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Hogan et al. 2011 Ch. 16

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Used when I taught Speaker-Audience Communication during the 2012-2013 academic year at the University of Kansas.

Used when I taught Speaker-Audience Communication during the 2012-2013 academic year at the University of Kansas.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • 1. Chapter 16: Arguments &ReasoningHogan et al., pp. 391-420Hogan, J. M., Andrews, P. H., Andrews, J.R., & Williams, G. (2011). Public speakingand civic engagement (2nd ed.). Boston, MA:PearsonSlides by Igor Ristić
  • 2. Toulmin Model CLAIMS Debatable assertions put forward by speaker. “Spring Break should last two weeks.” EVIDENCE Must be accurate, relevant, and fill burden ofproof. “A 2013 study on Spring Break length and thepositive effect it has on student gradeperformance said that…”
  • 3. Toulmin ModelWARRANTAssumptions, principles, rulesconnecting EVIDENCE to CLAIMS.Increased student gradeperformance would be a positivething.
  • 4. ExampleYou should buy our teeth whitener becausestudies show that teeth are 50% whiter afterusing the product for a specified time. What is the CLAIM, the EVIDENCE, and theWARRANT?
  • 5. Types of ReasoningInductive vs. DeductiveCausal (NOT ‘casual’!)Analogical
  • 6. FALLACIESFailures in reasoning, whichmake arguments invalid.
  • 7. I. Fallacies of RelevanceOccur when a speaker changes the subject.Ad PopulumNon SequiturAdVerecundiamRed HerringStraw Man
  • 8. II. Fallacies of Faulty ReasoningErrors in analogical or causal arguments /arguing in circles / false choices.False DilemmaBegging the QuestionFaulty AnalogySlippery Slope
  • 9. III. Fallacies of Inadequate EvidenceFalse Cause post hoc, ergo proper hoc : “after this,therefore because of this.”Hasty Generalization
  • 10. IV. Fallacies of Personal AttackAd HominemGuilt by Association