The View from Above
Often, accurate, and low-cost map
making from UAVs
Brandon Basso
Skolkovo Robotics Conference
March 1,...
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

what can we
see from
the air?
3D Robotics
o

170 Employees
•
•
•

Berkeley – Business, R&D
San Diego – Engineering
Tijuana – Manufacturing

o

Leading o...
The Community: DIY Drones

o
o
o

o
o

48,000 active users
2 million page views / month
8,000 blog posts
10,000 discussion...
32 bit ARM M4
Redundant sensors
Plane, copter, rover, boat
Android, Windows, Mac, Linux
100% open source
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Agriculture &
Aerial Survey
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Mapping Workflow

Mission Definition

Aircraft O...
Long time-scale phenomena

Ryan Kunde, DRNK Wines

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imager...
Short time-scale phenomena

Airphrame

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
NDVI Health

3DR, Merced, 2013

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
Post flight analysis

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Fly every hour
Auto takeoff, auto land
Complexit...
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Complexity

Tablets, not handsets
Disposability and the “cost spiral”

Disposable robots.

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial ...
Utility

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Robot?

...or washing machine?
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Questions?
brandon@3dr.com
@3Drobotics
Extra

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Economic Potential
US Crop Loss:
$28 billion

We...
Disposability

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

How

Cost
Frequency

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Cost

Established
Practices

Yield

P...
High Benefit, Low Barrier

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Ardupilot evolution

• Arduino
• Thermopile

• A...
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Complexity

Tractors, not robots.
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Why Agriculture?
Arducopter: 2011-2014

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Landscape

Ryan Kunde, DRNK Wines
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Platforms

Plane
•
•
•
•

3kg airframe + payload...
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Plane v. Copter
Plane – 150m
5cm/pixel

Copter –...
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Aerial mapping today

Frequency
Cost
Resolution
...
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

Fly every hour
Auto takeoff, auto land
5 pounds ...
Data

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
GIS

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

3DR, San Diego, 2013
Digital Elevation Model

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
Point Cloud

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
3D Reconstruction

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery
 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

False Color

3DR, Sonoma, 2013

GreenBlue = (G-B...
Advanced Features
o
o
o
o

Precise georeferencing
Real-time path planning
Multiple aircraft control
Vision-based event det...
Summary

 Why Agriculture
 Three Messages
 Existing Solutions
 Aerial Imagery

The challenge and the opportunity.

x

...
Brandon Basso 3D Robotics on Skolkovo Robotics 2014
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Brandon Basso 3D Robotics on Skolkovo Robotics 2014

  1. 1. The View from Above Often, accurate, and low-cost map making from UAVs Brandon Basso Skolkovo Robotics Conference March 1, 2014
  2. 2.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery what can we see from the air?
  3. 3. 3D Robotics o 170 Employees • • • Berkeley – Business, R&D San Diego – Engineering Tijuana – Manufacturing o Leading open universal autopilot o Ready to fly multirotors and fixed wing aircraft  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  4. 4. The Community: DIY Drones o o o o o 48,000 active users 2 million page views / month 8,000 blog posts 10,000 discussion threads 100,000 comments / year  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  5. 5. 32 bit ARM M4 Redundant sensors Plane, copter, rover, boat Android, Windows, Mac, Linux 100% open source
  6. 6.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Agriculture & Aerial Survey
  7. 7.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Mapping Workflow Mission Definition Aircraft Operation Camera Operation Data Handling o user interface o mission planning o path planning o takeoff/landing o path (re)planning o aircraft control o camera settings o camera triggering o metadata recording o o o o downlink stitching localization post-processing
  8. 8. Long time-scale phenomena Ryan Kunde, DRNK Wines  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  9. 9. Short time-scale phenomena Airphrame  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  10. 10. NDVI Health 3DR, Merced, 2013  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  11. 11. Post flight analysis  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  12. 12.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Fly every hour Auto takeoff, auto land Complexity 1-3 hours endurance Disposability 1 centimeter/pixel Utility 1-5km2 area <$1000
  13. 13.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Complexity Tablets, not handsets
  14. 14. Disposability and the “cost spiral” Disposable robots.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  15. 15. Utility  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Robot? ...or washing machine?
  16. 16.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Questions? brandon@3dr.com @3Drobotics
  17. 17. Extra  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  18. 18.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Economic Potential US Crop Loss: $28 billion Weeds 32% Disease 39% 0.5X x Pest 29% Sharma, Plant Pathology, 2006.
  19. 19. Disposability  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  20. 20.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery How Cost
  21. 21. Frequency  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Cost Established Practices Yield Plan Plant Grow Harvest Months Hours/days Months Hours/Days Closed-loop farming.
  22. 22. High Benefit, Low Barrier  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  23. 23.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Ardupilot evolution • Arduino • Thermopile • Arduino • IMU • Multicopter • Single board • Sensors • Packaging • ARM Cortex M4 • 32 bit
  24. 24.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  25. 25.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Complexity Tractors, not robots.
  26. 26.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Why Agriculture?
  27. 27. Arducopter: 2011-2014  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  28. 28.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Landscape Ryan Kunde, DRNK Wines
  29. 29.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Platforms Plane • • • • 3kg airframe + payload + battery Endurance: 30min – 3hrs Coverage: 5km2 Operation • Auto takeoff/land • More susceptible to wind Copter • • • • 2kg airframe + payload + battery Endurance: 10min – 30min Coverage: 1km2 Operation • Auto takeoff/land • More points of failure
  30. 30.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Plane v. Copter Plane – 150m 5cm/pixel Copter – 50m <1cm/pixel
  31. 31.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Aerial mapping today Frequency Cost Resolution Frequency Cost Resolution Frequency Cost Resolution
  32. 32.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery Fly every hour Auto takeoff, auto land 5 pounds payload 1-3 hours endurance 1 centimeter/pixel
  33. 33. Data  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  34. 34. GIS  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery 3DR, San Diego, 2013
  35. 35. Digital Elevation Model  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  36. 36. Point Cloud  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  37. 37. 3D Reconstruction  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  38. 38.  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery False Color 3DR, Sonoma, 2013 GreenBlue = (G-B)/(G+B)
  39. 39. Advanced Features o o o o Precise georeferencing Real-time path planning Multiple aircraft control Vision-based event detection  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery
  40. 40. Summary  Why Agriculture  Three Messages  Existing Solutions  Aerial Imagery The challenge and the opportunity. x 0.5X
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