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Part 2 of course on social marketing. Used for International Project Week of Nordhausen University - april 2010

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  1. 1. Social marketing campaigns<br />International Project Week - Nordhausen<br />
  2. 2. Today<br />Presentations (case, background, purpose, focus and environmental analysis<br />Step 3- 5:<br />Select target market<br />Set objectives and goals<br />Identify competition, barriers and motivators…<br />Feedback / help <br />
  3. 3. Step 3: establishing target audiences<br />
  4. 4. Target market? <br />“ A set of buyers sharing common needs or characteristics that the company decides to serve” <br />Kotler & Armstrong 2001<br />
  5. 5. Example<br />Children (Happy Meal)! Toys; logo<br />Workingparents<br />Grand parents; have fun<br />Free coffeeonMondaymorningfor yups?<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cg87E1tjTOE&feature=player_embedded<br />
  6. 6. Audience segmentation: WHY?<br />To identify distinct groups of people who are like each other in key ways and, therefore, are liable to respond to particular messages similarly<br />Not all people are the same, so not all people can be treated the same<br />Communication target group =<br />group of people you can effectively reach through the same kind of media and channels with the same kind of message(s). If not? <br /> SEGMENTATION<br />
  7. 7. Audience segmentation: WHY?<br />Effective use of resources<br />Customized strategies<br />Appropriate channels of communication<br />Providing opportunity to establish partnerships with audience focus (i.e. funding support)<br />Identification of the “easier to change” audiences (Diffusion of Innovations Theory)<br />
  8. 8. Segmentation criteria<br />Break your audiences into similar groups based on things such as (relevant to the issue/behaviour):<br />Geographical factors<br />Demographical factors<br />Physical/medical status<br />Psychographic factors (lifestyle; personality; values; interestsetc.)<br />Attitudes towardsbehaviour/issue<br />Behavioural factors(heavy usersvslightusers)<br />Etc.<br />
  9. 9. Apply to smokers <br />Smoking status (current smoker/not current smoker)<br />Desire to quit (yes/ambivalent/no)<br />Ever tried to quit (yes/no)<br />Self-efficacy about quitting (high/medium/low)<br />Attitudes about consequences (worried/not worried/fatalistic)<br />Age (child/teenager/young adult/middle-aged/older adult)<br />Gender (female/male)<br />Lifestyle (like to go out; like to sport etc.). <br />
  10. 10. Stages of change model<br />Procontemplation: people at this stage usually have no intention of changing their behavior, and typically deny having a problem<br />Contemplation: people acknowledge that they have a problem and begin to think seriously about solving it<br />Preparation: People are planning to take action<br />Action: People overtly modify their behavior and their surroundings<br />Maintenance: People work to consolidate the gains attained during action and struggle to prevent lapses and relapse<br />Termination: former addiction or problem will no longer present any temptation or threat. <br />
  11. 11. Seven criteria good segmentation<br />Clarity; Identifiable<br />Accessible<br />Big enough<br />Different fromeachother; unique<br />Homogeneouswithin the groups<br />Stable<br />Anchorpoints/directionforcommunication<br />
  12. 12. Motivaction<br />http://xs.motivaction.nl/s.r4a?extid=200&d=74318240&k=ydzkhppx<br />Slides on motivaction<br />
  13. 13. What to do?<br />Segment the market<br />Evaluate segments<br />Choose one or more segments to target<br />Assignment 1:<br />Segment a target market and motivate your choices by analysis.<br />
  14. 14. Photo credit: zoom in tight<br />Step 4: Setting objectives and goals<br />
  15. 15. Objectives in social marketing <br />Behavior objectives<br />Belief / attitude objectives<br />Knowledge objectives<br />Sounds logical!<br />But is it?<br />
  16. 16. SMART objectives are objectives that are...<br />Specific: they describe a specific outcome linked to a rate, number, percentage or frequency<br />Measurable: they include a rate, number, percentage or frequency<br />Achievable: with a reasonable amount of effort, they can actually be achieved<br />Relevant: the people involved have the necessary knowledge, authority and skill<br />Time-based: they include a clearly stated or defined finish and/or start date<br />
  17. 17. Examples of objectives<br />Turn off computer monitors when leaving work at the end of the day<br />Buy bulk and unpackaged goods rather than packaged items<br />Give 5 hours a week to a volunteer effort<br />Are these objectives SMART?<br />Could you rephrase these objectives?<br />
  18. 18. Example reduce birth defects<br />
  19. 19. What to do?<br />Establish goals and objectives for your campaign<br />Define objectives in terms of knowlegde, beliefs and behavior<br />Assignment 2:<br />Define your goals and objectives<br />
  20. 20. Photo credit: Monitorpop<br />Step 5: Deepeningyourunderstanding of the target audience<br />
  21. 21. Exchange theory in marketing<br />“In order foran exchange to take place, target markets must perceivebenefitsequal to orgreaterthanperceivedcosts.”<br />Thistheorycanbeapplied to more than the purchase of goods, itcaninvolve e.g. symbolicproducts and payments are notlimited to financialones (e.g. time and effort). <br />
  22. 22. Perspectiveson exchange<br />Barriers: the “costs” the target audienceperceives<br />Benefits: What are potential “motivators” for the target audience?<br />Competition: Whatbenefits does the audienceperceive in competing offers? What do competing offers cost? How do theycompare to your offer?<br />
  23. 23. Peoplewhotake the bus can’taffordanyother mode of transport<br />Photocredit: Lokomev<br />Taking a bus willtakelongerthandriving to work<br />Real<br />Perceived<br /><ul><li>Knowledge
  24. 24. Beliefs
  25. 25. Skills
  26. 26. Abilities
  27. 27. …</li></ul>Internal<br />Barriers<br />External<br /><ul><li>Infrastructures
  28. 28. Technology
  29. 29. Culturalinfluences
  30. 30. Ecnomicsituation
  31. 31. …</li></li></ul><li>Benefits<br />Somethingyour target markt wants orneeds and therforevaluesthat the behavioryou are promoting has the potential to provide. Whatmotivatesyouraudience to act?<br />
  32. 32. Competition<br />What is competition in social marketing?<br />Behaviorsour target audiencewouldprefer over the ones we are promoting (e.g. use of pills over condoms in preventingunwantedpregnancies)<br />Behaviors the have been doing ‘forever’ thatheywould have to give up (e.g. drivingalone to work)<br />Organizations and individualswhosendmessagesthat counter oroppose the desiredbehavior (e.g. Marlborro man)<br />
  33. 33. Tactics …<br />Increase the benefits of the target behavior<br />Decrease the barriers (and/orcosts) to the target behavior(s)<br />Decrease the benefits of the competingbehavior(s)<br />Increase the barriers (and / orcosts) of the competingbehavior<br />
  34. 34. Whattactics are usedhere?Bingedrinkingcampaign<br />Campaignby British Government<br />
  35. 35. How to identifybarriers, benefits and competition? <br />Research: qualitative (focus groups, interviews) orquantitative (survey)<br />Behaviorchange models & theory<br />
  36. 36. Knowledge Attitudes Practices & Beliefs (KAPB) survey<br />General information (gender, age, educationetc. ) <br />Knowledge of e.g. HIV/AIDS and othersexuallytransmitteddiseases, modes of transmission, prevention and treatment. <br />Attitudes towardse.g.persons living with HIV and HIV testing. <br />Sexualpractices. Behaviour in sociallife and partnerships.<br />Example<br />
  37. 37. Fishbein’ssummary of behaviorchange models (1/2)<br />The person must have formed a strongpositiveintention (or made a commitment) to perform the behavior<br />There are noenvironmentalconstraintsthatmakeitimpossible to perform the behavior<br />The person has the skillsnecessary to perform the behavior<br />The personbelievesthat the advantages of performing the behavioroutweigh the disadvantages<br />
  38. 38. Fishbein’ssummary of behaviorchange models (2/2)<br />The person perceives more social pressure to perform the behavior than not to perform the behavior<br />The peron’s emotional reaction to performing the behavior is more positive than negative<br />The person perceives that he or she has the capabilities to perform the behavior under a number of different circumstances<br />
  39. 39. What to do?<br />Identify:<br />Barriers<br />Benefits<br />Competion to the desired behavior….<br />Assignment 3:<br />Present your behavioral analysis in terms of barriers, benefits and competition<br />
  40. 40. Tomorrow<br />Presentations<br />Step 6-8:<br />Select target market<br />Set objectives and goals<br />Identify competition, barriers and motivators…<br />Feedback / help <br />
  41. 41. Need help?<br />