Settlement Revision Pack


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  • Settlement Revision Pack

    1. 1. Site Settlement Situation & Growth
    2. 2. First for some definitions Settlement These are places where People live. Site The physical land on which the settlement was built on Situation The settlement in relation to its surroundings
    3. 3. What factors made people decide on a site to locate their settlement?
    4. 4. Settlements were built in sheltered areas such as valleys or in bays on coastal locations. Aspect (the direction in which a settlement faces) was also an important consideration. Settlements would be more ideally located on south-facing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere and on north-facing slopes in the Southern Hemisphere . For example, in Britain, it was an advantage to be sheltered from cold winds blowing from the north, and to be facing south which meant more sunlight. Aspect and shelter Northern Hemisphere sun is in the south settlements on south-facing slopes receive more heat and sunlight S N
    5. 5. Aspect and shelter The town of Bradford-Upon-Avon in Wiltshire is located on a steep, south-facing slope.
    6. 6. Some settlement sites had specific advantages Settlement sites Where a river was shallow enough to be crossed (a ford) or narrow enough to easily build a bridge (e.g. Oxford). Where natural routes meet, such as several valleys (e.g. York) or at the confluence of two rivers (e.g. St Louis on the Mississippi). In especially wet areas, settlements were built on slightly raised land to avoid flooding or the unhealthy marshland (e.g. Ely in Cambridgeshire). Bridging Point Dry-Point Route Focus
    7. 7. Some settlement sites had specific advantages. Settlement sites These settlements were built at a source of water in an otherwise dry area. For example, in lowland Britain, many settlements were built at springs at the foot of chalk escarpments, e.g. Kemsingat near the North Downs. In order to protect themselves from attack, settlements were built within a river meander, with the river giving protection on three sides, e.g. Shrewsbury, or on a hill with good views, or in a gap on a ridge e.g. Corfe Castle. defensive wet-point
    8. 8. Resources Fertile Soil : needed for growing crops to support the settlements population. There is a higher density of rural settlements where there are fertile soils Early settlements relied upon timbre for fuel and building materials so nearby woodland was an advantage.
    9. 9. Resources Clay soils would have been used to make clay pots for cooking with Coal seams or oil fields would also be an advantage as they could also be mined as a source of fuel.
    10. 10. Resources Iron Ore or Tin for making tools Supply of easily quarried stone to build houses
    11. 11. What is “site”? <ul><li>A site is the physical piece of land a settlement is located on </li></ul>
    12. 12. What is “situation”? <ul><li>Situation is where a settlement is located in relation to other settlements or features </li></ul>
    13. 13. What is a settlement hierarchy? <ul><li>It’s a way of putting settlements in order. There are 3 ways to do it: </li></ul><ul><li>Population size, </li></ul><ul><li>Number of services </li></ul><ul><li>Size of sphere of influence </li></ul>
    14. 14. Sphere of influence <ul><li>The sphere of influence of a service is how far people will travel to make use of that service. </li></ul><ul><li>People are willing to travel a long distance to buy comparison goods (e.g. Harrods shop in London) and therefore has a very large sphere of influence. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Sphere of influence <ul><li>Taunton </li></ul>Wellington Ilminster Bridgwater
    16. 16. <ul><li>Convenience goods: (low order) </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers, Groceries </li></ul><ul><li>Bought more often for less money </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison Goods: (high order) </li></ul><ul><li>Carpets, electrical items, </li></ul><ul><li>Bought less often for more money </li></ul>
    17. 18. What are the different functions of settlements? Remember: a function is the work that is done in the settlement
    18. 19. Match the settlement to the function <ul><li>Seaside town </li></ul>Port Commuter Market town Manufacturing town Administrative town Taunton Bristol Lyme Regis Yeovil Ruishton Chard
    19. 20. Spot the difference:
    20. 21. Case study function change: North Curry <ul><li>Key areas that have changed: </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Number of retired people </li></ul><ul><li>Farm workers </li></ul><ul><li>Commuters </li></ul><ul><li>How has the function of North Curry changed over time? </li></ul><ul><li>It was originally a farming community, but now most people are either retired or commute to work </li></ul>
    21. 22. Urban models
    22. 24. The facts: <ul><li>Idea that towns grew centrally from a Central Business District (CBD) </li></ul><ul><li>This meant the oldest buildings should be in the centre, with younger on the outskirts </li></ul>
    23. 25. The Hoyt Model AKA the “Sector model”
    24. 27. The facts <ul><li>Again, CBD is central </li></ul><ul><li>Transport routes (roads) became more important for the location of industry, so new industry grows along transport routes (think of Blackbrook business park off of the M5) </li></ul>
    25. 29. Urban Land Use Patterns: LEDCs 1. The Central Business District; same as in MEDCs 2. High status housing surrounds the CBD. This includes high-rise expensive modern apartment blocks, many with their own security guards. This pattern is the opposite to that of cities in MEDCs. 3. Poor to medium quality housing which started out as a shanty town. It has now been provided with some basic amenities (the periferia). 4. Shanty towns are found on the steep hillsides, swamps or waste land surrounding the city. 5. Modern factories are found along main roads, sometimes with favelas in between.
    26. 30. Land use in Taunton
    27. 31. THE CBD The Central Business District <ul><ul><li>Large Shops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cafes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cinemas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theatres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museums </li></ul></ul>This is usually the original site of the settlement. It is centrally located because the rest of the settlement has grown around it. CBD: Central business district Examples in Taunton: Centre of town!!
    28. 32. 19 th Century Housing <ul><li>Terraced houses for the factory workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some now replaced by high-rise flats. </li></ul><ul><li>Small Corner shops </li></ul>INNER CITY Located just outside the CBD Houses built near to the factories so that the workers could get to work easily. Examples in Taunton: Winchester St, St Augustine Street
    29. 33. Housing 1920 - 1950 <ul><li>Larger houses usually with gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Some Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Some rows of shops </li></ul>INNER SUBURBS Newer houses built for the growing population. The land is cheaper the further away from the CBD you go, so houses were built with gardens. Examples in Taunton:Hamilton Road, Liseaux way
    30. 34. Modern Housing <ul><li>New houses and housing estates </li></ul><ul><li>New shopping centres </li></ul><ul><li>Parks and other open areas </li></ul>OUTER SUBURBS The land around the edge of a settlement is much cheaper and there is enough space to build large housing estates. Examples in Taunton: Blackbrook, Galmington
    31. 35. New Industrial Area Industrial estates and business parks built since 1970, close to main roads They are located close to main roads so that there is easy access for goods and employees Examples in Taunton: Blackbrook business park off of the M5
    32. 36. Old Industrial Areas <ul><li>Along a river, canal or railway </li></ul><ul><li>Many old factories now closed </li></ul><ul><li>Area may look run down </li></ul>They are located near to rivers, canals and railways because they needed to transport goods in and out of the city. Examples in Taunton: Pearsalls factory in St Augustine Street
    33. 37. Main functions of the CBD <ul><li>Shops: </li></ul><ul><li>CBD at top of shopping hierarchy in a city. </li></ul><ul><li>Has widest range of shops and the largest department stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Shops mainly sell comparison goods and high order goods </li></ul><ul><li>Draw customer from a wide sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Highest land costs in the centre </li></ul>
    34. 38. Main functions of the CBD <ul><li>2. Offices: </li></ul><ul><li>Banks, building societies, solicitors, insurance companies and government offices occupy high rise office blocks or the upper floors above shops in the CBD </li></ul>
    35. 39. Main functions of the CBD <ul><li>3. Culture and entertainment: </li></ul><ul><li>Theatres, cinemas (although now increasingly out of town), clubs, bars and restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Some cities have certain areas famous for nightlife e.g. London’s West End and Newcastle’s Quayside </li></ul>
    36. 40. 4. Transport <ul><li>CBD is usually very accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of roads </li></ul><ul><li>Usually train station and bus station nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Largest urban areas have underground systems </li></ul><ul><li>Trams are being reintroduced into some city centres </li></ul>
    37. 41. Bid rent theory
    38. 42. Bid rent theory <ul><li>Bid rent theory shows how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD (Central Business District) increases </li></ul><ul><li>Different land users will compete with one and other for land close to the city centre. </li></ul><ul><li>Shops wish to maximise their profitability, so they pay more for land close to the CBD and less for land further away from this area. </li></ul><ul><li>This is based upon the idea that the more accessible an area, the more profitable it is going to be. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount that they are willing to pay is called Bid Rent. </li></ul>
    39. 43. The core: Intensively used High rise buildings Multi storey shops, offices The frame: Smaller, family run businesses Shops with flats above The Frame Area of Taunton’s CBD: Bridge Street, East Reach The Core Area of Taunton’s CBD: North Street, East Street
    40. 44. What are the problems in CBDs? How are they solved?
    41. 45. <ul><li>Problems? </li></ul>Lack of space Urban decline Pollution Traffic congestion
    43. 47. CAUSES OF TRAFFIC PROBLEMS IN TAUNTON <ul><li>CBD – oldest part of town, narrow streets </li></ul><ul><li>Increased card ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Last 40 years – decrease in rail services </li></ul><ul><li>Commuter traffic increasing (people travelling into the town to work) </li></ul><ul><li>More people travelling in for shopping / entertainment </li></ul>
    44. 48. <ul><li>Heavy Traffic Congestion – particularly in rush hours </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of traffic slow in narrow streets </li></ul><ul><li>High volume of traffic </li></ul><ul><li>High pollution levels from exhaust (particularly in hot summer conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Lost work hours </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of Parking </li></ul><ul><li>Problems for emergency services trying to get through congested streets </li></ul>What are the Traffic Problems in Taunton?
    45. 49. MULTI-STOREY CAR PARKS e.g. Old Pig Market Why needed? What are the solutions to traffic problems in Taunton?
    46. 50. CYCLE LANES And BUS LANES Why?
    47. 51. ONE WAY STREETS e.g. Winchester St Why?
    48. 52. RISING BOLLARDS Why? e.g. On Blackbrook business park
    49. 53. TRAFFIC CALMING IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS e.g. forced Give Way Speed reducing bollards etc. Why needed?
    50. 54. PARK AND RIDE e.g. Silk Mills Why?
    51. 55. PEDESTRIANISED AREAS e.g. High Street Why needed?
    52. 56. <ul><li>Other Traffic Management Measures: </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed new park and ride on the East side of town at Henladeto increase pressure on town centre. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Car Parking Fees (discourage traffic in centre – encourage use of public transport) </li></ul><ul><li>Possible solutions in the future: </li></ul><ul><li>Road Pricing – e.g. like the congestion charge in London </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging car-sharing etc. </li></ul>
    53. 57. THE INNER CITY (ZONE 2) Also known as the Twilight or Transition Zone
    54. 58. Zone 2 of the Urban Land-use Model – THE INNER CITY Typical style of housing in the Inner City Typical aerial view of an Inner City Area
    55. 60. When and Why did Inner City Areas Grow up? <ul><li>Developed during the 19 th century – due to rapid expansion of industry (led to the demand for workers) </li></ul><ul><li>As more moved to the cities – there was a demand for low cost houses for the workers </li></ul><ul><li>This resulted in high-density cheap housing (fitting as many houses as possible in a small area </li></ul><ul><li>People had to live close to work due to lack of transport </li></ul>
    56. 61. What types of land-use are found in Inner City areas? 19 th Century Terraced Housing Industry – large factories built during the industrial revolution (now some knocked down / converted) Canals and Railways Main Roads (often now ring roads taking traffic out of CBDs)
    57. 62. Typical Characteristics of Inner City Areas <ul><li>High Density Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly terraced (some back to back) </li></ul><ul><li>Built in Long Straight Rows </li></ul><ul><li>Front doors opening onto the street </li></ul><ul><li>Few Amenities (little or no sanitation (often built with toilet in Back Yard </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly Ethnic Minorities, students, older people and unemployed (lower income groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly private / rented </li></ul>
    58. 63. Problems in Inner City Areas (since 1950s / 1950s) 1. Industrial Decline (see other notes) 2. High unemployment 3. Abandoned Warehouses – eyesore and led to vandalism 4. High Crime Rates 5. Poor Quality Housing 6. Overcrowding 7. Lack of Open Space 8. Lack of Parking Spaces 9. Atmospheric Pollution (factories / traffic) 10. Lots of heavy traffic (for industry)
    59. 64. Case study change in inner city areas: London Docklands <ul><li>Problem: pre 1950, very sucessful dock, but by 1981 there were problems </li></ul><ul><li>Large ships couldn’t reach docklands </li></ul><ul><li>Containers meant less people were employed </li></ul><ul><li>Masive unemployment </li></ul>
    60. 65. Docklands continued <ul><li>Solution: </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: to improve social, economic and environmental conditions </li></ul>
    61. 66. Docklands today <ul><li>New uses: </li></ul><ul><li>Housing, London City Airport, the university of East London </li></ul><ul><li>and a new international exhibition centre. </li></ul><ul><li>The water itself has been cleaned and is a very good water sports area. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes an Olympic rowing course and a sailing school. </li></ul><ul><li>Who lost out? </li></ul><ul><li>New jobs and homes geared more for rich and better educated. </li></ul><ul><li>Former dockers gained little employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Close-knit communities have broken up. </li></ul>
    62. 68. Brown field sites Brownfield sites are areas of land that have previously been used. They include sites of old factories or buildings By using these brown field sites, pressure to build on the greenbelt is reduced It is however expensive to build on these areas as they can be contaminated
    63. 69. Urban redevelopment This is where areas that have been in decline in an urban area are redeveloped Into new uses (shopping centres, housing etc)
    64. 70. Protecting the environment Organisations such as the National Trust and the Somerset Wildlife Trust protect the environment, including areas of land at the RUF.
    65. 71. <ul><li>Problems in a favela: E.g. Rocinha </li></ul>Housing Crime Traffic Pollution
    66. 72. Solutions.. <ul><li>There are 3 possible solutions to the problems of favelas in Rio. These are: </li></ul><ul><li>Self Help schemes (Rocinha) </li></ul><ul><li>Local council help (Favela Bairro) </li></ul><ul><li>New towns (Barra da Tijuca) </li></ul>
    67. 73. How do you solve the problems of shanty towns? (10 marks) <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in Rio de Janeiro  </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Self-help scheme in Rocinha </li></ul><ul><li>The local authority Favela Bairro project </li></ul><ul><li>The new town of Barra da Tijuca </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    68. 74. How to solve the problems of cities in LEDCs <ul><li>Self help schemes: in Sao Paulo the government now helps people by putting in basic water and electricity supplies, the family then builds their own house from materials provided. The houses are simple and cheap. The capital Brasillia was built in 1960, to redirect the population away from the coastal cities of Rio and Sao Paulo. Favelas have started to appear as the housing is still too expensive for the poorest migrants </li></ul><ul><li>New Satellite towns: in Cairo in Egypt, some of the poor lived in the city of the dead, houses built in the tombs of dead people. The government decided to build “satellite” towns on the edge of Cairo (such as the Tenth of Ramadam City) to house the population. However, rents are often too high, and employment lacking. New ring roads re-direct traffic to try to solve the traffic congestion problems. </li></ul>