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    Corporate marketing   balmer & greyser Corporate marketing balmer & greyser Document Transcript

    • The working papers are produced by the Bradford University School of Management and are to be circulated fordiscussion purposes only. Their contents should be considered to be preliminary. The papers are expected to bepublished in due course, in a revised form and should not be quoted without the authors’ permission.Working Paper SeriesRaising the Corporate Marketing UmbrellaProfessor John M.T. BalmerProfessor Stephen A. GreyserWorking Paper No 06/11April 2006
    • RAISING THE CORPORATE MARKETINGUMBRELLAProfessor John M.T. BalmerProfessor of Corporate Brand/Identity ManagementBradford School of ManagementEnglandandProfessor Stephen A. GreyserRichard P. Chapman Professor of BusinessAdministration, EmeritusHarvard Business SchoolUSAABSTRACTWe examine the nascent area of corporatemarketing by making reference to Balmer’sconceptual work on the area (Balmer 1998, 2001,2006) and Greyser’s historical overview ofmarketing written for the Marketing ScienceInstitute (Greyser 1997). In this article we furtherelaborate why the corporate-level concepts ofcorporate identity, corporate branding, corporatecommunications and corporate reputation shouldbe integrated under the umbrella title ofcorporate marketing.3WORKING PAPER SERIESThe right of John M.T. Balmer and Stephen A. Greyser to be identified as the Authors of this work hasbeen asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1998.© John M.T. Balmer and Stephen A. Greyser (April) 2006Drawing on working paper 06/08 by Balmer our article explores the concept of corporate marketing ingreater detail. This paper will form the Commentary of a special edition devoted to Corporate Marketingof the European Journal of Marketing which will be published latter on this year.
    • INTRODUCTIONLike the Roman God Janus, we gain perspectiveby looking both backward and forward. Inlooking forward we conclude that marketing isundergoing another paradigm shift and isincreasingly characterised by having aninstitutional-wide focus. Balmer (1998, 2001,2006) in observing the above, has given the label“corporate marketing” to the area.Since the 1950s various concepts about corporate-wide marketing have captured the imagination ofscholars and practitioners (corporate identity,corporate branding, corporate image, corporatereputation, and corporate communications.). Eachof these concepts has its own intellectual rootsand practice-based adherents. While individualcorporate-level concepts provide a powerful, andradical, lens through which to comprehendorganisations, these individual perspectives arenecessarily limited. For this reason an integratedapproach to marketing at the institutional levelwould seem to be highly desirable and thus theneed for what Balmer calls “corporate marketing”and what we in our book “Revealing theCorporation” (Balmer and Greyser 2003) termedcorporate-level marketing.In our article, we marshal the literature relating tothe historiography of marketing and use this as aplatform for our examination of the embryonicarea of corporate marketing.We explain that a corporate marketing philosophyrepresents a logical stage of marketing’s evolutionand introduce Balmer’s (2006) revised corporatemarketing mix (the 6Cs) as an illustrative frameworkrepresenting the key concerns that underpin thisexpanded viewpoint of marketing. In addition, weexplain why marketing (rather than other areas ofmanagement) represents the logical disciplinarydomain relating to the territory we are treating.In this article we draw on a range of sourcesincluding our own scholarship on the area. This isnot for purposes of self-aggrandisement but forpurely practical reasons. In truth, the canon ofwork on the area is modest and we hope that ourobservations will engender interest in what (webelieve) is likely to emerge as a progressively vitalarea of marketing. In looking backwards we brieflyreflect on how marketing has evolved to itspresent state. Such retrospection not onlyprovides a platform to look ahead but also givesus permission-intellectually, and perhapspsychologically-to speculate about the nature ofcorporate-level marketing.From the outset, we acknowledge that anydiscussion of marketing is beset by a number ofdifficulties including the lack of consensus as toits nature. We note that Crosier (1975) found noless that fifty definitions within the literaturewhich broadly envisioned marketing in terms of aprocess, a philosophy and as a businessorientation. Similar discussions are likely tocharacterise on-going discussion relating tocorporate marketing as it has in relation to moretraditional notions of marketing (see Gummesson1991). From our perspective, we regard corporatemarketing as a philosophy rather than as afunction.MARKETING: REFLECTIONS ON THE PASTWhat is marketing’s historiography? What erashave passed in reaching the present? Of course,the importance of having a customer focus haslong been recognised and pre-dates theemergence of marketing as a cognate area ofmanagement. For instance, Frank Taussig, aformer President of the American EconomicAssociation stated back in 1912 that, “We mustaccept the consumer as the final judge”(Economist 2006). In a seminal work by LaLonde(see Greyser 1997) the existence of company-wideconsumer orientation was traced back to the1920s. However, it was during the 1950s and1960s that the marketing philosophy andfunction began to be elucidated by scholars andadopted by managers. Key proponents of theabove include Drucker (1954), Levitt (1960) andKotler and Levy (1969). In terms of the marketingmix the contributions made by Borden (1964) andMcCarthy (1960) are noteworthy. From apractitioner perspective, Jack McKitterick (thenVice President of General Electric) is credited asproviding the first articulation of the marketingconcept. Speaking at a meeting of the AmericanMarketing Association in 1957 he remarked that:“the principal task of....marketing...is not so muchto be skilfull in making the customer do whatsuits the interests of the business as to be skillfulin conceiving and then making the business dowhat suits the interest of the customer.” (inGreyser 1997)In a similar vein, Robert Keith (in Greyser 1997)writing in the Journal of Marketing, and makingreference to his own organisation’s historicaldevelopment, made a clear distinction betweenhaving a production/manufacturing orientation, asales focus and, finally, a truly marketingorientation. Greyser (1997) reflecting upon Keith’stripartite categorisations (and the more recentrelationship marketing perspective) observed that4WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • each is underpinned by a centralquestion/concern which he detailed as follows:1 Production and Manufacturing Orientation:“Can we make it?”2 Sales Orientation:“Can we sell what we can make?”3 Marketing Orientation”Can we determine what consumers, or a groupof consumers, want that we can make and sellprofitably within our zones of skills?”4 Relationship Marketing Orientation:“Can we generate continuing business (loyaltypurchasing) via consumer/customersatisfaction with what-and how-we make, sell,and service?To us, corporate-level marketing represents afurther stage of development:5 Corporate-level Marketing Orientation:“Can we, as an institution, have meaningful,positive and profitable bilateral on-goingrelationships with customers, and otherstakeholder groups and communities?From the outset we wish to make it clear thatcorporate marketing has a general applicability toentities whether they are corporations, companies,not-for-profit organisations as well as othercategories such as business alliances, cities and soon. A key attribute of corporate-level marketing is itsconcern with multiple exchange relationships withmultiple stakeholder groups and networks. Anotherfeature is the importance accorded to the temporaldimension with there being fidelity not only topresent relationships but those of the past and thoseprospective relationships of the future. (Such aperspective has traditionally characterised mutualentities such as Building Societies, Co-operatives andPartnerships; John Lewis is one such example.)FROM PRACTICE TO POWER RELATIONSHIPSAgain, taking another retrospective and drawingon his collaborative work with the legendaryRaymond A. Bauer (late HBS Professor), as well asthat of his own, Stephen Greyser offered atripartite analysis of marketplace relationshipsbetween marketers and consumers, especially withregard to power and influence (Greyser 1997).The three types of relationship have been termedManipulative (a critic’s model),Service (a pro-business model), andTransactional (an exchange-based model)Each model employs different assumptions aboutthe power/balance in the marketplace, the originof consumer needs and desires, the type ofconsumer power exercised, the “warning” toconsumers/or business that pervades themarketplace, and the role of the marketer. To us,corporate marketing represents a logical fourthstage in terms of the above. We call this stage:Expectational (an stakeholder-institutional model)The table provided by Owens and Greyser (Greyser1997) relating to the above has been adapted byus so as to accommodate the above and is to befound in Figure One.5WORKING PAPER SERIESFIGURE 1: COMPARING AND CONTRASTING THE FOUR MODE OF POWER RELATIONSHIPS IN MARKETINGPower Balance in theMarketing PlaceOrigin of ConsumerNeeds/DesiresType of ConsumerPowerMarketplace WarningRole of MarketerThe ManipulativeModelMarketers DominateWith MarketersForces ConsumerChoice“Caveat Emptor”Buyer BewareTo Persuade/SeduceConsumersThe Consumer’sAdversaryThe TransactionalModelConsumer-MarketerBalanceWith Consumer andMarketersConsumer Choice“Caveat Omnes”All BewareTo Work withConsumersThe Consumer’sPartnerThe ServiceModelConsumer DominateWith ConsumersConsumer Sovereignty“Caveat Venditor”Buyer BewareTo Service/Cater toConsumersThe Consumer’sServantThe CorporateModelConsumers andStakeholders DominateWith Consumers andStakeholdersConsumer andStakeholder Sovereignty“Caveat Societas”Company BewareTo work withConsumers andStakeholdersThe Stakeholders/ServantAssumptionAboutModelBalmer (2006) adapted from Owens and Greyser (in Greyser 1997)
    • CORPORATE MARKETING: TOWARDS A NEWGESTALT OF THE CORPORATIONBalmer’s (1998) historical analysis of corporate-level constructs sine the 1950s reveals theascendancy of various concepts during differenttime frames. Each has attracted the attention ofscholars and practitioners alike and appears, inpart, to reflect the Zeitgeist of a particular epoch.For instance, the concern with corporate imageduring the 1950s and 1960s and the currentinterest in corporate brands, which dates back to1995, are illustrative.This is also reflected in the special editions of theEuropean Journal of Marketing that haveappeared in 1997, 2001, and 2003 and havefocussed on concepts such as corporate identity,corporate brands, corporate communications,corporate image and corporate reputation. Thesespecial editions have provided a forum fordifferent ontological and epistemological issues tobe aired relating to the above.The integrative approach adopted here in relationto corporate marketing is not without parallel: thelatter is most conspicuous in the fields ofcommunication. This can be seen in the growinginterest in integrated marketing communicationsby authors such as Schultz, Tannenbaum andLauterborn (1992) and Nowak and Phelps (1994).Of particular significance is the integration ofinstitutional-level communications. Such aperspective informs the corporate communicationsdomain with the work of Bernstein (1984),Cornelissen, Lock and Gardner (2001) and VanRiel 1995, 2003) being noteworthy. Suchadvances are significant but are necessarilynarrower in conceptualisation in what we advancehere.RAISING THE CORPORATE MARKETING UMBRELLAWhat we find to be enormously exciting is thatwhen the broad topography of the area iscontemplated, the synthesising of corporate-levelconcepts such as corporate identity, corporatebranding and corporate communications and soon offers the promise of a critical breakthrough inthe conceptualisation of organisations bymarketing scholars. This leads to the need to raisethe umbrella of corporate-level marketing.For us, corporate marketing provides a vortex thatis not only pristine but also powerful and practicalin addition. This is a vortex that synthesises the6WORKING PAPER SERIESFIGURE 2: COMPARING THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF CORPORATE MARKETINGMajor Components of Major Components ofCorporate Marketing Marketing(Balmer 2001) (McGee and Spiro 1990)ORIENTATION Stakeholder CustomerUnderstanding present and Understanding customer’sfuture stakeholder (including wants, needs and behaviourcustomer) wants, needs andbehaviour.ORGANISATIONAL SUPPORT Co-ordinated organisational Co-ordinated organisationalactivities. activities.Undertaken to support Undertaken to supportstakeholder’s orientation customer orientationelicited above. elicited above.END-FOCUS Value creation. Profit orientation.Profit orientation is a primary Focus on profit rather than onbut is by no means the only sales (needs to be adapted tofocus. It includes business not-for-profit organisations).survival and meeting societalneeds as detailed below.SOCIETAL APPLICATION Present and future stakeholder Community welfare.and societal needs. An obligation to meetBalancing current stakeholder customers’ and society’s long-and societal needs with those term interests.of the future. Showing sensitivityto the organisation’s inheritancewhere applicable.
    • myriad of corporate level perspectives, andconcepts, that have emerged from the 1950sonwards Balmer (1998). The orchestration ofthese concepts provides the cornerstone ofBalmer’s corporate marketing mix.Figure 3 depicts the six elements (6Cs) ofBalmer’s (2006) corporate marketing mix citedabove and elucidates the importance of eachelement by ascribing a key question whichunderpins each of the six elements. Thedisciplinary foundations for each of the sixelements are additionally outlined. Again, wereiterate that we regard corporate marketing asmore of a philosophy rather than a function. Forthis reason the mix elements should be seen asinforming an organisational-wide philosophyrather than as encompassing a mix of elements tobe orchestrated by a department of corporatemarketing. In essence, the philosophy ofcorporate-level marketing should permeate howpeople in the organisation think and behave onits behalf. (Figure 4 compares the 6Cs of theCorporate Marketing Mix with the more extended11 Ps model of the mix).CharacterThose factors that, in their totality, make oneentity distinct from another. These include keytangible and intangible assets of the organisationas well as organisational activities, markets served,corporate ownership and structure, organisationaltype, corporate philosophy and corporate history.CultureThis refers to the collective feeling of employeesas to what they feel they are in the setting of theentity. These beliefs are derived from the values,beliefs and assumptions about the organisationand its historical roots and heritage. Individualsmay, in part, define themselves in terms oforganisational membership and may, in turn, feelthat they, as individuals, share common valueswith the organisation. Culture is important since itprovides the context in which staff engage witheach other and with other groups such ascustomers: employees represent the “front line” ofthe organisation.CommunicationCorporate communications relates to the variousoutbound communications channels deployed byorganisations to communicate with customers andother constituencies. At its most comprehensive(Total Corporate Communications) it also takesinto account the communications effects ofmanagement, employee and product behaviourand of word-of mouth and media/competitorcommentary (see Balmer and Greyser 2003 p.125).7WORKING PAPER SERIESFIGURE 3: THE 6Cs OF CORPORATE MARKETING MIXBALMER (2006)
    • FIGURE 4COMPARING THE 6Cs OF CORPORATE MARKETING WITH BALMER’S 11 Ps8WORKING PAPER SERIESThe 6Cs of Corporate The 11 Ps of Corporate ExplanationMarketing (Balmer 2006) Marketing (Balmer 1998)AdaptedCHARACTER Philosophy and Ethos How the organisation is constituted.What the organisation stands for, theway it undertakes its work and activities.Product What the organisation makes and does.Price The emotion and capital assets of theorganisation. The valuation of itsbrands (corporate, services andproduct). What it charges for itsproducts and services. The share price.Staff salaries.Place Distribution and organisationalrelationships in terms of the selling anddistribution of products and services.(Franchising, outsourcing, licensing).Performance Quality of products and services.Standards vis a vis issues ofgovernance, ethics and socialresponsibility.Positioning The organisation’s position relative toits competitors (size, geographicalcoverage, product and service range).CULTURE Personality The critical role of personnel vis a viscorporate marketing activities. Theshared (as well as differentiated)meanings accorded to the organisationby personnel including strength ofidentification with the organisation).COMMUNICATION Promotion Co-ordinated corporatecommunications (corporate advertising,corporate PR, visual identification etc.).CONSTITUENCIES People In addition to customers: theorganisation’s internal and externalconstituencies and communities (thelatter boundary spans constituencies).CONCEPTUALISATIONS Perception The images and reputations held of theorganisation by groups, communitiesand by individuals.COVENANT Promise The expectations associated with thecorporate brand (stakeholderperspective) and the promiseunderpinning the corporate brand(organisational perspective).
    • ConceptualisationsThis refers to perceptions (conceptualisations)held of the corporate brand by customers andother key stakeholder groups. The latentperception of the organisation held by the abovewill affect their view of and their behaviourtowards the organisation. Such conceptualisationsof the organisation will, of course, differ betweendifferent groups and account needs to be taken ofthis.ConstituenciesCorporate marketing recognises takes that manycustomers also belong to one or indeed manyorganisational constituencies or stakeholdergroups (employees, investors, local communityetc.) and also comes with a realisation that thesuccess of an organisation (and in some cases a“license” to operate) is dependent on meeting thewants and needs of such groups.CovenantA corporate brand is underpinned by a powerful(albeit informal) contract, which can be comparedto a covenant in that customers and otherstakeholder groups often have a religious-likeloyalty to the corporate brand. Whereas legalownership of a corporate brand is vested in anentity, its emotional ownership (and therein itssubstantial value) resides with those who have aclose association with the brand (Balmer 2005).Of course, different groups and individuals mayhave different expectations associated with theinstitutional brand.MARKETING CLAIMS ON CORPORATE MARKETINGIn recent years scholars from managementdisciplines other than marketing have becomeinterested in key corporate-level concepts such ascorporate brands and corporate identity. Oftentheir work is underpinned by a firm theoreticaland empirical base, and can provide meaningfulinsight to thinking on the larger corporate-levelarea. While we acknowledge the contributions ofother management disciplines and recognise thata multi-disciplinary perspective on the area isefficacious, we wish to note why marketing hasstrong claims on this nascent area. We contend(Balmer and Greyser 2003 p.349-350) thatmarketing’s claims on the area are related to its:(a) Inheritance,(b) Prescience,(c) Expedience, and(d) AssemblanceInheritanceOf all the disciplines that have made acontribution to the corporate-level constructsdetailed earlier, marketing has been the mostconspicuous. Consider communication, image,reputation, and branding. These are key conceptswithin the marketing domain, although marketingscholars and practitioners frequently incorporateothers, such as identity. To date, the aboveconcepts have tended to be narrowly conceived bymarketers in terms of products or services ratherthan corporations (or organisations generally.)PrescienceThe notion that the marketing should concernitself with corporate-level concerns is far fromnew. In the 1960s, Kotler and Levy (1969) hadthe prescience to articulate that the marketingconcept should be broadened so as to encompassany entity and that it should be able to beapplied to all areas of business and not justproduct-dominated organisations.More recently, Webster (1992) advanced the viewthat it was de rigueur for marketing to affect aparadigm shift away from products and firms topeople and organisations. As such, there was arequirement for greater scrutiny to be accorded tophenomena which traditionally have been thepreserve of psychologists, organisationalbehaviourists, political economists, andsociologists. In terms of corporate-marketing theinsights gleaned from identity theory as employedby organisational theorists and behaviourists canbe influential in the conceptualisations ofmarketing (See Bhattachara and Sen 2003).Marketing’s entrée into the corporate domain has,already, become a reality. This has been reflectedin the rise of “new” areas of marketing interestsuch as relationship marketing (Gummesson1994), the marketing of services (Lovelock 1983,Booms and Bitner 1992), internal marketing(Berry 1981), marketing for non-profits (Kotlerand Andreason 1996), green marketing (Meffertand Kirchgeorg 1993), and in relation tocorporate brand management (Balmer and Gray2003, Knox and Bickerton 2003), corporatecommunications (Van Riel 1995) and corporateimage and reputation (Kennedy 1977, Dowling2001). Kotler’s (1986) notion of megamarketingwith its recognition of groups “beyond customers,”the importance accorded to political power andpublic opinion, and the importance attached tomarketing networks in their various guises (Achrol1991) all resonate with our comprehension ofcorporate marketing.9WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • ExpedienceMarketing has been particularly effective indemonstrating its utility to managers. Baker(1999) observed that marketing is a syntheticdiscipline in that it distils insights gained fromother fields (both business and non-business) intoa body of knowledge with an immediate andpractical relevance. In other words, marketing isadept in operationalising theories. It should benoted that the corporate-level constructsmentioned in this article all have a strong appliednature and are in common parlance in businessand consultancy contexts. This has not beenwithout its critics however; the over-reliance onthe marketing mix is case in point (O’Malley andPatterson 1998).AssemblanceMarketing is, and always has been, a repository ofinsights and theories marshalled from otherdisciplines. Traditional marketing draws heavilyfrom a number of management and non-management disciplines such as psychology,economics, and strategy. The assemblance ofdiverse perspectives to form a unified whole hasbeen a basic tenet of marketing. Indeed, Borden(1964), who first devised the marketing mix, wasprofoundly influenced by the work of Culliton(1948) who had envisioned the marketer to befirst and foremost a mixer of ingredients, in otherwords an orchestrator. To some degree thecorporate marketing mix outlined here follows inthis vein but we are sensitive to the fact that anylist of attributes underpinning a marketing mix orphilosophy are likely to be limited (Gronroos1993, Gummesson 1994).CONCLUSIONIn bringing our short article to a close we aremindful that for the last fifty years, or more,marketing scholars, as well as practitioners, haverealised the crucial importance of corporate-levelconcepts, beginning with the concept of thecorporate image and the pioneering work of theEnglish economist Kenneth Boulding. Wecelebrate the 50th anniversary of the publicationof his book, “The Image” this year (Boulding1956). Whereas the marketing concept as appliedto products and services has achieved wideacceptance, the same cannot be said, alas, inrelation to the application of the marketingconcept to organisations in their totality. Whilescholarship relating to individual corporate-levelmarketing constructs is developing apace we notethat integrative perspectives still remain theexception rather the rule. However, we hold thatit is difficult to examine one concept withoutrecourse to another: corporate communication isone prime example of this. In terms ofmanagement, although we hold that corporatemarketing is extrinsically a boardroom and CEOconcern, responsibility for corporate marketingshould be institution wide and should not beassigned to a particular department or directorate.In short, all staff are corporate marketers.What of the future? We acknowledge that forsome the very notion of corporate- level marketingis likely to be contentious especially the notionthat marketing should have a more strategic andinstitutional-wide role. However, we are of thefirm view that the ascendancy of corporatemarketing concerns and concepts (corporatebrands being illustrative) is inexorable. We openedthis article by observing that we gain perspectiveby looking forward and backward. In bringing thiscommentary to a close we are reminded thatTheodore Levitt (1960) fashioned the phrase“marketing myopia”. In this century, such myopiacould reside at the institutional level. As Januswould no doubt have mused “what goes roundcomes around.”10WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • REFERENCESAchrol, R.S. (1991) ‘Evolution of the marketingorganization: new forms for turbulentenvironments’, Journal of Marketing Vol. 55, pp.77-93.Baker, M.J., Marketing-Philosophy or Function? InM.J. Baker (1999) (ed) The IEBM Encyclopaedia ofMarketing, International Thomson Business Press,London, pp. 3-17.Balmer, J.M.T. (1995) ‘Corporate branding andconnoisseurship,’ Journal of General Management,Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 22-46.Balmer, J.M.T. (1998) ‘Corporate identity and theadvent of corporate marketing’, Journal ofMarketing Management, Vol. 14, No. 8, pp. 963-996.Balmer, J.M.T (2001) ‘Corporate identity,corporate branding and corporate marketing:seeing through the fog’, European Journal ofMarketing, Vol. 35, No 3&4, pp. 248-291.Balmer, J.M.T. “Corporate brand cultures andcommunities” in Schroeder, J.E. and Salzer-Morling, M (eds) (2005) Brand Culture,Routledge, London, pp. 34-49Balmer, J.M.T. (2006) Comprehending CorporateMarketing and the Corporate Marketing Mix,Working Paper 06/08, Bradford School ofManagement.Balmer, J.M.T. and Gray, E. (2003) ‘Corporatebrands: what are they? What of them? EuropeanJournal of Marketing, Vol. 37, No 7-8, pp. 972-997.Balmer, J.M.T. and Greyser, S.A. (2003) Revealingthe Corporation. Perspectives on Identity, Image,Reputation, Corporate Branding and Corporate-Level Marketing, Routledge, London.Bernstein, D. (1984) Company Image and Reality:a Critique of Corporate Communications, Rinehartand Winston, Eastbourne.Berry, L.L. (1981) ‘The employee as customer,’Journal of Retail Banking, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp 33-40.Bhattacharya, C.B. and Sen, S. (2003) “Consumer-company identification: a framework forunderstanding consumer’s relationships withcompanies,’ Journal of Marketing, Vol. 67, pp. 76-88.Booms, B.H. and Bitner, M.J. Marketing strategiesand organisations structures for service firms’, In J.Donnelly and W.R George (1992) (eds) Marketingof Services, American Marketing Association,Chicago.Borden, N., (1964) The Concept of the MarketingMix, Journal of Advertising Research, June pp. 2-7.Boulding, K (1956) The Image, Ann Arbor,University of Michigan Press.Cornelissen, J. P. Lock, A.R. and Gardner, H,(2001) “The organisation of externalcommunication disciplines: an integrativeframework of dimensions and determinants,”International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 20, pp.67-88.Crosier, K. (1975) What is marketing? QuarterlyReview of Marketing, Vol. 1,No. 2Culliton, J.W. (1948), The Management ofMarketing Costs, Harvard University Press, Boston.Dowling, G. (2001) Creating CorporateReputations, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Drucker, P. (1954), The Practice of Management,Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.Economist (2006) January 14, p. 80.Greyser, S.A. (1997) Janus and Marketing.Reflections on the Future of Marketing. MarketingScience Institute, Cambridge, MA.Gronroos, C. (1993) “Quo vadis, marketing?”Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 3,No. 5,pp. 347-360.Gummesson, E., (1994) Relationship Marketing-From 4Ps to 30Rs, Stockholm School of Business,Stockholm.Gummesson, E. (1991), ‘Marketing-orientationrevisited: the crucial role of the part-timemarketer, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 25,No.2, pp. 60-75.Kennedy, S.H. (1977) ‘Nurturing corporate images:total communications or ego trip?’ EuropeanJournal of Marketing, Vol. 11, pp.24-33Knox, S. and Bickerton, D. (2003) ‘The sixconventions of corporate branding’, European Journalof Marketing, Vol. 37, No. 7/8, pp. 998-1016.11WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • Kotler, P. and Andreason, A, (1996) StrategicMarketing for Nonprofit Organizations, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Kotler, P. (1986) ‘Megamarketing’, HarvardBusiness Review, March-April, pp. 117-124.Kotler, P. and Levy, S. J., (1969) ‘Broadening theConcept of Marketing’, Journal of Marketing,January, pp. 10-15.Levitt, T. (1960) Marketing Myopia HarvardBusiness Review, July-August, pp. 45-46.Lovelock, C.H. (1983) “Classifying services to gainstrategic marketing insights,” Journal ofMarketing, Vol. 47, Summer, pp. 9-20.McCarthy, E.J. (1960), Basic Marketing: AManagerial Approach, Irwin, Homewood, IL.McGee, L.W. and Spiro, R.K. (1990)“The marketingconcept in perspective,“ Business Horizons, Vol.31, No. 3, pp. 40-45.Meffert, H. and Kirchgeorg,M. (1993)Marktorientiertes Umweltmanagement,, Poeschel-Verlag, Stuttgart.Nowak, G.J. and Phelps, J. (1994)“Conceptualizingthe integrated marketing communicationsphenomenon: an examination of its impact onadvertising practices and its implications formarketing research,“ Journal of Current Issues andResearch in Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 49-66.O’Malley, L. and Patterson, M. (1998), ‘VanishingPoint: The Mix Management Paradigm Re-Visited’,Journal of Marketing Management, Vol.14, No.8,pp. 829-851.Schultz, D.E., Tannenbaum S, and Lauterborn, R,(1992) Integrated Marketing Communications,NTC Business Books, Lincolnwood, IL.Van Riel, C.B.M. (1995) Principles of CorporateCommunications, Prentice Hall, London.Van Riel, C.B.M. The management of corporatecommunications in Balmer, J.M.T. and Greyser, S.A.(2003) Revealing the Corporation, Routledge,London, pp.161-170.Webster, F.E. (1992), ‘The Changing Role ofMarketing in the Corporation’ Journal ofMarketing, Vol. 56, October, pp.1-17.RReelleevvaanntt SSppeecciiaall EEddiittiioonnss ooff tthhee EEuurrooppeeaann JJoouurrnnaallooff MMaarrkkeettiinngg::Balmer, J.M.T. and Van Riel C.B.M. (1997) (eds)Special Edition on Corporate Identity, EuropeanJournal of Marketing, Vol. 31, No. 5 & 6.Balmer, J.M.T. (2001) (ed) Special Edition onCorporate Identity and Corporate Marketing,European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 35, No. 3 &4.Balmer, J.M.T. (2003) (ed) Special Edition onCorporate and Service Brands, European Journalof Marketing, Vol. 37, No. 7 & 8.12WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • ABOUT THE AUTHORSJohn M.T. Balmer is Professor of CorporateBrand/Identity Management at BradfordUniversity School of Management (BSM), England.This is believed to be the first chair of its type. Hisresearch focuses on a range of corporate-levelmarketing issues and has a particular interest inthe management of corporate brands andidentities. His work has been published in leadingjournals such as California Management Review,Long Range Planning, European Journal ofMarketing, and International Studies ofManagement and Organizations. He has beentireless in his advocacy of corporate identity andcorporate brand management as areas of researchan and scholarship and has served as guest editorof no less than ten special editions of journalsdevoted to these areas. He co-authored, withProfessor Stephen Greyser, “Revealing theCorporation” (Routledge, 2003). He has servedas a special advisor on corporate identity issuesfor the BBC, Mercedes Benz, the WPP Group andother organisations. Along with Professors Greyser(Harvard) and Urde (Lund University) he isinvolved in a major study on monarchies ascorporate brands and unprecedented access hasbeen given to Their Majesties the King and Queenof Sweden, The Crown Princess, and to SeniorCourtiers. At BSM he conceived and developedthe MBA elective on Corporate Marketing.Stephen A. Greyser is the Richard P. ChapmanProfessor of Business Administration(Marketing/Communications) Emeritus at HarvardBusiness School, where he specializes in brandmarketing, advertising/corporatecommunications, sports management, andnonprofit management. His longtime associationwith the Harvard Business Review included fiveyears as an editor and research director, andsubsequently Editorial Board Secretary and asBoard Chairman. For eight years he was alsoExecutive Director of the Marketing ScienceInstitute. He is responsible for sixteen books andmonographs; is a frequent contributor to journalson marketing, and has published some 300 casehistories. He has served on numerous corporateand non-profit boards, including Opinion ResearchCorporation. He is past national vice-chairmanand a director of the Public Broadcasting Service(the US non-commercial television system). AtHarvard Business School (HBS) he conceived anddeveloped the HBS MBA elective on the “new”Corporate Communications. At Bradford School ofManagement he holds the position of VisitingProfessor of Corporate Communications. In almost40 years of teaching, he has never missed a class.13WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • LIST OF WORKING PAPER TITLES200606/11 – Professor John M T Balmer & Professor Stephen A GreyserRaising the Corporate Marketing Umbrella06/10 – Stephanie Hussels & Damian R WardThe Impact of Deregulation on the German and UK Life InsuranceMarkets: An Analysis of Efficiency and Productivity Between 1991 – 200206/09 – Melaine Baier, Gernot Graefe & Ellen RoemerScreening New Service Ideas for Business Markets: The Case of ITBusiness Services06/08 – Professor John M T BalmerComprehending Corporate Marketing and the Corporate Marketing Mix06/07 – Shona BettanySteps Towards transformative Consumer Research Practice: A Taxonomyof Possible Reflexivities06/06 – Axèle Giroud & Jonna Scott-KennelForeign-Local Linkages in International Business:A Review and Extension of the Literature06/05 – Jenny Fairbrass, Linda O’Riordan & Hafiz MirzaCorporate Social Responsibiity: Differing Definitions and Practice?06/04 – Professor John M T Balmer & Irene ThomsonHilton. The Siamese Twins Syndrome and the Shared Ownership ofCorporate Brands06/03 – Ke PengDoes Liquidity Information Matter?A View from Fixed-Income Market Matters06/02 – Dr Jenny FairbassSustainable Development, Corporate Social Responsibility andEuropeanisation of the UK Business Actors: Preliminary Findings06/01 – Christopher J S GaleThe UK Responseto Terrorism: Human Rights and a Wider Perspective200505/43 – Professor John M T BalmerCorporate Brands: A Stretegic Management Framework05/42 – Professor John M T BalmerMonarchical Perspectives on Corporate Brand Management05/41 – Gretchen Larsen, Rob Lawson & Sarah ToddThe Symbolic Consumption of Music05/40 – Professor John M T BalmerThe British Monarchy and Corporate Brand Management:Historical Perspectives05/39 – Adrian Kuah & John DayRevisiting the Porter Diamond: Applying Importance Performance Matrixto the Singaporean Financial Cluster05/38 – Jean-Marc TrouilleTowards a European Industrial Policy? French and German Strategies05/37 – Kyoko Fukukawa, Christine Ennew & Steve DiaconAn Eye for An Eye: Investigating the Impact of Consumer Perception ofCorporate Unfairnwess on Aberrant Consumer Behavior05/36 – Dr Ellen RoemerCustomer Value in (A) Symmetric Buyer-Seller Relationships05/35 – Professor John M T BalmerComprehending the Constitutional Monarchies of Britain and Sweden:Issues of Trust and Corporate Brand Management05/34 – Christopher Maguire & Christine A HopeThe Forensic Sciences Service Post Monopoly – the Need to UnderstandCustomer Expectations05/33 – Mr David Ginn & Professor M ZairiThe Role of QFD in Capturing the Voice of Customers05/32 – Axèle Giroud & Hafiz MirzaFactors Determining Input Linkages Between Local Suppliers andForeign Subsidiaries in South East Asia05/31 – Dr M Al Azmi & Prof M ZairiKnowledge Management: A Proposed Taxonomy05/30 – Axèle Giroud & Hafiz MirzaMultinational Enterprise Policies Towards International Intra-FirmTechnology Transfer: The Case of Japanese Manufacturing Firms in Asia05/29 – Noor Azman Ali & Mohamed ZairiService Quality in Higher Education05/28 – Alexander T Mohr & Jonas F PuckControl and trust as Organizing Principles of International Joint Venture05/27 – Dr A Al Nofal, Dr N Al Qmaim & Prof M ZairiTQM: Theoretical Insights: Part 205/26 – Dr A Al Nofal, Dr N Al Qmaim & Prof M ZairiTQM: Theoretical Insights Part 105/25 – Jeryl Whitelock & Hui YangAn Empirical Analysis of Moderating Effects of Parent Control onInternational Joint Ventures Performance05/24 – Dr Ellen RoemerView Your Customers as Real Options05/23 – Dr A Al Nofal, Dr N Al Qmaim & Prof M ZairiCritical Factors of TQM: An Update on the Literature05/22 – L Chatziaslan, Dr L Breen & Dr M WebsterAn Analysis of Power in Buyer-Supplier Relationships in thePharmaceutical Supply Networks in the UK National Health Service andits Application to International Markets05/21 – Fernando Fastoso & Jeryl WhitelockPolicies and practices of International Advertising Standardisation inthe Mercosur05/20 – Alwabel S A & Professor Zairi ME-Commerce Critical Success Factors: A Cross-Industry Investigation05/19 – Alwabel S A, Ahmed A M & Professor Zairi MThe Evolution of ERP and its Relationship with E-Business05/18 – Alwabel S A & Professor Zairi MThe Web and its Impact on the Provision of Financial Services:A Benchmarking Perspective of Saudi Banks05/17 – Alwabel S A & Professor Zairi MFactors Influencing the Implementation of E-Commerce Technologies byFinancing Services in Saudi Arabia – An Empirical Study05/16 – Andrew J Taylor & Damian R WardConsumer Attributes and the UK Market for Private Medical Insurance05/15 – Roszaini Haniffa, Mohammad Hudaib & Abdul Mailk MirzaUQUD & Accounting Policy Choice05/14 – Mohamed ZairiTQM Sustainability: How to Maintain its Gains ThroughTransformational Change05/13 – Myfawny TruemanEmotional Intelligence: The Relationship Between an InnovativeConstruct and Successful Training in Management Schools(A Comparison Between German and British Contexts)05/12 – Nicholas J Ashill & David JobberMeasuring Perceived Environmental Uncertainty:Scale Development and Validation05/11 – David JobberThe Social Psychology of Sales-Marketing Intergroup Relations:An Empirical Investigation05/10 – Myfawny Trueman, Ali Bagg & Diana CookAnyone for Hanging Baskets? Re-Building Business Confidence andShaping Socirty in a Multi-Ethnic City05/09 – Dr Rana TassabehjiManaging E-Business Security: A Holistic Approach05/08 – Dr Myfanwy Trueman, Mirza Mohammed Ali Baig &Dr Diana CookWho’s Listening? How a Misunderstanding about CommunicationsNetworks within the UK Asian Business Community can Impact on theRejuvenation of a City Brand05/07 – Dr Hong-Wei He & Professor John M T BalmerIdentity Studies: Multiple Perspectives and Implications for Corporate-level Marketing05/06 – Robert Wapshott & David P SpicerSeeking Evidence of HR Change Agents in SMEs –A Preliminary Investigation05/05 – Gretchen Larsen & Daragh O’ReillyMusic Festivals as Sales of Consumption: An Exploratory Study05/04 – Dr Hong-Wei He & Professor John M T BalmerIdentity Studies: Multiple Perspectives and Implications for Corporate-level Marketing05/03 – David P Spicer & Rusli AhmadCognitive Processing Models in Performance Appraisal: Evidence Fromthe Malaysian Education System05/02 – Alexander T Mohr & Jonas F PuckHow Can Firms Improve the Performance of Their International JointVenture? Responding to Functional Diversity05/01 – David P SpicerCulture in Change: A Case Study of a Merger Using Cognitive Mapping14WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • 200404/44 – (not available)04/43 – Professor John M T Balmer & Professor Edmund R GrayCorporate Brands as Strategic Resources04/42 – Musa Mangena & Venanico TauringanaA Study of the Relationship Between Audit Committee Charactistics andVoluntary External Auditor Involvement in UK Interim Reporting04/41 – Axèle Giroud & Hafiz MirzaMultinational Enterprises and Local Input Linkages in South East Asia04/40 – Belinda Dewsnap & David JobberWhat Factors Affect Collaborations Between Sales and MarketingDepartment?04/39 – Dr Hong-Wei He & Professor John M T BalmerThe Oneworld Alliance Brand: A Preliminary Inquiry04/38 – Hairulliza Mohamad Judi, Roger Beach & Alan Paul MuhlemannDefining Manufacturing Flexibility: A Research Prerequiste04/37 – Professor W A TaylorRelative Influence of Structure and process in Strategic Alliances:An Empricial Study of the Software Sector04/36 – Dr Ellen RoemerGuiding a Double-Edged Sword: Continuity versus Flexibility in IndustrialRelationships04/35 – David P SpicerOrganisational Learning and Perfromance in SMEs04/34 – Aren Boschman & Margaret WebsterOutsourcing as an Operations Strategy in a National ConservationAgency: A Case Study from South African national Parks (SANParks)04/33 – Jo McBride & John StirlingA New Industrial Relations in an Old Industry?04/32 – Roszaini Haniffa & Mohammad HudaibDisclosure Practices of Islamic Financial Institutions: An Exploratory Study04/31 – Professor John M T BalmerThe Corporate Branding Triumvarite: Values, Promise and Behaviour?04/30 – Christopher PassThe Configuration of Long-Term Executive Directors Incentive Schemes:An Empirical Survey of Option and LTIP Practice in Large UK Companies04/28 – Ellen RoemerReal Options and the Theory of the Firm04/27 – Deborah Allcock & Christopher PassExecutive Incentive Pay Strategies in Entrepreneurial UK Initial PublicOffering Companies: An Empirical Study04/26 – Professor John M T Balmer & Dr Helen StuartBritish Airways and Balmer’s AC3ID Test of Corporate Brand Management04/25 – Musa Mangena & Richard PikeShareholding of Audit Committee Members, Audit Committee Size andExpertise and the Quality of Interim Financial Reporting04/24 – Professor John M T Balmer, Stephen A Greyser & Mats UrdeMonarchies as Corporate Brands04/23 – Nur Naha Abu Mansor, Mike Tayles & Richard PikeThe Role of Team-Realated Factors in Implementations Success ofActivity-Based Costing Systems04/22 – Musa MangenaOn the Perceived Importance of Disclosure Items in UK Interim FinancialReports: Evidence from the Investment Analysis04/21 – Arvid Falgestad & Christine A HopeStakeholders in a Winter Sports Destination:Identification and Prioritisation04/20 – Oliver Breiden, Hafiz R Mirza & Alexander T MohrCoping with the Job Abroad: A Correspondence Model of ExpatraiteWork Adjustment04/19 – Michael Baum, Sandra Hogarth-Scott & Devashish PujariThe Auction Flow: Goal-Directed and Experimental Flow Effects on UserExperience in Online Auctioning04/18 – Hong-We He & John MT BalmerThe Saliency & Significance of Generic Identity:An Exploratory Study of UK Building Societies04/17 – Professor John M T BalmerThe British Monarchy as a Corporate Brand: Heresy or Necessity?04/16 – Professor John M T BalmerThe British Monarchy: Does the British Crown as a Corporate Brand Fit?04/15 – Professor John M T BalmerDimensions and Associations of Corporate Identity: Insights from theBritish Monarchy, the BBC and from Identity Consultancy04/14 – Edmund R Gray & John M T BalmerThe Sustainable Entrepreneur04/13 – Professor Zairi M, Dr Hogg L & Dr Ahmed A MIntroducing A New Innovation By Stimulating A Real ShoppingExperience04/12 – Dr Al-Rasheed S, Professor Zairi M & Dr Ahmed A MGetting in The Mind of The Customer: An Empirical Study of ConsumerBehaviour in Retailing04/11 – Dr Al-Nofal A, Professor Zairi M & Dr Ahmed A MCritical Factors of TQM: An International Comparative BenchmarkingAnalysis04/10 – Belinda Dewsnap & David JobberThe Antecedents of Sales-Marketing Collaboration:An Empirical Investigation04/09 – Mary Klemm & John RedfearnMission Statements: Do They Still Have a Role?04/08 – Taufiq Choudhry, Edward Ng & Ke PengDynamic Interaction Among Asian Exchange Rates: Evidence FromAsian Financial Crisis04/07 – Zahid Hussain & Peter ProwseHuman Resource Information Systems (HRIS) as Means of Fulfilling JobRoles More Professionally for Human Resource (HR) Managers04/06 – Damian WardMeasuring the Value of Differentiation In The UK Monthly Savings Market04/05 – Stephanie Hussels & Damian WardCost Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity in the European LifeInsurance Industry: The Development of the German Life InsuranceIndustry Over the Years 1991-200204/04 – Axèle Giroud & Hafiz MirzaIntra-firm Technology Transfer: The Case of Japanese ManufacturingFirms in Asia04/03 – David SpicerThe Impact of Approaches to Learning and Cognition on AcademicPerformance in Business and Management04/02 – Hafiz Mirza & Axèle GiroudRegionalisation, Foreign Direct Investment and Poverty Reduction:The Case of ASEAN04/01 – Gretchen Larsen & Veronica GeorgeThe Social Construction of Destination Image – A New Zealand FilmExample200303/35 – Alexander T Mohr & Jonas F PuckAsymmetries in Partner Firms’ Perception of Key Variables and thePerformance of International Joint Ventures03/34 – Hafiz Mirza & Axèle GiroudThe Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Economic Developmentof ASEAN Economies: A Preliminary Analysis03/33 – Raissa RossiterNetworks, Collaboration and the Internationalisation of Small andMedium-Sized Enterprises: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on theNetwork Approach – Part 103/32 – Stephanie Hussels, Damian Ward & Ralf ZurbrueggHow Do You Stimulate Demand For Insurance?03/31 – Donal Flynn & Zahid I HussainA Qualitative Approach to Investigating the Behavioural Definitions ofthe Four-Paradigm Theory of Information Systems Development03/30 – Alexander T Mohr & Simone KleinAdjustment V. Satisfaction – An Analysis of American ExpatriateSpouses in Germany03/29 – David Spicer & Eugene Sadler-SmithOrganisational Learning in Smaller Manufacturing Firms03/28 – Alex Mohr & Markus KittlerForeign Partner Assignment Policy & Trust in IJVs03/27 – Avinandan Mukherjee & Rahul RoyDynamics of Brand Value Management of Entertainment Products –the Case of a Television Game Show03/26 – Professor Andrew TaylorComputer-Mediated Knowledge Sharing and Individual User Difference:An Exploratory Study03/25 – Dr Axèle GiroudTNCs Intra- and Inter-firms Networks: The Case of the ASEAN Region15WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • 03/24 – Alexander T Mohr & Jonas F PuckExploring the Determinants of the Trust-Control-Relationship inInternational Joint Ventures03/23 – Scott R Colwell & Sandra Hogarth-ScottThe Effect of Consumer Perception of Service Provider Opportunismon Relationship Continuance Behaviour: An Empirical Study inFinancial Services03/22 – Kathryn Watson & Sandra Hogarth-ScottUnderstanding the Influence of Constraints to InternationalEntrepreneurship in Small and Medium-Sized Export Companie03/21 – Dr A M Ahmed & Professor M ZairiThe AEQL Framework Implementation: American Express Case Study03/20 – Dr K J Bomtaia, Professor M Zairi & Dr A M AhmedPennsylvania State University Case Study:A Benchmarking Exercise in Higher Education03/19 – Alexander T Mohr & Jonas F PuckInter-Sender Role Conflicts, General Manager Satisfaction and JointVenture Performance in Indian-German Joint Ventures03/18 – Mike Tayles & Colin DruryProfiting from Profitability Analysis in UK Companies?03/17 – Dr Naser Al-Omaim, Professor Mohamed Zairi & Dr AbdelMoneim AhmedGeneric Framework for TQM Implementation with Saudi Context:An Empirical Study03/16 – AM Al-Saud, Dr AM Ahmed & Professor KE WoodwardGlobal Benchmarking of the Thrid Generation TelecommunicationSystem: Lessons Learned from Sweden Case Study03/15 – Shelley L MacDougall & Richard PikeConsider Your Options: Changes to Stratetic Value DuringImplementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technology03/14 – Myfanwy Trueman & Richard PikeBuilding Product Value by Design. How Strong Accountants/DesignRelationships Can Provide a Long-Term Competitive03/13 – Jiang Liu, Ke Peng & Shiyan WangTime Varying Prediction of UK Asset Returns03/12 – A M Ahmed, Professor M Zairi & S A AlwabelGlobal Benchmarking for Internet & E-Commerce Applications03/11 – A M Ahmed, Professor M Zairi & Yong HouSwot Analysis for Air China Performance and Its Experience with Quality03/10 – Kyoko Fukukawa & Jeremy MoonA Japanese Model of Corporate Social Responsibility?:A study of online reporting03/09 – Waleed Al-Shaqha and Mohamed ZairiThe Critical Factors Requested to Implement Pharmaceutical Care inSaudit Arabian Hospitals: A Qualitative Study03/08 – Shelly MacDougall & Richard PikeThe Elusive Return on Small Business Investment in AMT: EconomicEvaluation During Implementation03/07 – Alexander T MohrThe Relationship between Inter-firm Adjustment and Performance inIJVs – the Case of German-Chinese Joint Ventures03/06 – Belinda Dewsnap & David JobberRe-thinking Marketing Structures in the Fast Moving Consumer GoodsSector: An Exploratory Study of UK Firms03/05 – Mohamed Zairi & Samir BaidounUnderstanding the Essentials of Total Quality Management:A Best Practice Approach – Part 203/04 – Deli Yang & Derek BosworthManchester United Versus China: The “Red Devils” Trademark Problemsin China03/03 – Mohamed Zairi & Samir BaidounUnderstanding the Essentials of Total Quality Management:A Best Practice Approach – Part 103/02 – Alexander T MohrThe Relationship Between Trust and Control in International Joint Ventures(IJVs) – An Emprical Analysis of Sino-German Equity Joint Ventures03/01 – Mike Tayles & Colin DruryExplicating the Design of Cost Systems200202/34 – Alexander T MohrExploring the Performance of IJVs – A Qualitative and QuantitativeAnalysis of the Performance of German-Chinese Joint Ventures in thePeople’s Republic of China02/33 – John M T Balmer & Edmund GrayComprehending Corporate Brands02/32 – John M T BalmerMixed Up Over Identities02/31 – Zoë J Douglas & Zoe J RadnorInternal Regulatory Practices: Understanding the Cyclical Effects withinthe Organisation02/30 – Barbara Myloni, Dr Anne-Wil Harzing & Professor Hafiz MirzaA Comparative Analysis of HRM Practices in Subsidiaries of MNCs andLocal Companies in Greece02/29 – Igor Filatotchev”Going Public with Good Governance’’: Board Selection and ShareOwnership in UK IPO Firms02/28 – Axele GiroudMNEs in Emerging Economies: What Explains Knowledge Transfer toLocal Suppliers02/27 – Niron HashaiIndustry Competitiveness – The Role of Regional Sharing of Distance-Sensitive Inputs (The Israeli – Arab Case)02/26 – Niron HashaiTowards a Theory of MNEs from Small Open Economics – Static andDynamic Perspectives02/25 – Christopher PassCorporate Governance and The Role of Non-Executive Directors in LargeUK Companies: An Empirical Study02/24 – Deli YangThe Development of the Intellectual Property in China02/23 – Roger BeachOperational Factors that Influence the Successful Adoption of InternetTechnology in Manufacturing02/22 – Niron Hashai & Tamar AlmorSmall and Medium Sized Multinationals: The InternationalizationProcess of Born Global Companies02/21 – M Webster & D M SugdenA Proposal for a Measurement Scale for Manufacturing Virtuality02/20 – Mary S Klemm & Sarah J KelseyCatering for a Minority? Ethnic Groups and the British Travel Industry02/19 – Craig Johnson & David Philip SpicerThe Action Learning MBA: A New Approach Management Education02/18 – Lynda M StansfieldAn Innovative Stakeholder Approach to Management Education:A Case Study02/17 – Igor Filatotchev, Mike Wright, Klaus Uhlenbruck,Laszlo Tihanyi & Robert HoskissonPrivatization and Firm Restructuring in Transition Economies:The Effects of Governance and Organizational Capabilities02/16 – Mike Tayles, Andrew Bramley, Neil Adshead & Janet FarrDealing with the Management of Intellectual Capital: The Potential Roleof Strategic Management Accounting02/15 – Christopher PassLong-Term Incentive Schemes, Executive Remuneration and CorporatePerfomance02/14 – Nicholas J Ashill & David JobberAn Empirical Investigation of the Factors Affecting the Scope ofInformation Needed in a MkIS02/13 – Bill Lovell, Dr Zoe Radnor & Dr Janet HendersonA Pragmatic Assessment of the Balanced Scorecard: An Evaluation use ina NHS Multi-Agency Setting in the UK02/12 – Zahid Hussain & Donal FlynnValidating the Four-Paradigm Theory of Information Systems Development02/11 – Alexander T Mohr & Simone KleinThe Adjustment of American Expatriate Spouses in Germany –A Qualitative and Quantative Analysis02/10 – Riyad Eid & Myfanwy TruemanThe Adoption of The Internet for B-to-B International Marketing02/09 – Richard Pike & Nam ChengTrade Credit, Late Payment and Asymmetric Information02/08 – Alison J Killingbeck & Myfanwy M TruemanRedrawing the Perceptual Map of a City02/07 – John M T BalmerCorporate Brands: Ten Years On – What’s New?02/06 – Dr Abdel Moniem Ahmed & Professor Mohamed ZairiCustomer Satisfaction: The Driving Force for Winning BusinessExcellence Award16WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • 02/05 – John M T Balmer & Stephen A GreyserManaging the Multiple Identities of the Corporation02/04 – David Philip SpicerOrganizational Learning & The Development of Shared Understanding:Evidence in Two Public Sector Organizations02/03 – Tamar Almor & Niron HashaiConfigurations of International Knowledge-Intensive SMEs:Can the Eclectic Paradigm Provide a Sufficient Theoretical Framework?02/02 – Riyad Eid, Myfanwy Trueman & Abdel Moniem AhmedThe Influence of Critical Success Factors on International InternetMarketing02/01 – Niron HashaiThe Impact of Distance Sensitivity and Economics of Scale on theOutput and Exports of Israel and its Arab Neighbours200101/18 – Christopher M DentTransnational Capital, the State and Foreign Economic Policy:Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan01/17 – David P Spicer & Eugene Sadler-SmithThe General Decision Making Style Questionnaire:A Comfirmatory Analysis01/16 – David P SpicerExpanding Experimental Learning: Linking Individual andOrganisational learning, Mental Models and Cognitive Style01/15 – E Grey & J BalmerEthical Identity; What is it? What of it?01/14 – Mike Talyes & Colin DruryAutopsy of a Stalling ABC System: A Case Study of Activity Based CostManagement and Performance Improvement01/13 – N Esho, R Zurbruegg, A Kirievsky & D WardLaw and the Deminants of International Insurance Consumption01/12 – J Andrews Coutts & Kwong C CheugTrading Rules and Stock Returns: Some Preliminary Short Run Evidencefrom the Hang Seng 1985-199701/11 – D McKechnie & S Hogarth-ScottLinking Internal Service Encounters and Internal Transactions: UnravellingInternal Marketing Contract Workers01/10 – M Webster & D M SugdenOperations Strategies for the Exploitation of Protected Technology: VirtualManufacture as an Alternative to Outward licensing01/09 – Axèle GiroudBuyer-Supplier Transfer and Country of Origin: An Empirical Analysis ofFDI in Malaysia01/08 – Damian WardDo Independent Agents Reduce Life Insurance Companies’ Free Cash Flow?01/07 – Daragh O’ReillyCorporate Images in ‘Jerry Maguire’: A Semiotic Analysis01/06 – Tony Lindley & Daragh O’ReillyBrand Identity on the Arts Sector01/05 – M Trueman, J Balmer & D O’ReillyDesperate Dome, Desperate Measures! Managing Innovation at London’sMillennium Dome01/04 – M Trueman, M Klemm, A Giroud & T LindleyBradford in the Premier League? A Multidisciplinary Approach toBranding and Re-positioning a City01/03 – A HarzingSelf Perpetuating Myths and Chinese Whispers01/02 – M WebsterSupply Systems Structure, Management and Performance:A Research Agenda01/01 – A HarzingAcquisitions Versus Greenfield Investments: Exploring the Impact of theMNC’s International Strategy20000031 – John Ritchie & Sue RichardsonLeadership and Misleadership in Smaller Business Governance0030 – Mary KlemmTourism and Ethnic Minorities in Bradford: Concepts and Evidence0029 – (not available)0028 – (not available)0027 – Axèle GiroudDeterminant Factors of the Degree of Supply-Related Technology Transfer:A Comparative Analysis Between Asian Affiliates0026 – A Cullen, M Webster & A MuhlemannEnterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems: Definitions, Functionality andthe Contribution to Global Operations0025 – B Chennoufi & M KlemmManaging Cultural Differences in a Global Environment0024 – (not available)0023 – Simon Best & Devashish PujariInternet Marketing Effectiveness:An Exploratory Examination in Tourism Industry0022 – Dr Myfanwy TuremanDivided Views, Divided Loyalties: Changing Customer Perceptions by Design0021 – Yasar JarrarBecoming World Class Through a Culture of Measurement0020 – David Spicer & Eugene Sadler-SmithCognitive Style & Decision Making0019 – Z J Radnor & R BoadenA Test for Corporate Anorexia0018 – (not available)0017 – Peter ProwsePublic Service Union Recruitment Workplace Recovery or Stagnation ina Public Services Union? Evidence From a Regional Perspective0016 – Yasar F Jarrar & Mohamed ZairiBest Practice Transfer for Future Competitiveness:A Study of Best Practices0015 – Mike Tayles & Colin DruryCost Systems and Profitability Analysis in UK Companies: SelectedSurvey Findings0014 – B Myloni & A HarzingTransferability of Human Resource Management Practices AcrossBorders: A European Reflection on Greece0013 – (not available)0012 – Nick J FreemanAsean Investment Area: Progress and Challenges0011 – Arvid Flagestad & Christine A HopeA Model of Strategic Success in Winter Sports Destinations:the Strategic Performance Pyramid0010 – M Poon, R Pike & D TjosvoldBudget Participation, Goal Interdependence and Controversy:A Study of a Chinese Public Utility0009 – Patricia C Fox, John M T Balmer & Alan WilsonApplying the Acid Test of Corporate Identity Management0008 – N Y Ashry & W A TaylorInformation Systems Requirements Analysis in Healthcare:Diffusion or Translation?0007 – T Lindley, D O’Reilly & T CaseyAn Analysis of UK Television Advertisements for Alcohol0006 – Eric Lindley & Frederick WheelerThe Learning Square: Four Domains that Impact on Strategy0005 – K K Lim, P K Ahmed & M ZairiThe Role of Sharing Knowledge in Management Initiatives0004 – C De Mattos & S SandersonExpected Importance of Partners’ Contributions to Alliances inEmerging Economies: A Review0003 – A HarzingAcquisitions Versus Greenfield Investments: Both Sides of the Picture0002 – Stuart Sanderson & Claudio De MattosAlliance Partners’ Expectations Concerning Potential Conflicts andImplications Relative to Trust Building0001 – A HarzingAn Empirical Test and Extension of the Bartlett & Ghoshal Typology ofMultinational Companies19999922 – Gerry Randell & Maria del Pilar RodriguezManagerial Ethical Behaviour9921 – N Y Ashry & W A TaylorRequirements Analysis as Innovation Diffusion: A ProposedRequirements Analysis Strategy for the Development of an IntegratedHospital Information Support System17WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • 9920 – C HopeMy Way’s The Right Way! Or, With Particular Reference to Teaching onTourism Courses, is ‘Best Practice’ in Operations ManagementDependent Upon National Culture?9919 – A HarzingOf Bumble-Bees and Spiders: The Role of Expatriates in ControllingForeign Subsidiaries9918 – N Y Ashry & W A TaylorWho will take the Garbage Out? The Potential of InformationTechnology for Clinical Waste Management in the NHS9917 – D O’ReillyNice Video(?), Shame about the Scam… Paedagogical Rhetoric MeetsCommercial Reality at Stew Leonard’s9916 – A HarzingThe European Monolith: Another Myth in International Management?9915 – S MacDougall & R PikeThe Influence of Capital Budgeting Implementation on Real Options:A Multiple-Case Study of New Technology Investments9914 – C Pass, A Robinson & D WardPerformance Criteria of Corporate Option and Long-Term IncentivePlans: A Survey of 150 UK Companies 1994-19989913 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, D H R Price, J A Sharp & A PatersonStrategic Flexibility and Outsourcing in Global networks9912 – H M stewart, C A Hope & A P MuhlemannThe Legal Profession, Networks and Service Quality9911 – J F KeaneDesign and the Management Paradigms of Self-Organisation9910 – D O’ReillyOn the Precipice of a Revolution with Hamel and Prahalad9909 – S Cameron & D WardAbstinence, Excess, Success?: Alcohol, Cigarettes, Wedlock & Earnings9908 – M Klemm & J RawelEurocamp – Strategic Development and Internationalisation in aEuropean Context9907 – M Webster & R BeachOperations Network Design, Manufacturing Paradigmsand the Subcontractor9906 – D WardFirm Behaviour and Investor Choice: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis ofUK Insuramce9905 – D Ward, C Pass & A RobinsonLTIPS and the Need to Examine the Diversity of CEO Remuneration9904 – C SmallmanKnowledge Management as Risk Management: The Need for OpenCorporate Governance9903 – R Beach, D Price, A Muhlemann & J SharpThe Role of Qualitative Research in the Quest for Strategic Flexibility9902 – N Hiley & C SmallmanPredicting Corporate Failure: A Literature Review9901 – M TruemanDesigning Capital: Using Design to Enhanceand Control Technological Innovation19989826 – A HarzingCross-National Industrial Mail Surveys: Why do Response Rates DifferBetween Countries?9825 – B Dewsnap and D JobberThe Sales-Marketing Interface: A Synthesis of Theoretical Perspectivesand Conceptual Framework9824 – C De MattosAdvantageous Exectutives’ Characteristics in Establishing BiotechnologyAlliances in an Emerging Economy: The Case of Brazil9823 – C A HoworthAn Empirical Examination of the Usefulness of the Cash Conversion Cycle9822 – A HarzingWho’s in Charge? An Empirical Study of Executive Staffiing Practices inForeign Subsidiaries9821 – N Wakabayashi & J GillPerceptive Differences in Interorganizational Collaboration andDynamics of Trust9820 – C SmallmanRisk Perception: State of the Art9819 – C SmallmanThe Breadth of Perceived Risk: Why Integrated Risk Management ofHealth, Safety & Environmental Risks is only the End of the Beginning9818 – P S Budhwar, A Popof & D PujariEvaluating Sales Management Training at Xerox in Greece:An Exploratory Study9817 – W A TaylorAn Information-Based Perspective onKnowledge Capture in Business Processes9816 – S Hogarth-ScottCategory Management Relationships:Is it Really Trust Where Choice is Limited?9815 – W A TaylorSustaining Innovation in Organisations: Managing the IntangiblesA Study of TQM Implementation in Northern Ireland Organisations1991-19969814 – M Webster, A Muhlemann and C AlderSubcontract Manufacture in Electronics Assembly:A Survey of Industry Practice9813 – M J S HarryIs Object-Orientation Subject-Oriented?: Conflicting andUnresolved Philosophies in Object-Oriented InformationSystems Development Methodology9812 – J JacksonThe Introduction of Japanese Continuous Improvement Practices to aTraditional British Manufacturing Site: The Case of RHP Bearings(Ferrybridge)9811 – C De MattosA Comparative Study Between Perceptions of British and GermanExecutives, in the Biotechnology Sector, Relative to Potential FutureContributions of Greatest Importance to and from TransnationalAlliance Partners in Emerging Economies9810 – J Martin-Hirsch & G WrightThe Cost of Customer Care – A Value Analysis of Service DeliveryApproaches9809 – J Martin-Hirsch & G WrightA Service Provider’s View of Success Factors in Alternative ServiceStategies9808 – J Martin-Hirsch & G WrightA Professional’s Evaluation of Alternative Service Delivery Regimes forCustomer Care and Satisfaction9807 – J Martin-Hirsch & G WrightA User’s Perspective of Alternative Service Delivery: A ComparativeStudy of the Evaluation of Service Strategies9806 – J Martin-Hirsch & G WrightThe Case for Choice in Health Care: A Comparison of Traditional andTeam Midwifery in Effective Service Provision9805 – M Woods, M Fedorkow amd M SmithModelling the Learning Organisation9804 – W A TaylorAn Action Research Study of Knowledge Management in Process Industries9803 – C SingletonQuantitative and Qualitative – Bridging the Gap Between TwoOpposing Paradigms9802 – R McClements & C SmallmanManaging in the New Millennium: Reflections on Change, Management andthe Need for Learning9801 – P Eyre & C SmallmanEuromanagement Competencies in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises:A Development Path for the New Millenium19979729 – C SmallmanManagerial Perceptions of OrganisationalHazards and their Associated Risks9728 – C Smallman & D WeirManagers in the Year 2000 and After: A Strategy for Development9727 – R PlattEnsuring Effective Provision of Low Cost Housing Finance in India:An In-Depth case Analysis9726 – (not available)9725 – (not available)9724 – S Estrin, V Perotin, A Robinson & N WilsonProfit-Sharing Revisited: British and French Experience Compared18WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • 9723 – (not available)9722 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H R Price and J A SharpFacilitating Strategic Change in Manufacturing Industry9721 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H R Price and J A SharpThe Strategy Options in Manufacturing Industry: Propositions Based onCase Histories9720 – A GiroudMultinational Firms Backward Linkages in Malaysia: A Comparisonbetween European and Asian Firms in the Electrical and Electronics Sector9719 – L KeningForeign Direct Investment in China: Performance, Climate and Impact9718 – H MirzaTowards a Strategy for Enhancing ASEAN’s Locational Advantages forAttracting Greater Foreign Direct Investment9717 – B Summers & N WilsonAn Empirical Study of the Demand for Trade Credit in UKManufacturing Firms9716 – R Butler & J GillReliable Knowledge and Trust in Partnership Formation9715 – R ButlerStories and Experiments in Organisational Research9714 – M Klemm & L ParkinsonBritish Tour Operators: Blessing or Blight9713 – C A HopeWhat Does Quality Management Mean forTourism Companies and Organisations?9712 – S Hogarth-Scott & P DapiranDo Retailers and Suppliers Really have Collaborative CategoryManagement Relationships?: Category Management Relationships inthe UK and Australia9711 – C De MattosThe Importance of Potential Future Contributions from/to TransnationalJoint Venture Partners: Perception of Brazilian Managing Directors andSpecialists Linked to Biotechnology9710 – N T Ibrahim & F P WheelerAre Malaysian Corporations Ready for Executive Information Systems?9709 – F P Wheeler & A W NixonMonitoring Organisational Knowledge in Use9708 – M Tayles & C DruryScoping Product Costing Research: A Strategy for Managing the ProductPortfolio – Cost System Design9707 – N Wilson, B Summers & C SingletonSmall Business Demand for Trade Credit, Credit Rationing and the LatePayment of Commercial Debt: An Empirical Study9706 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H R Price & J A SharpThe Management Information Systems as a Source of Flexibility:A Case Study9705 – E MarshallBusiness Ethics: The Religious Dimension9704 – M Wright, N Wilson & K RobbieThe Longer Term Effects of Management-Led Buy-Outs9703 – G Hopkinson & S Hogarth ScottQuality of Franchise Relationships: The Implications of Micro EconomicTheories of Franchising9702 – G C Hopkinson & S Hogarth-ScottChannel Conflict: Critical Incidents or Telling Tales.Methodologies Compared9701 – K Watson, S. Hogarth-Scott & N WilsonMarketing Success Factors and Key Tasks in Small Business Development19969619 – B Summers & N WilsonTrade Credit Management and the Decision to use Factoring:An Empirical Study9618 – M Hiley & H MirzaThe Economic Prospects of ASEAN : The Role of AFTA in the FutureDevelopment of the Region9617 – A BrownProspects for Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in Thailand9616 – H Mirza, K H Wee & F BartelsThe Expansion Strategies of Triad Corporations in East Asia9615 – M Demirbag & H MirzaInter-Partner Reliance, Exchange of Resources & Partners’ Influence onJ’V’s Strategy9614 – R H Pike & N S ChengMotives for Investing in Accounts Receivable: Theory and Evidence9613 - R H Pike & N S ChengBusiness Trade Credit Management: Experience of Large UK Firms9612 – R Elliott, S Eccles & K GournayMan Management? Women and the Use of Debt to ControlPersonal Relationships9611 – R Elliott, S Eccles & K GournaySocial Support, Personal Relationships & Addictive Consumption9610 – M Uncles & A ManaresiRelationships Among Retail Franchisees and Frachisors:A Two-Country Study9609 – S ProcterQuality in Maternity Services:Perceptions of Managers, Clinicians and Consumers’9608 – S Hogarth-Scott & G P DapiranRetailer-Supplier Relationships: An Integrative Framework Based onCategory Management Relationships9607 – N Wilson, S Hogarth-Scott & K WatsonFactors Contributing to EntrepreneurialSuccess in New Start Small Businesses9606 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H R Price & J A SharpThe Evolutionary Development of the Concept Manufacturing Flexibility9605 – B SummersUsing Neural Networks for Credit Risk Management:The Nature of the Models Produced9604 – P J Buckley & M CarterThe Economics of Business Process Design: Motivation, Information &Coordination Within the Firm9603 – M CarterIs the Customer Always Right?Information, Quality and Organisational Architecture9602 – D T H WeirWhy Does the Pilot Sit at the Front? And Does it Matter?9601 – R A RaymanA Proposal for Reforming the Tax System19959506 – A L Riding & B SummersNetworks that Learn and Credit Evaluation9505 – R A RaymanThe Income Concept: A Flawed Ideal?9504 – S Ali & H MirzaMarket Entry Strategies in Poland: A Preliminary Report9503 – R Beach, A P Muhlemann, A Paterson, D H.R Price & J A SharpAn Adaptive Literature Search Paradigm9502 – A S C Ehrenberg & M UnclesDirechlet-Type Markets: a Review, Part 2: Applications & Implications9501 – M Uncles & A S C EhrenbergDirechlet-Type Markets: A Review, Part 1: Patterns and Theory19949411 – R A RaymanThe Real-Balance Effect Fallacy and The Failure of Unemployment Policy9410 – R A RaymanThe Myth of ‘Says’ Law9409 not issued9408 not issued9407 not issued9406 not issued9405 – F Bartels & N FreemanMultinational Enterprise in Emerging Markets: International JointVentures in Côte D’Ivoire Vietnam9404 – E MarshallThe Single Transferable Vote – A Necessary Refinement Abstract9403 – G R Dowling & M UnclesCustomer Loyalty programs: Should Every Firm Have One?9402 – N Wilson, A Pendleton & M WrightThe impact of Employee Ownership on Employee Attitudes:Evidence from UK ESOPS9401 – N Wilson & M J PeelWorking Capital & Financial ManagementPractices in the Small Firm Sector19WORKING PAPER SERIES
    • 19939310 – R Butler, L Davies, R Pike & J SharpEffective Investment Decision-Making: The Concept and itsDeterminants no longer available9309 – A Muhlemann, D Price, M Afferson & J SharpManufacturing Information Systems as a Means for Improvingthe Quality of Production Management Decisions in SmallerManufacturing Enterprises9308 – F P Wheeler, R J Thomas & S H ChangTowards Effective Executive Information Systems9307 – F P Wheeler, S H Chang & R J ThomasThe Transition from an Executive Information System to Everyone’sInformation System: Lessons from a Case Study9306 – S H Chang, F P Wheeler & R J ThomasModelling Executive Information Needs9305 – S. Braga Rodrigues & D HicksonSuccess in Decision Making: Different Organisations,Differing Reasons for Success.9304 – R J Butler, R S Turner, P D Coates, R H Pike & D H R PriceIdeology, Technology and Effectiveness9303 – R J Butler, R S Turner, P D Coates, R H Pike & D H R PriceStrategy, Structure and Technology9302 – R J Butler, R S Turner, P D Coates, R H Pike & D H R PriceCompetitive Strategies and New Technology9301 – R J Butler, R S Turner, P D Coates, R H Pike & D H R PriceInvesting in New Technology for Competitive AdvantageCopies of the above papers can be obtained by contacting the ResearchProgramme Administrative Secretary at the address below:Bradford University School of ManagementEmm LaneBradfordWest YorkshireBD9 4JLTel: ++44 (01)1274 234323 (mornings only)Fax: ++44 (01)1274 54686620WORKING PAPER SERIES