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Assessment Concept Bachman Brown A reliable test is consistent and dependable. For instance, if you give the It refers to the consistency of same test to the same students in two measurement between: different occasions, the test should yield similar results. - equivalent forms of the test - Reliability will depend on: equivalent forms reliability. Reliability - the test itself (test reliability). -(and within) raters – inter-raters - the administration of the test (test and intra-raters reliability. administration reliability). - sittings: test-retest reliability. - the test-taker (student-related - test: internal consistency. reliability). - the scoring of the test (rater—or scorer, reliability). It refers to the meaningfulness and appropriateness of the A test is valid if it actually assesses the interpretations that we make on the objectives and what has been taught. basis of the scores and also to the - Content validity (if a test samples the domain of generalization subject matter about which conclusions (prediction outside of test tasks). are to be drawn). The ongoing process of validation - Criterion validity (if there is evidence has to demonstrate that a particular that a test accurately and sufficiently Validity interpretation of test scores is measures the test-taker for the justified by reflecting the area of particular objective). language ability the teacher wants - Construct validity (if the test samples to measure. the outcome behaviour). It is worth mentioning that this - Face validity (if the test samples the concept is simply called “Construct actual content of what the learner has Validity” by this author and he does achieved—or expects to achieve). not spread it out into types as Brown. If the test is authentic: - The language in the test should be as natural as possible. Relation between target language - Items should be contextualized rather use (TLU) or language methodology than isolated.Authenticity (structural, communicative, etc..) - Topics should be relevant and and the characteristics of the tasks meaningful for learners. - Some thematic organization to items should be provided. - Tasks should represent, or closely approximate, real-world tasks. Diego Ulloa Iglesias
Assessment It refers to the extent and type of involvement of the test taker’s individual characteristics in accomplishing a test task. If we ask ourselves: does the test motivate students? Is the language used in the tests questions andInteractiveness instructions appropriate for the students level? and/or do the tests (These concepts are not mentioned by items represent the language used the author) in the classroom, as well as the target language? then we are trying to find out if interactiveness is achieved. It refers to the Impact at the macro level (society, education system) and micro level (individual). The author cites some other W authors who define It as the It is the benefit that tests offer to A effect of testing on teaching Impact learning. This concept actually refers to S and learning (Hughes) or the the effects the tests have on instruction H effect on education practices in terms of how students are prepared B and beliefs (Cohen). for the test; this kind of feedback should A Bachman proposes that one “wash back” to them in the form of C must be prepared to find useful diagnoses of strengths and K that is far more complex and weaknesses. thorny than simply the effects mentioned before. It refers to the relationship between It depends on financial limitations, time the resources that will be required constraints, ease of administration, and in design, development, and use of scoring & interpretation. the test and the resources that will An effective test is practical if it: be available for that particular - Is not excessively expensive. Practicality activity. The author classifies the - Stays within appropriate time addressed resources into three constraints. types: - Is relatively easy to administer. - human resources - Has a scoring/evaluation procedure - material resources, and that is specific and time-efficient. - time Diego Ulloa Iglesias