First for some definitions Settlement These are places where People live. Site The physical land on which the settlement was built on Situation The settlement in relation to its surroundings
What factors made people decide on a site to locate their settlement?
Settlements were built in sheltered areas such as valleys or in bays on coastal locations. Aspect (the direction in which a settlement faces) was also an important consideration. Settlements would be more ideally located on south-facing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere and on north-facing slopes in the Southern Hemisphere . For example, in Britain, it was an advantage to be sheltered from cold winds blowing from the north, and to be facing south which meant more sunlight. Aspect and shelter Northern Hemisphere sun is in the south settlements on south-facing slopes receive more heat and sunlight S N
Aspect and shelter The town of Bradford-Upon-Avon in Wiltshire is located on a steep, south-facing slope.
Some settlement sites had specific advantages Settlement sites Where a river was shallow enough to be crossed (a ford) or narrow enough to easily build a bridge (e.g. Oxford). Where natural routes meet, such as several valleys (e.g. York) or at the confluence of two rivers (e.g. St Louis on the Mississippi). In especially wet areas, settlements were built on slightly raised land to avoid flooding or the unhealthy marshland (e.g. Ely in Cambridgeshire). Bridging Point Dry-Point Route Focus
Some settlement sites had specific advantages. Settlement sites These settlements were built at a source of water in an otherwise dry area. For example, in lowland Britain, many settlements were built at springs at the foot of chalk escarpments, e.g. Kemsingat near the North Downs. In order to protect themselves from attack, settlements were built within a river meander, with the river giving protection on three sides, e.g. Shrewsbury, or on a hill with good views, or in a gap on a ridge e.g. Corfe Castle. defensive wet-point
Resources Fertile Soil : needed for growing crops to support the settlements population. There is a higher density of rural settlements where there are fertile soils Early settlements relied upon timbre for fuel and building materials so nearby woodland was an advantage.
Resources Clay soils would have been used to make clay pots for cooking with Coal seams or oil fields would also be an advantage as they could also be mined as a source of fuel.
Resources Iron Ore or Tin for making tools Supply of easily quarried stone to build houses
Urban Land Use Patterns: LEDCs 1. The Central Business District; same as in MEDCs 2. High status housing surrounds the CBD. This includes high-rise expensive modern apartment blocks, many with their own security guards. This pattern is the opposite to that of cities in MEDCs. 3. Poor to medium quality housing which started out as a shanty town. It has now been provided with some basic amenities (the periferia). 4. Shanty towns are found on the steep hillsides, swamps or waste land surrounding the city. 5. Modern factories are found along main roads, sometimes with favelas in between.
This is usually the original site of the settlement. It is centrally located because the rest of the settlement has grown around it. CBD: Central business district Examples in Taunton: Centre of town!!
OUTER SUBURBS The land around the edge of a settlement is much cheaper and there is enough space to build large housing estates. Examples in Taunton: Blackbrook, Galmington
New Industrial Area Industrial estates and business parks built since 1970, close to main roads They are located close to main roads so that there is easy access for goods and employees Examples in Taunton: Blackbrook business park off of the M5
Bid rent theory shows how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD (Central Business District) increases
Different land users will compete with one and other for land close to the city centre.
Shops wish to maximise their profitability, so they pay more for land close to the CBD and less for land further away from this area.
This is based upon the idea that the more accessible an area, the more profitable it is going to be.
The amount that they are willing to pay is called Bid Rent.
The core: Intensively used High rise buildings Multi storey shops, offices The frame: Smaller, family run businesses Shops with flats above The Frame Area of Taunton’s CBD: Bridge Street, East Reach The Core Area of Taunton’s CBD: North Street, East Street
What are the problems in CBDs? How are they solved?
Developed during the 19 th century – due to rapid expansion of industry (led to the demand for workers)
As more moved to the cities – there was a demand for low cost houses for the workers
This resulted in high-density cheap housing (fitting as many houses as possible in a small area
People had to live close to work due to lack of transport
What types of land-use are found in Inner City areas? 19 th Century Terraced Housing Industry – large factories built during the industrial revolution (now some knocked down / converted) Canals and Railways Main Roads (often now ring roads taking traffic out of CBDs)
Few Amenities (little or no sanitation (often built with toilet in Back Yard
Mainly Ethnic Minorities, students, older people and unemployed (lower income groups)
Mainly private / rented
Problems in Inner City Areas (since 1950s / 1950s) 1. Industrial Decline (see other notes) 2. High unemployment 3. Abandoned Warehouses – eyesore and led to vandalism 4. High Crime Rates 5. Poor Quality Housing 6. Overcrowding 7. Lack of Open Space 8. Lack of Parking Spaces 9. Atmospheric Pollution (factories / traffic) 10. Lots of heavy traffic (for industry)
Case study change in inner city areas: London Docklands
Problem: pre 1950, very sucessful dock, but by 1981 there were problems
Brown field sites Brownfield sites are areas of land that have previously been used. They include sites of old factories or buildings By using these brown field sites, pressure to build on the greenbelt is reduced It is however expensive to build on these areas as they can be contaminated
Urban redevelopment This is where areas that have been in decline in an urban area are redeveloped Into new uses (shopping centres, housing etc)
Protecting the environment Organisations such as the National Trust and the Somerset Wildlife Trust protect the environment, including areas of land at the RUF.
Self help schemes: in Sao Paulo the government now helps people by putting in basic water and electricity supplies, the family then builds their own house from materials provided. The houses are simple and cheap. The capital Brasillia was built in 1960, to redirect the population away from the coastal cities of Rio and Sao Paulo. Favelas have started to appear as the housing is still too expensive for the poorest migrants
New Satellite towns: in Cairo in Egypt, some of the poor lived in the city of the dead, houses built in the tombs of dead people. The government decided to build “satellite” towns on the edge of Cairo (such as the Tenth of Ramadam City) to house the population. However, rents are often too high, and employment lacking. New ring roads re-direct traffic to try to solve the traffic congestion problems.