Key Technologies for OptimizingLithium Battery Cost-Effectiveness           Eugene Liu           Director of Engineering a...
Components of battery cost– Purchase cost   • $/kWh– Ownership cost   • Cycle life   • Warranty   • Repair costs– End of l...
Battery Purchase Costs  Nameplate vs. Usable Energy, $/kWh kWh Nameplate energy                         Unused due to     ...
Usable Energy Example   160           $8000              16kWh total   140         $500/kWh             Unused due to     ...
Maximizing Usable EnergyKey elements Flat power vs. SOC curve = lower SOC setpoint for HEV operation = higher useable     ...
Reduced Ownership Costs• Long cycle life                                                   1C-1C, 100% depth of discharge ...
Reduced Ownership Costs• Fully validated and proven  battery pack components   – Cells      • Base chemistry in production...
Reduced Ownership Costs• High reliability design features   – 100% welded module interconnects (bi-     metallic bus bars,...
Battery Pack Component Costs                               Battery pack cost breakdown% of total battery pack cost        ...
Reducing Battery Pack Costs• Increased scale of  production  through  standardized  components  applied to each  battery p...
Reducing Battery Pack Costs                    Scalable family of battery                    modules using common         ...
Reducing Battery Pack CostsUsing common building blocks in configurations to suit any application       xSyP Scalable     ...
Reducing Battery Pack CostsCustomized Pack Components  Local China sourcing with Global  Quality and Design Standards     ...
Future Cost Reduction Roadmap• Increased Energy Density  Battery Cells• Increased Economies of  Scale• VA/VE design practi...
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E liu atbs

  1. 1. Key Technologies for OptimizingLithium Battery Cost-Effectiveness Eugene Liu Director of Engineering and Product Development Shanghai Advanced Traction Battery Systems, Inc. Mujeeb Ijaz Vice President, Cell Product Development A123 Systems, Inc. Green Fuels and Vehicles China 2011
  2. 2. Components of battery cost– Purchase cost • $/kWh– Ownership cost • Cycle life • Warranty • Repair costs– End of life disposal costs ATBS Confidential
  3. 3. Battery Purchase Costs Nameplate vs. Usable Energy, $/kWh kWh Nameplate energy Unused due to safety and life at high SOC$/kWh - usable Usable energyenergy $/kWh - nameplate energy(what you can (what you pay for)actually use) Unused due to power at low SOC Usable energy depends on battery manufacturer’s cell technology 3
  4. 4. Usable Energy Example 160 $8000 16kWh total 140 $500/kWh Unused due to $5700 120 safety and life at high SOC 11.4kWh total $500/kWh 100 $4400 Usable energy 8.9kWh total 80 50% of total $500/kWh 8kWh usable Usable energy 60 $1000/kWh 70% of total Usable energy 8kWh usable 90% of total 40 $710/kWh 8kWh usable Unused due to $560/kWh 20 power at low SOC 0The key to optimizing battery pack costs is to increase usable energy 4
  5. 5. Maximizing Usable EnergyKey elements Flat power vs. SOC curve = lower SOC setpoint for HEV operation = higher useable energy Superior abuse tolerance allows charging to high SOC = higher useable energy Excellent deep-discharge cycle life = higher SOC swing = higher useable energy Typical More Useable Energy Pulse power Pulse power charge- charge- charge- charge- sustaining depleting sustaining depleting 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 SOC SOC 50-60% SOC swing 70-90% SOC swing 5
  6. 6. Reduced Ownership Costs• Long cycle life 1C-1C, 100% depth of discharge (DOD) cycling 120% 120% Discharge Capacity (% initial) DC Impedance (% initial) 100% 100% 80% 80% 60% 60% 40% 40% 20% 20% 0% 0% 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Cycle Number
  7. 7. Reduced Ownership Costs• Fully validated and proven battery pack components – Cells • Base chemistry in production since 2008 • Over 20 million miles of continuous revenue service – Modules • Tested to all UNDOT and FreedomCar safety standards • Extensive DFMEA and DVP&R requirements • Mass production launched in 2010 – BMS • Validated to all automotive durability and EMC standards
  8. 8. Reduced Ownership Costs• High reliability design features – 100% welded module interconnects (bi- metallic bus bars, voltage sense leads) – IP67-compliant pack housing design – Hardware based high voltage interlock (relay to avoid current pass through interlock) – Pre-charge resistor protection from vehicle bus shorts• Pack system design with global automotive industry-grade components and design methodology
  9. 9. Battery Pack Component Costs Battery pack cost breakdown% of total battery pack cost Need to focus on reducing costs of pack components Time Cell costs will continue to decrease in future years
  10. 10. Reducing Battery Pack Costs• Increased scale of production through standardized components applied to each battery pack – Standardized Scalable Prismatic Modules – Component sourcing leveraging global volumes
  11. 11. Reducing Battery Pack Costs Scalable family of battery modules using common componentsFlexible ModuleLocations andOrientations 11
  12. 12. Reducing Battery Pack CostsUsing common building blocks in configurations to suit any application xSyP Scalable Electrical Distribution Battery Control HV Service Prismatic Module Systems Module Module (BCM) Disconnect (Contactor, Current Sense, Pre-charge)
  13. 13. Reducing Battery Pack CostsCustomized Pack Components Local China sourcing with Global Quality and Design Standards Lightweight Enclosures High Voltage Wiring Integrated Battery Thermal Management Enclosure Mounting and Reinforcement ATBS Confidential
  14. 14. Future Cost Reduction Roadmap• Increased Energy Density Battery Cells• Increased Economies of Scale• VA/VE design practices and lessons learned• Reduced Manufacturing Costs through DFM/DFA ATBS Confidential

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