall• Allows food, oxygen, & water into the cell & waste products out of the cell.• SEMI-PERMEABLE
  16. 16. The cell membrane is made of two phospholipidlayers embedded withother molecules, such as proteins, carbohydrates,and cholesterol.The cell membrane is a barrier that separates acell from the external environment. It is madeof a double layer of phospholipids and a varietyof embedded molecules. Some of thesemoleculesact as signals; others act as receptors. Themembrane is selectively permeable, allowingsome but not all materials to cross
  17. 17. • gelatin-like inside cell membrane• constantly flows• A.k.a . protoplasm
  18. 18. CYTOSKELETON• scaffolding-like structure in cytoplasm• helps the cell maintain or change its shape• made of protein• It includes MICROTUBULES(green) and MICROFILAMENTS (red)
  19. 19. NUCLEUS • Directs all cell activities • Contains instructions for everything the cell does • These instructions are found on a hereditary material called DNA • Stores and protect the DNA • Usually the largest organelle
  20. 20. NUCLEAR MEMBRANE• separates nucleus from cytoplasm• controls movement of materials in & out of nucleus
  21. 21. NUCLEOLUS• A.k.a “little nucleus”• Found in the nucleus
  22. 22. CHROMATIN• contains genetic code that controls cell• made of DNA & proteins
  23. 23. CHLOROPLAST• Green organelles that make food• found only in plant cells• Convert solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis
  24. 24. CHLOROPHYLL• A green pigment that gives leaves & stems their color• Captures sunlight energy that is used to produce food called glucose• Glucose is a type of sugar
  25. 25. MITOCHONDRIA• Organelles that release energy from food• This energy is released by breaking down food into carbon dioxide• A.K.A . the powerhouse because they release energy for the cell• Some muscle cells have 20,000 mitochondria
  26. 26. RIBOSOMES • Make proteins • Float freely or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) • Ribosomes are made in the nucleolus
  27. 27. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUMA series of folded membranes that move materials (proteins) around in a cell• like a conveyor belt
  28. 28. • Smooth ER – ribosomes not attached to ER for production of lipids• Rough ER – ribosomes attached to ER for production of proteins
  29. 29. GOLGI BODIES (GAWL jee) The structure was named by Camillo Golgi• Stacked flattened membranes• The Golgi apparatus modifies, packages, and transports proteins.
  30. 30. VACUOLES • Temporary storage spaces • Store food, water, waste materials
  31. 31. LYSOSOMES (LI suh sohmz)• The word "lysosome" is Latin for "kill body."• The SUICIDAL BAG of the cell• The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies.• Break down food molecules, cell wastes & worn out cell parts
  32. 32. VESICLES• Vesicles isolate and transport specific molecules
  33. 33. CENTRIOLE• Centrioles divide DNA during cell division.
  34. 34. The Plant Cell STruCTurES found onLy in pLanTS • chloroplast • central vacuole • cell wall
  35. 35. The Animal Cell Structures found only in animals • centriole • lysosome
  36. 36. Structures found in both Plants and Animals• cytoskeleton• vesicle• nucleus• nucleolus• endoplasmic reticulum (rough)• ribosome• centrosome• endoplasmic reticulum (smooth)• cell membrane• Golgi apparatus• mitochondrion• vacuole
  37. 37. NAME THE ORGANELLE
  38. 38. FE G H
  39. 39. IJ
  40. 40. Give the function of the following structures 1 2
  41. 41. 4 35
  42. 42. Identify what’s wrong with these cells
  43. 43. Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic1.2.
  44. 44. Match the numbered parts of the CELL FACTORY with the corresponding organelles of the cell that closely resembles their function. 3 4 1 5 6 21- Nucleus 8 2- Chromosomes 7 7- ER3- Mitochondria 5- Chloroplasts 8- Cell 4- Ribosomes 6- Vacuoles Membrane

×