Not a realtheory<br />No empirical basis, butbasedonassumptions of the time abouthuman nature. <br />Peoplewereassumed to be "uniformlycontrolledbytheirbiologicallybased 'instincts' and thattheyreact more orlessuniformly to whatever 'stimuli' camealong" (Lowery & DefFleur, 1995, p. 400).<br />=> Stimulus – response theory<br />
Assignment<br />The media do notfunction as a ‘magicbullet’. Buthow do theyactuallywork…<br />Group: 2 students<br />Discusshowcouldyoupossibly research the effects of mass media (10 min.)?<br />Discussthis in class<br />
Study: The People'sChoice (1944)<br />Studyfocusedon the process of decision-makingduring a Presidentialelectioncampaign.<br />How do media influencevotingbehaviour?<br />Hypothesis: direct influence of media messagesonvotingintentions.<br />
“'Ideasoftenflowfrom radio and print to the opinion leaders and fromthem to the lessactivesections of the population.'<br />Conclusion:<br />
Discussion<br />What is correct / incorrect in thisassumption?<br />
Core concept: opinion leaders<br />Who are they?<br />What are the characteristics of anopinion leader?<br />
Opinion leaders<br />Opinion leaders are distributed in all groups: occupational, social, community and others. <br />Opinion leadership changes from time to time and from issue to issue. Leaders are most influential when interest is shared by the group.<br />2 Types: <br /> - monomorphic (influential on one topic) <br /> - polymorphic (influential on a variety of topics)<br />
Criticism<br />Flow of information Flow of influence. Is this the same?<br />
New term ‘influentials’ <br />"Influentials are better educated and more affluent than the average American, but it is their interest in the world around them and their belief that they can make a difference that makes them influential (Crispell, 1989).” <br />
Relations / applications<br />Word of mouthcampaigning<br />Difussion of innovations (influentials are ‘earlyadopters’ )<br />
Assignment<br />Design a campaign to promote ‘newdriving’ (ecodriving) using the two step flowtheory.<br />Who are influentials in thiserea?<br />Howcouldyouidentifythem?<br />Howcouldyoupersuadethem to adoptthisbehavior?<br />Which media wouldyouuse in thiscampaign? <br />Etc.<br />Present your design in classthisafternoon<br />
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